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Answering the call: The international donor community's response to the HIV / AIDS crisis in Eurasia.
CommonHealth. 2005 Spring; 19-23.On the occasion of World AIDS Day, December 1, 2003, Peter Piot, executive director of the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) had some good news to share: Spending on HIV/AIDS programs rose 50 percent in 2003, from 3.1 to 4.7 billion dollars. In large part he attributed this to the efforts of the international donor community. International donor contributions traditionally stem from UN programs, affluent governments, development banks, and quasiprivate or private organizations, such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Various other donor agencies, including The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria--a partnership between governments, civil society, and the private sector--are providing valuable resources in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The support provided by these groups could not come at a more critical time. According to the latest statistics, 42 million people are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has described the pandemic as the greatest threat to the well-being of future generations. Two of the areas most affected by the disease are the World Bank's Eastern Europe and Central Asia sub-regions--which include all of the countries of the former Soviet Union--where the AIDS epidemic is growing at a faster rate than anywhere else in the world. According to a United Nations Report published in February 2004, "One out of every 100 adults walking down the streets of a city in Eastern Europe or the Commonwealth of Independent States carries the HIV virus that causes AIDS." (excerpt)
IDU. Injecting Drug User Intervention Impact Model. Version 2.0, May 2000. A tool to estimate the impact of HIV prevention activities focused on injecting drug users.
London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2000 May. 53 p.IDU 2.0 is one of five simulation models within HIVTools. IDU 2.0 can be used, within a particular setting, to estimate the impact on HIV transmission of prevention activities focusing on the injecting drug users (IDU's). It can also be used to explore the likely impact of different policy options. The program simulates the transmission of HIV between injecting drug users, and the transmission of HIV and STDs between IDU's and their sexual partners, both in the presence and absence of an intervention. The extent to which an intervention may avert HIV infection is estimated using a range of context specific inputs. This includes epidemiological information describing the prevalence of HIV infection among the IDU's and their non-IDU sexual partners at the start of the intervention, and the probabilities of HIV and STD infection. Behavioural inputs are used to describe the patterns of needle sharing, sexual behaviour and condom use among the IDU's reached and not reached by the intervention. Demographic and intervention specific inputs are used to estimate the size of the total IDU population, the proportion of males and females in the IDU population, and the proportion of each reached by the intervention. These are then used to project the overall patterns of needle sharing, sexual behaviour and condom use among IDU's with and without the intervention. (excerpt)
School. School Intervention Impact Model. Version 2.0, December 1999. A tool to estimate the impact of HIV prevention activities focused on youth in school.
London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1999 Dec. 48 p.A collaborative research project between the UNAIDS and the Health Economics and Financing Programme at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine has been working since 1994 to develop methodologies to determine the costs and likely impact of five HIV prevention strategies - the strengthening of blood transfusion services, condom social marketing projects, school education, the strengthening of sexually transmitted infections (STI) treatment services, and interventions working with sex workers and their clients. 'HIV Tools: a cost-effectiveness toolkit for HIV prevention' is currently being developed. HIV tools consists of: 1) a set of five simulation models that estimate the impact on HIV and STD transmission of different HIV prevention activities; and 2) guidelines for costing different HIV prevention activities. HIV Tools aims to be a flexible and easy to use product, designed for policy makers, programme managers and AIDS Service Organisations working to address HIV and ST1 transmission. It can be used to estimate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of different HIV prevention strategies in different settings. (excerpt)
The role and influence of stakeholders and donors on reproductive health services in Turkey: a critical review.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2004; 12(24):116-127.Since 1965, Turkey has followed an anti-natalist population policy and made significant progress in improving sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents a critical review of the national reproductive health policies and programmes of Turkey and discusses the influence of national and international stakeholders and donors on policy and implementation. While government health services have played the primary role in meeting sexual and reproductive health needs, international donor agencies and national non-governmental and other civil society organisations, especially universities, have played an important complementary role. Major donor agencies have supported many beneficial programmes to improve reproductive health in Turkey, but their agendas have sometimes not been compatible with national objectives and goals, which has caused frustration. The main conclusion of this review is that countries with clear and strong reproductive health policies can better direct the implementation of international agreements as well as get the most benefit from the support of international donors. (author's)
In: Women and civil war. Impact, organizations, and action, edited by Krishna Kumar. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 57-67.After World War II, Joseph Broz (Tito) became the head of the new Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, which incorporated the six republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bill). Bosnia was the third largest of the six republics in terms of both land mass and population. According to the 1991 census, Bosnia's population was 4.3 million, of whom 41 percent were identified as Muslim, 31.4 percent as Serb, 17.3 percent as Croat, and 7.6 percent as other. Despite ethnic identification in the census, all three populations mixed and mingled in urban and rural societies. Since World War II, 30 to 40 percent of marriages in urban areas were mixed. The shared history and culture of all three groups formed the basis of a distinct and unifying identity that "straddled ethnoreligious communities, but did not subsume these differences." When Tito died in 1980, the national unity he had struggled to create began to crumble. In March 1992, Bosnia held an independence referendum that was approved by a two-thirds majority. The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was recognized by the European Union on 6 April. On the same date, Bosnian Serb nationalists began the siege of Sarajevo, and the Bosnian war began. Bosnian Muslim and Croat forces originally fought a united defense against Bosnian Serb advances. However, relations broke down in 1993, engendering a "war within a war." The Bosnian Muslim/Croat conflict was eventually resolved in 1994 through international mediation, which resulted in the creation of the Bosniac-Croat Federation. The reunification of the forces enabled a stronger resistance. In 1995, the combined forces launched a dramatic offensive, forcing the Bosnian Serbs into a negotiating position. In November 1995, the factions met and reached agreement, and a month later, on 14 December 1995, they signed the General Framework Agreement, also referred to as the Dayton Accords, which brought a halt to the hostilities. The effect of the General Framework Agreement was to create one state, Bosnia and Herzegovina, consisting of two entities. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 51 percent of the territory and has a Bosniac and Croat majority among the population. The Republika Srpska (RS) has the remaining 49 percent of the territory, with a Bosnian Serb majority. (excerpt)
In: Women and civil war. Impact, organizations, and action, edited by Krishna Kumar. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 165-181.This chapter examines women's organizations in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina. It describes their emergence, activities, and programs and the changes in their activities over time. It then assesses the impact of these organizations in addressing gender issues associated with the conflict. Finally, it discusses the nature of assistance provided to them by the international community and the areas of tension between them. The chapter is based largely on the information obtained during interviews conducted by the author with the leaders and staff of women's organizations, staffs of international organizations, representatives of the donor agencies that support women's organizations, and a cross section of Bosnian women. Five organizations were selected as case studies to illustrate different activities and the types of development and expansion that have taken place in the past few years. (excerpt)