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  1. 1

    World resources 1992-93.

    World Resources Institute; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. xiv, 385 p.

    The World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Programme, and the UN Development Programme collaborate to produce the World Resources series to provide organizations and individuals with accessible and accurate information on the trends and conditions of natural resources and protection of the environment. This information is needed to reach sustainable development, eliminate poverty, improve the standard of living, and preserve biological life-sustaining systems. This 5th volume stresses sustainable development as does the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. Part I, entitled Sustainable Development, includes an overview chapter and 3 case studies of possible means to achieve sustainable development in industrialized countries, low income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Part II focuses on one region of the world, Central Europe, to discuss how it was able to degrade the environment, the magnitude of the damage, and what possible steps to take to ameliorate the situation. Part III addresses basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in population and human development, food and agriculture, forests and rangelands, wildlife and habitat, energy, freshwater, oceans and coasts, atmosphere and climate, and policies and institutions (governmental and nongovernmental organizations). Part IV lists core and supporting data from the World Resources Data Base. This volume contains an index and a World Resources Data Base index.
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  2. 2

    Environmental deterioration and population.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 105-9. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    In 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, romania, WHO discusses degradation of the environment and population. In developing countries, poor sanitary conditions and communicable diseases are responsible for most illnesses and deaths. Physical, chemical, and psychosocial factors, as well as pathogenic organisms, cause disease and death in developing countries. Variations in individuals and between individuals present problems in determining universally valid norms relating to environment and health. Researchers must use epidemiological and toxicological methods to identify sensitive indicators of environmental deterioration among vulnerable groups, e.g., children and the aged. Changes in demographics and psychosocial, climatic, geographical, geological, and hydrologic factors may influence the health and welfare of entire populations. Air pollution appears to adversely affect the respiratory tract. In fact, 3 striking events (Meuse valley in France [1930], Donora valley in Pennsylvania [US], and London [1952] show that air pollution can directly cause morbidity, especially bronchitis and heart disease, and mortality. Exposure to lead causes irreparable brain damage. Water pollution has risen with industrialization. Use of agricultural chemicals also contribute to water pollution. Repeated exposure to high noise levels can result in deafness. Occupational diseases occur among people exposed to physical, chemical, or biological pollutants at work which tend to be at higher levels than in the environment. Migrant workers from developing countries in Europe live in unsafe and unhygienic conditions. Further, they do not have access to adequate health services. Nevertheless, life expectancy has increased greatly along with urbanization and industrialization. A longer life span and environmental changes are linked with increased chronic diseases and diseases of the aged.
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  3. 3

    Foodborne illness: a growing problem.

    Abdussalam M; Grossklaus D

    WORLD HEALTH. 1991 Jul-Aug; 18-9.

    90% of individual cases of foodborne illness in industrialized countries are unreported and as such do not appear in official morbidity statistics. This figure grows to 99% in non-industrialized countries, yet in developed countries the associated cost of these illnesses is estimated at US$10,000 million/year. Microbiological contaminants are responsible for 90% of the episodes of foodborne illness including: typhoid fever, non-typhoid salmonelloses, cholera, diarrhoeal diseases, bacterial and amoebic dysenteries, botulism, hepatitis A, and trichinellosis. In industrialized countries most of these illnesses have declined; however, salmonellosis and a few others have increased 10 to 20 fold in countries like Germany. Similar trends are present in the US. Canada, Finland, and the United Kingdom. In the Netherlands it was recently estimated that 1.5 million cases of foodborne, microbial diseases occurred in a population of 15 million. Contaminants are dangerous because their numbers can be so great that our normal defenses are overcome. Some can produce toxic chemicals that are not destroyed during cooking. The WHO has created 10 golden rules to follow in food preparation and storage. These rules were created to be practical for low-income economies and households.
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