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  1. 1
    134628

    The poorest first: WHO's activities to help the people in greatest need.

    Jancloes M

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1998; 19(2):182-7.

    Poverty is the main reason why babies are not vaccinated, clean water and sanitation are not provided, curative drugs and other treatments are not available, and mothers die in childbirth. It is the main cause of low life expectancy, handicap, disability, and starvation, and a major factor in mental illness, stress, suicide, family disintegration, and substance abuse. Poverty is spreading, just as the gap between rich and poor is growing in both developed and developing countries. In 1989, the World Health Assembly asked the World Health Organization (WHO) to pay attention to the special needs of the most poor countries, a request which led to the development and launching of the Intensified Cooperation with Countries and Peoples in Greatest Need initiative. The goals of the initiative are to enable poor countries to develop public policies and implement strategies for improving the health status of their populations, to promote innovative intersectoral action, and to make the best possible use of international cooperation in health matters. The main task has been to develop and implement community-based strategies for primary care in approximately 30 countries. In-country actions are described for Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, China, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Moldova, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Yemen. Lessons learned are presented and future requirements considered.
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  2. 2
    266581
    Peer Reviewed

    Community-level nutrition interventions in Sri Lanka: a case study.

    Karunanayake HC

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1982 Jan; 4(1):7-16.

    This study describes 3 nutrition intervention programs in Sri Lanka; Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Samgamaya; Redd Barna, the Norwegian Save the Children Program; and the US Save the Children fund. The Sarvodaya Shramadana Sangamaya is a private, nonprofit organization that began in 1958 devoted to mobilizing voluntary labor for village reconstruction. It is now engaged in a series of development projects in over 2,000 villages. One of its main objectives is to mobilize community resources for development. The children's service now integrates pre-school, nutrition, and community health services. There are an estimated 86 day care centers. The main service available in these day care centers, apart from physical care, is the provision of nutrition. Pre-school nutrition programs are also administered. The program costs about Rs230/beneficiary per year. The International Council of Educational Development from the United States was invited to review the program. Recommendations are given. The Norwegian Save the Children (Redd Barna) program in Sri Lanka was started in 1974. Projects are of 2 types: 1) settlement projects; and 2) integrated community development projects which aim to improve the standard of living with particular attention to child welfare. The US Save the Children Fund (SCF), a private, nonprofit voluntary organization, began its 1st project in Sri Lanka in urban community development in a slum and squatter settlement within Colombo. It focused on housing, but also includes other programs such as health and nutrition. These activities are carried out through a pediatric clinic, a home visits register, a nutritional status survey, a supplementary feeding program, nutrition, education, and a day care center. The approximate cost of the nutrition program would be Rs7700/month for an average of Rs13/month, or Rs156/year/beneficiary.
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  3. 3
    784293

    Local responses to global problems: a key to meeting basic human needs.

    STOKES B

    Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, February 1978. (Worldwatch Paper No. 17) 64 p

    According to a World Bank estimate, large scale international efforts to improve social and economic conditions in developing countries would cost 47.1 billion dollars between 1980-2000. Since rich countries have not been disposed in the past to contribute heavily toward solving these problems, it is unlikely that they will commit themselves to this type of financial help in the future. Collective, self-help efforts on the local level may offer a feasible alternative for aleviating global problems of inadequate housing, food shortages, insufficient medical care, and energy shortages. Small scale efforts which enlist community involvement in the initiation, planning, and carrying out of projects are frequently more effective in creating uplift than are larger efforts controlled by individuals outside the community. Attempts to provide better housing for the poor through building large public housing complexes are costly and tend to create non-livable conditions for many of the poor; self-help efforts such as homesteading and rehabilitation, on the other hand, have been more successful. In developing areas massive national programs to relocate squatters have failed. Efforts to help squatters improve the dwellings they presently inhabit may be a more fruitful approach. The recent emphasis on garden plots for urban dwellers and small labor intensive family farms along with marketing cooperatives in the rural areas may reduce malnutrition and protect the poor from inflationary food prices. At the present time 1/5 of the world's population is still without medical care and many others have inadequate health care. The mobilization of individuals for self care, especially in regard to disease prevention, and the decentralization of health services through the establishment of neighborhood health centers, family planning clinics, and systems utilizing barefoot doctors can help overcome present health deficiencies. The energy problem can be partially solved by individual efforts to conserve resources. Many individuals and communities are developing local solar, wind, and water sources and are thus reducing reliance on the highly centralized energy industries.
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