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  1. 1
    340665
    Peer Reviewed

    Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels.

    Hosseinpoor AR; Bergen N; Schlotheuber A

    Global Health Action. 2015 Sep 18; 8:29034.

    Background: Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective: This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design: We outline the scope, content, and intended uses / application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions: The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. Copyright: 2015 World Health Organization. Open Access.
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  2. 2
    350101

    Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.

    In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
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  3. 3
    332923

    The MDGs in Europe and Central Asia: achievements, challenges and the way forward.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; International Labour Organization [ILO]; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; World Food Programme; UNESCO; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]; World Health Organization [WHO]; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; United Nations Industrial Development Organization [UNIDO]; United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD]; International Trade Centre

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2010. [127] p. (ECE/INF/2010/2)

    This report, prepared jointly by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Regional Offices for Europe and Central Asia of the United Nations Funds, Programmes and Specialized Agencies, takes stock of progress made in reaching the MDG goals and offers decision-makers policy-oriented, operationally feasible suggestions for bolstering progress towards fully achieving these goals by 2015. It also identifies and contextualizes the greatest challenges facing human development, taking into account the specific characteristics of the UNECE region. The overall message of this report is twofold. On the one hand, most of the region’s economies have made remarkable progress towards the MDGs over the period 1995-2008, with two caveats: first, success has been greater when it is measured on the basis of global rather than national MDG definitions; second, large disparities exist among countries and subregions within the pan-European region, as well as among population groups and geographic areas within countries. On the other hand, given the huge setbacks associated with the transition recession crisis in the early 1990s and the more recent economic effects of the global financial crisis, a significant number of countries will find it difficult to fully achieve the MDGs by 2015. In order to meet the targets, these countries will have to overcome a number of specific development challenges.[Excerpts]
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  4. 4
    320692

    Towards achieving the MDGs in Sudan: Centrality of women's leadership and gender equality.

    Danbolt IL; Gumbonzvanda N; Karame K

    [Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.

    Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    320507

    Child and adolescent health and development in a European perspective --- a new WHO strategy.

    Ostergren MM; Barnekow V

    Danish Medical Bulletin. 2007 May; 54:150-152.

    In general, children and adolescents in the WHO European Region today have better nutrition, health and development than ever before. There are striking inequalities in health status across the 52 countries in the Region, however, with over ten-fold differences in infant and child mortality rates. Inequalities are also growing within countries, and several health threats are emerging. Against this background, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has developed a European strategy for child and adolescent health and development. The purpose of the Strategy, together with a tool kit for implementation, is to assist member states in formulating their own policies and programmes. (author's)
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  6. 6
    310953
    Peer Reviewed

    Health in an unequal world.

    Marmot M

    Lancet. 2006 Dec 9; 368(9552):2081-2094.

    William Harvey was born in Folkestone on April 1, 1578. He was educated at the King's School, Canterbury, Gonville, and Caius College, Cambridge, and the University of Padua, graduating as doctor of arts and medicine in 1602. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1607 and was appointed to the Lumleian lectureship in 1615. In the cycles of his Lumleian lectures over the next 13 years, Harvey developed and refined his ideas about the circulation of the blood. He published his conclusions in 1628 in Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, which marks the beginning of clinical science. In it, Harvey considered the structure of the heart, arteries, and veins with their valves. By carefully devised experiments and supported by the demonstration of the unidirectional flow of the blood in the superficial veins of his own forearm, he established that the blood circulated, and did not ebb and flow as had been believed for more than 1000 years. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    187219

    Declaration of intentions of the IPPF European Network, Brussels, 27 June 2003.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. European Network

    Choices. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Europe. 2003 Autumn; 35.

    Reaffirms the human rights basis of sexual and reproductive rights and the need to preserve, guarantee and expand these rights for all peoples in Europe and around the world; underlines its commitment to prioritise the human rights approach to sexuality and reproduction in all activities of the federation; recalls that sexual and reproductive rights are already the subject of international human rights law, jurisprudence, treaties and conventions; reaffirms that the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights outlining 12 rights provides the framework for work in progressing towards the full recognition of sexual rights as human rights; welcomes the recognition of other civil society groups of the human rights basis of their specific work in sexuality, reproduction, health and equality. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    187531
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender and HIV / AIDS.

    Turmen T

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):411-418.

    The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. How have gender inequality and discrimination against women affected the course of the HIV epidemic? This paper outlines the biological, social and cultural determinants that put women and adolescent girls at greater risk of HIV infection than men. Violence against women or the threat of violence often increases women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women’s empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic. (author's)
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  9. 9
    114376

    [World Conference on Women: mirror of inequalities (editorial)] Conferencia Mundial de la Mujer: espejo de desigualdades.

    FEDERACION DE PLANIFICACION FAMILIAR DE ESPANA. 1995 Jul-Sep; (24):5.

    The 1995 International Conference on Women, like other large UN Conferences of the decade, declared itself against all forms of discrimination and in favor of more equitable distribution of wealth and defense of human rights. Formally adopted accords of previous conferences became central themes of the Conference, held in Beijing. It is to be hoped that the social movements of the different countries will be helped by the internationally backed Plan of Action. The Spanish Federation for Family Planning supported the Conference because of its belief that women's lives and well being are intimately related to the defense of their sexual and reproductive rights and to access to the necessary health and family planning services. The Conference should be useful for Spanish women who still have unmet needs, but above all it is significant as an act of solidarity with Third World women who suffer the most severe gender inequities. Rates of maternal mortality and adolescent pregnancy vary tremendously in developed and developing countries, and there are still countries where fewer than 10% of pregnant women receive prenatal care or professional attendance at delivery. Great and continuing efforts will be needed before the rights and conditions guaranteed in the various conferences become reality.
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  10. 10
    271885

    International trends in reproductive rights.

    Huston P

    [Unpublished] 1990 Jun. Paper presented at the 5th Annual International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) Conference: A Decade of the Women's Convention: Where are we? What's next?, Roosevelt Hotel, New York City, Jan. 20-22, 1990. 5 p.

    The acceptance and guarantee of a person's basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of one's children still remains an on-going challenge in legal and social institutions. Government's organized opposition to women's freedom in reproductive health care are illustrated in this paper by examples drawn from Romania, Singapore and the Soviet Union. In spite of the fact that the 1st mention of reproductive health care was paralleled to a basic human tight in the UN in 1966, such international guarantees are ignored by governments and powerful coalition groups thus denying the access and availability of services to millions of men and women. There are now around 300 million couples practicing responsible reproduction, an additional 300 million who are seeking such services and another 100-200 million who will join there 2 groups. Finding appropriate resources to meet the needs of education, information, counseling, and follow-up services are a few of the tasks facing administrators and policy-makers in the next decade. Strong political backing is a pre-requisite to assure success of such investments because of the existence of such groups as the anti-choice lobbyists in the US who have succeeded in denying US government funding to UNFPA and IPPF. Constant vigilance is a 2nd requirement to protect, defend and uphold women's right to reproductive choice. Providing women with legal mechanisms is essential if such practices as genital mutilation (female circumcision), child marriage, slavery and illegal prostitution are to be eradicated. The suggestion that 1994 be proclaimed "International Year of the Family" with the theme Family: Resources and Responsibilities in a Changing World, will allow NGO's to develop viable agendas to defend women's reproductive rights internationally. (author's modified)
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