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  1. 1

    Women’s labour migration: an overview from Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)

    UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
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  2. 2

    Regional report on the implementation of the UNICEF guidelines for the protection of the rights of child victims of trafficking in South Eastern Europe: Assessment of the situation in Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    Cazenave P

    [Geneva, Switzerland], Terre des Hommes, [2010]. 115 p.

    Trafficking in human beings still remains a major human rights violation affecting South Eastern Europe. Although many efforts have been made and progress achieved in combating trafficking throughout Europe in general, and South Eastern Europe in particular, human beings are still victims of trafficking and children, as a particularly vulnerable group, represent an important proportion of the persons being trafficked.
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  3. 3

    Krakow Statement [on Children's Rights].

    East-Central European Forum of NGOs on Child Issues on the Tenth Anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1999: Krakow)

    [Unpublished] 1999. [1] p.

    This statement regards the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Poland and other Eastern and Central European countries. It discusses initiatives that the participants urge all governments to implement for children's rights and to eliminate child poverty, discrimination, and dangerous work situations.
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  4. 4

    Panel 4. Introductory remarks.

    McDougall G

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    When wars occur, women are usually the most abused, aggrieved and powerless. In the vast majority of countries, women play no significant role in the decision-making process of whether war is warranted or lawful. When hostilities break out, women are exposed not only to the forms of violence and devastation that accompany any war but also to forms of violence directed specifically at women on account of their gender. The use of sexual violence and sexual slavery as tactics and weapons of war remains at a high level in spite of tremendous strides made by the global community over the past decade. It is imperative to acknowledge the immeasurable injury to body, mind and spirit that is inflicted by these acts. The overall deterioration in the conditions of women in armed conflict situations is due not only to the collapse of social restraints and the general mayhem that armed conflict causes, but also to a strategic decision on the part of combatants to intimidate and destroy the enemy as a whole byraping and enslaving women who are identified as members of the other warring party. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    So does it mean that we have the rights? Protecting the human rights of women and girls trafficked for forced prostitution in Kosovo.

    Amnesty International

    London, England, Amnesty International, [2004]. [66] p.

    Trafficking of women for forced prostitution is an abuse of human rights, not least the right to physical and mental integrity. It violates the rights of women and girls to liberty and security of person, and may even violate their right to life. It exposes women and girls to a series of human rights abuses at the hands of traffickers, and of those who buy their services. It also renders them vulnerable to violations by governments which fail to protect the human rights of trafficked women. Amnesty International considers the trafficking of women for the purposes of forced prostitution to be a widespread and systematic violation of the human rights of women. Since the deployment in July 1999 of an international peacekeeping force (KFOR) and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) civilian administration, Kosovo has become a major destination country for women and girls trafficked into forced prostitution. Women are trafficked into Kosovo predominantly from Moldova, Bulgaria and Ukraine, the majority of them via Serbia. At the same time, increasing numbers of local women and girls are being internally trafficked, and trafficked out of Kosovo. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    USAID / Moldova antitrafficking assessment -- critical gaps in and recommendations for antitrafficking activities.

    Arnold J; Doni C

    Washington, D.C., Development Alternatives, WID Tech, 2002 Oct. [65] p. (USAID Contract No. FAO-0100-C-00-6005-00)

    The objective of this assessment is twofold: (1) to provide USAID/Western New Independent States (WNIS) with a road map of existing trafficking-prevention activities undertaken by donor agencies and bilateral, international-development and host-country-government institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Moldova; and (2) to help USAID/WNIS identify critical gaps in existing approaches in Moldova that new interventions might address. The road map and accompanying list of recommendations provide U.S. government officials in USAID/WNIS with the information and tools necessary to design specific activities at a later date. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    UNICEF fights for the rights of Romania's abandoned children.

    Connections. 2005 Feb-Mar; [1] p..

    A nurse at the maternity hospital told me that it would be better for me to try not to get attached to my baby, to leave him there and start a new life, recalls a 17 year-old single mother who did not know where she could find support for herself and her son and was advised to give him up. Roughly two percent of all women giving birth in Romania abandon their children immediately after delivery, leaving their newborns at maternity hospitals and pediatric institutions and making them wards of the state. The majority of these women are very young, poorly educated, and live below the poverty line, according to a recent UNICEF report cited in an article in Medical News Today. Societal factors also play a role in perpetuating this practice, explains Pierre Poupard, a UNICEF representative in Romania. "Unfortunately, young mothers going into hospitals are confronted with conservative attitudes and practices. The system remains very traditional and penalizes the poor and marginalized," he acknowledges. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Protecting choice means making choices. Legislators worldwide must choose to preserve the Cairo consensus.

    Genner R

    Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):48-50.

    At the ten year mark of the ICPD Programme of Action, never HAS a woman’s right to decide freely the number and spacing of her children been so widely recognised and exercised—yet paradoxically challenged. These challenges are both old and new, and they call upon us as European parliamentarians to make a number of fundamental policy, diplomatic and budgetary choices. In 1994, the adoption of the ICPD Programme of Action by 179 countries marked a major shift towards placing the individual at the centre of development and abandoning demographic targets. The Millennium Development Goals further enshrined women’s right to make their own decisions as a global development objective. Despite this explicit political will and the great strides forward of the past decade, trends have emerged that force us to reassess our long-held strategies. The first is the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In 2004, the worst-case scenarios of the early 1990s are becoming reality. The developed world watches as entire generations suffer in less developed countries from a disease that is both preventable and treatable—one that has been controlled in donor countries. Yet rather than coming together to fight a common enemy, the HIV/AIDS community and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocates have seemed to drift apart. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Declaration of intentions of the IPPF European Network, Brussels, 27 June 2003.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. European Network

    Choices. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Europe. 2003 Autumn; 35.

    Reaffirms the human rights basis of sexual and reproductive rights and the need to preserve, guarantee and expand these rights for all peoples in Europe and around the world; underlines its commitment to prioritise the human rights approach to sexuality and reproduction in all activities of the federation; recalls that sexual and reproductive rights are already the subject of international human rights law, jurisprudence, treaties and conventions; reaffirms that the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights outlining 12 rights provides the framework for work in progressing towards the full recognition of sexual rights as human rights; welcomes the recognition of other civil society groups of the human rights basis of their specific work in sexuality, reproduction, health and equality. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Unintended consequences: drug policies fuel the HIV epidemic in Russia and Ukraine. A policy report prepared for the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs and national governments.

    Malinowska-Sempruch K; Hoover J; Alexandrova A

    New York, New York, Open Society Institute, International Harm Reduction Development program, 2003. 16 p.

    Taking action now to reduce HIV transmission rates and treat those already infected is critical. With the goal of avoiding adverse effects on social welfare and public health, the Russian and Ukrainian governments should reconsider how they interpret international treaties. Policy changes should be made in the following areas: Harm reduction. The governments should play an active role in establishing and supporting a large, strategically located network of harm reduction programs that provide services for IDUs, including needle exchange, HIV transmission education, condom distribution, and access to viable treatment programs such as methadone substitution. Similar services should be available in all prisons. Education. Simple, direct, and dear information about HIV transmission should be made available to all citizens-especially those most at risk. Similarly, society at large should be educated about the realities of drug use and addiction as part of an effort to reduce stigma. Discrimination and law enforcement abuse. Public health and law enforcement authorities should take the lead in eliminating discrimination, official and de facto, toward people with HIV and marginalized risk groups such as drug users. Authorities must no longer condone or ignore harassing and abusive behavior, including physical attacks, arrest quotas, arbitrary searches, detainment without charges, and other violations of due process. HIV-positive people, including IDUs, should be included in all policy discussions related to them in the public health and legal spheres. Legislation. Laws that violate the human rights of people with HIV and at-risk groups should be repealed or restructured to better reflect public health concerns. Moving forward with the above strategies may make it appear that the governments are backing away from the goals and guidelines of the UN drug conventions. They may be criti- cized severely by those who are unable or unwilling to understand that meeting the goals of the conventions, some of which were promulgated more than 40 years ago, is far too great a price to bear for countries in the midst of drug use and HIV epidemics. Governments ultimately have no choice, though, if they hope to maintain any semblance of moral legitimacy among their own people. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Women, war, and rape: challenges facing the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.

    Niarchos CN

    Human Rights Quarterly. 1995; 17:649-690.

    This article analyzes the challenges facing the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia Since 1991 (the Tribunal) as it investigates "savage rape on a horrifying scale ... as torture, mutilation, femicide, and genocide ... as a military strategy." After an introductory section, the article examines the occurrence of rape in war as it has generally been characterized in legal discourse, as it has occurred in the former Yugoslavia, and as it occurred in other armed conflicts. This section also looks at the relationship among militarism, misogyny, and rape. The third section considers the confusion existing about the characterization of war rape under international humanitarian law (IHL) and argues that IHL is gender-biased because it views rape only as a challenge to honor. This analysis is explained in sub-sections that discuss rape as a crime against honor and dignity, as a crime against humanity, and as a crime against gender. Section 4 reviews the various prospects for prosecuting rape before the Tribunal that are offered by the framework created by the subject matter jurisdiction of the Tribunal and by its rules of procedure and evidence. The final section concludes that war is a "male habit" that victimizes tragic numbers of women and that the Tribunal must overcome the legacy of a legal system that overlooks women's pain and a war system that uses rape as a weapon.
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  12. 12

    Visions and discussions on genital mutilation of girls: an international survey.

    Smith J

    The Hague, Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for International Cooperation, Development Cooperation Information Department, 1995. [6], 216, [1] p.

    The Netherlands Institute of Human Rights conducted an inventory of international, regional, and national documents, legislation, and rules on female genital mutilation (FGM) to generate an overview of existing FGM-related regulations. Chapter 2 of the study's report presents the various forms of FGM and the countries where FGM is practiced. It also examines religion, tradition, culture, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The chapter also presents the views and attitudes of various famous researchers and authors. The legal approach to FGM has been receiving increasing attention, reaching the level of considering FGM as a health issue. Chapter 3 reviews international and regional regulations as they apply to FGM. The views and initiatives of international and regional governmental and nongovernmental organizations, particularly those initiatives aiming to eradicate FGM, are addressed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses the countries of origin (e.g., Somalia), while chapter 6 discusses those of destination (e.g., Canada). Specifically, these chapters cover these countries' national legislation and their government's views on FGM. These chapters also address initiatives and programs of those national nongovernmental organizations involved in the eradication of FGM. The report concludes with a summary of the findings and various conclusions.
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  13. 13

    Country statement submitted by the government of Ukraine.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 355-8.

    The population of the Ukraine in 1993 was 52.2 million. The basic tenets of a population policy have been under consideration since independence in 1991. Development of a population policy is considered integral to social and economic policy, and the policy will be concerned with the rights of individuals and married couples in determining and planning family size. In 1991, deaths exceeded births. Population has been at or below replacement level for a number of years. The proportion of men aged over 65 years and women aged over 55 years has increased to 21.7% of total population, and in six regions the proportion has been over 25%. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences, including air and soil contamination, are preeminent concerns. A Ukrainian national register monitors the health of the victims of Chernobyl. In 1991, an environmental protection act was passed to protect the health of expectant mothers and children. A migration service is planned for regulating migration and dealing with the repatriation of deported population groups. Financial difficulties have hampered greater involvement in international efforts. In fact, financial and technical assistance would be welcomed in the effort to adopt a national system of statistics in accordance with internationally accepted accounting and statistical practices.
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  14. 14

    [Legislation concerning reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe: new facts] Legislation relative a la sante genesique en Europe centrale et orientale: faits nouveaux.

    Fluss SS

    ENTRE NOUS. 1994 May; (25):9-10.

    In this article, WHO reports on certain laws promulgated in different central and eastern European countries in the early 1990s. Russia has passed a law creating a Coordinating Committee on Problems of the Family, Motherhood, and Childhood. It brings together governmental agencies, public organizations, and citizens to identify ways to improve women's status and protection of maternal and child health. Russia has also adopted Legislative Orientations of the Russian Federation concerning the Sanitary Protection of Citizens. For example, this law guarantees pregnant women the right to work under conditions adapted to their physiological and sanitary state. A whole chapter is dedicated to family planning and regulation of human procreation. Only women have the right to decide whether to terminate or continue their pregnancy. A law in Kyrgyzstan states that every woman has the right to make her own decisions concerning motherhood. With their consent, women also have the right to modern contraceptive methods. Sterilization can only be done with the consent of the woman or for medical reasons. The Counsel of Ministers in the Ukraine adopted a program aiming to improve the condition of women and the family and to protect mothers and children. A Hungarian law does not consider abortion to be a family planning method or a means of fertility control. At the same time, it considers family planning to be a right and a duty of parents. It calls for considerable education on the value of health and life, the healthy life, responsibilities accompanying relations between partners, a family life compatible with human dignity, and contraceptive methods. Albania first approved family planning activities in May 1992. Romania approved technical norms relative to hormonal contraceptives and to IUDs. In January 1993, Poland passed a law restricting abortion to cases of medical indications, fetal death, a grave abnormality, and illicit acts.
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  15. 15

    Fresh waters as a factor in strategic policy and action.

    Falkenmark M

    In: Population and resources in a changing world: current readings, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, Helen M. Sellers. Stanford, California, Stanford University, Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies, 1989. 245-61.

    Fresh water continues to be at the center of various disputes. Population growth, agricultural activities, and industrial development lead to an increase in water demand especially in developing countries. Measures to improve conditions in upstream countries threaten the water supply of downstream countries. For example, proposed and/or actual diversion of water from the Jordan River lies at the center of various armed and unarmed conflicts in the Middle East including the 1967 Arab Israeli War and the 1982-85 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Bangladesh and India continue their 30-year feud over the Ganges River. India diverted the Ganges very close to Bangladesh to reduce silting in the port of Calcutta which caused a reduced dry season flow. Egypt fears that Sudan and Ethiopia will use more water from the Nile River basin due to their increased needs stemming from rapid population growth and drought. Both Sudan and Ethiopia did jointly fund the Jonglei Canal project in southern Sudan but construction halted due to internal conflicts between the northern and southern regions of Sudan. Dumping of salts into the Rhine River from potassium mines in the Alsace region of France has resulted in a very high salt load. The last upstream country, the Netherlands, is willing to pay partial costs to reinject the salt into the mines but France objects since it may contaminate the aquifers. Large-scale irrigation in the US increased salinity in the colorado River which resulted in much crop loss in Mexico. After 10 years, the US finally agreed to reduce salinity. Erosion and sedimentation poses problems for countries with rivers serving as their borders. Other sources of water-related tension include multinational aquifers and uncontrolled land erosion. Possible modes to prevent and manage conflict are creation of an international law of water resources and international river commissions.
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  16. 16

    The 1992 Earth Summit: background and prospects.

    Strong MF

    INTEGRATION. 1992 Mar; (31):26-31.

    In 1989, the UN General Assembly agreed to sponsor a conference on environment and development and that the Heads of State would attend this 1st ever Earth Summit in June 1992. The planned agenda included making concrete changes to the basis of our economic life, relations between and among nations, and the outlook for the future. This would result in restructuring world priorities. Despite the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the human Environment acknowledging the basic link between environment and development, the environment has deteriorated even further, especially ozone depletion. Yet some governments did set up environmental agencies or ministries, like the US Environmental Protection Agency, but they were not allowed to influence economic policy or the policies and/or practices of major sectoral agencies. These environmental organizations relied too heavily on regulation. The 1992 conference needs to result in a political commitment to place reduction of poverty worldwide as the 1st priority since poverty and underdevelopment are strongly related to destruction of the environment. It is particularly important that developing countries improve their strengths by developing their human resources and institutional capacities (science, technology, management and professional skills) and reduce their vulnerabilities, such as dependence on foreign experts. This can best be achieved if they have access to technology. Moreover they must reduce population growth and reach population stability quickly. The 1992 conference in Brazil should also result in a global partnership based on common interest, mutual need, and shared responsibility. The world ecoindustrial revolution has already begun in some countries, such as Japan which has reduced energy use 40% since 1975. In fact, Japan has proven that environmental improvement can be accomplished with high rates of economic growth.
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  17. 17

    Out from behind the contraceptive Iron Curtain.

    Jacobson JL

    WORLD WATCH. 1990 Sep-Oct; 3(5):29-34.

    In the early 1950s, the Soviet Union and several of its Eastern European satellites completed their transition from high to low fertility before the US and Western Europe. They did this even though there were not enough modern contraceptives available to meet the needs of its citizens. As late as 1990, the Soviet Union had no factories manufacturing modern contraceptives. A gynecologist in Poland described domestically produced oral contraceptives (OCs) as being good for horses, but not for humans. The Romanian government under Ceaucescu banned all contraceptives and safe abortion services. Therefore, women relied on abortion as their principal means of birth control, even in Catholic Poland. The legal abortion rates in the Soviet Union and Romania stood at 100/1000 (1985) and 91/1000 (1987) as compared to 18/1000 in Denmark and 13/1000 in France. All too often these abortion were prohibited and occurred under unsafe conditions giving rise to complications and death. Further, the lack of contraceptives in the region precipitated and increase in AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. On the other hand, abortion rates were minimalized in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary due to the availability of modern contraceptives and reproductive health services. Hungary and East Germany even manufactured OCs. OC use in these 2 nations rated as among the world's highest. East Germany also treated infertility and sexually transmitted diseases. The region experienced a political opening in latecomer 1989. In 1989, IPPF gave approximately 15 million condoms and 3000 monthly OC packets to the Soviet Union to ease the transition. More international assistance for contraceptive supplies and equipment and training to modernize abortion practices is necessary.
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  18. 18

    Voluntary sterilization and discrimination against women: breaking down barriers.

    Plata MI

    COMMUNIQUE. 1987 Nov; 8(2):13.

    8 countries reported in 1987 on what they are doing to meet the terms of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, and 2 of the countries covered voluntary sterilization in their report. The countries made their reports to the UN body responsible for monitoring the implementation of the convention -- the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). This convention is the 1st international treaty that requires countries to remove biases against women in their laws and practices and to ensure that women have equal access to family planning services. All 8 countries -- Bangladesh, Colombia, France, Greece, the Republic of Korea, Poland, Spain, and Sri Lanka -- have constitutional or legal provisions on the right to health care, but only the reports from Colombia and Spain specifically addressed voluntary sterilization as a choice in health services. In 1983 Spain established tubal occlusion and vasectomy as legal medical procedures, and since that time voluntary sterilization has been somewhat more accessible. In Colombia, PROFAMILIA, the national nongovernmental family planning association, has performed over 59,000 tubal occlusions and over 2000 vasectomies, but the government is not active in this field. Under the terms of the convention, a government's failure to support family planning services can be interpreted as impairing women's access to health care. The French delegation did not mention voluntary sterilization in its report, but a member of CEDAW noted that, under French law, an individual's right to voluntary sterilization is not guaranteed. Physicians and hospitals in France have been confused about the legality of sterilization and often are reluctant to provide the service. The French delegation responded that voluntary sterilization is permitted only for therapeutic reasons and only after the individual has consented. Otherwise, the procedure is considered illegal. Family planning associations and other groups have begun to use the annual CEDAW meeting as a forum to discuss barriers to contraceptive services. The 92 countries that have ratified the convention are required to report to CEDAW within 1 year of ratification and every 4 years thereafter.
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  19. 19

    Planned parenthood legislation and practice in Belgium.

    Deven F

    In: Planned parenthood in Europe: a human rights perspective, edited by Philip Meredith and Lyn Thomas. London, England, Croom Helm, 1986. 135-62.

    This paper documents patterns, trends, and developments relating to the legal and de facto situation of planned parenthood in Belgium. An attempt is made to grasp the socioeconomic and cultural roots that characterized Belgian society in the past and the influence they have at present. Using census data, empirical data from the national surveys on family development, and information from opinion polls, the fertility and fertility-regulating behavior of the population is documented. Belgium may be characterized in the 19th and early 20th century by a high degree of heterogeneity: cultural, economic, and social. The Catholic Church in Belgium, which maintained a strong moral authority, took the lead at that time in the western European drive against contraception. Substantial changeds occurred in Belgian society after World War II. Still, the Belgian legal attitude to the sexual behavior of the population may be characterized as conservative, coercive, marriage-centered, linking sexuality to procreation, as reflected in the Civil and Penal Codes. Compared with other issues, planned parenthood in Belgium has received meagre attention. There are 3 interconnected areas of conflict in Belgian society: 1) the ideological, 2) the linguistic, and 3) the socioeconomic. The involvement of Belgian authorities in planned parenthood affairs has stemmed from 2 concepts: the need to combat crimes and misbehavior against the order of the family and pubic morals, and 2) fear over the slow but steady decline in the birth rate. As planned parenthood issues became more the responsibility of the communities, the prospect of increased attention and sound policy-making emerged.
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  20. 20

    Protection of working mothers: an ILO global survey (1964-84).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.

    This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
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  21. 21

    Abortion and international law: the status and possible extension of women's right to privacy.

    Michel AE

    Journal of Family Law. 1981-1982; 20(2):241-61.

    Abortion, a topic which challenges the religious and moral values of many individuals, has an impact on population control relied upon by some nation-states in achieving economic and social development. This is seen in India, and previously in the Eastern European states of Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania after WW II. In these states abortion is accepted largely for economic reasons. Abortion has strongly emerged as an issue in the development of international law, particularly in the area of human rights. This article studies that emergence by looking at the right to privacy, its expression in various human rights documents, and both the restrictive and liberal view of its application to woman's right to terminate a pregnancy, without external interference. The fetus' right to life is discussed and finally the interests of women, the fetus, and the public are analyzed to determine the importance of each of these interests to world peace and public order. International human rights agreements, e.g., the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, express the right to privacy in general terms, making it difficult to determine the scope of the right. In a case brought before the European Commission on Human Rights, 2 West German nationals' claimed the scope of the right to privacy includes the right of the woman to decide whether to terminate her pregnancy the commission held that such interference was not a breach of the woman's right to respect for her private life. The primary goal of human rights is to establish maximum respect for the individual and it is in this context that the right of a woman to choose to terminate a pregnancy is analyzed. Autonomy is an element of respect for the individual. Denying women the legal right or information to control fertility limits their ability to control their health, educational, political, social and cultural status. The fact that fertility control substantially affects the status of women is recognized in international human rights agreements. Sex equality is achieved by giving women the right to abortion. Legal proscriptions against abortion are inconsistent with the goals and objectives of human rights, especially the individual woman's right to respect and autonomy.
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  22. 22

    Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.

    Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
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  23. 23

    Sixth report on the world health situation. Pt. 2. Review by country and area.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 412 p.

    This report on the world health situation comes in 2 volumes, and this, the 2nd volume, reviews the health situation by country and area, with the additions and amendments submitted by the governments, and an addendum for later submissions. Information is presented for countries in the African Region, the Region of the Americas; the Southeast Asia Region, the European Region, the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and the Western Pacific Region. The information provided includes the following areas: the primary health problems, health policy; health legislation; health planning and programming; the organization of health services; biomedical and health services research; education and training of health manpower; health establishments; estimates of the main categories of health manpower; the production and sale of pharmaceuticals; health expenditures; appraisal of health services; demographic and health data; major public health problems; training establishments; actions taken; preventive medicine; and public health.
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  24. 24

    Report of population activities.

    Great Britain. Overseas Development Administration

    London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, June, 1980. 38 p. (Overseas Development Paper; No. 21)

    Recent trends in world population growth and in governments' attitudes towards population and development are generally discussed. A historical perspective of the British Ministry of Overseas Development (ODA) involvement in population activities is given. Support began in the 1960s and ODA's Population Bureau was established in 1968 to function in an advisory capacity, promote training and research in issues related to population. The scope of the Bureau's work has broadened from clinical aspects of family planning to include demographic, social and economic factors related to population. ODA's assistance for population is outlined. Details of ODA's support of the following types of programs are given: 1) multilateral; 2) bilateral (including data collection and analysis, regional demographic training, formulation of population policies and programs, maternal and child health/family planning, and communications and education); 3) institutional support; 4) voluntary agencies; 5) research. Meetings attended by members of the Population Bureau in 1977-1979 are listed. ODA expenditure on population activities in 1977, 1978 and 1979 are listed by country or institution.
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  25. 25

    A selection of articles and speeches on the status of women and family planning in Yugoslavia

    Tomsic V

    Federal Council for Family Planning, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1975. 112 p.

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