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New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Sep. 61 p. (Croatia Vol. 15, No. 6(D))Between 300,000 and 350,000 Serbs left their homes in Croatia during the 1991-95 war. This report describes the continued plight of displacement suffered by the Serbs of Croatia and identifies the principal remaining impediments to their return. The most significant problem is the difficulty Serbs face in returning to their pre-war homes. Despite repeated promises, the Croatian government has been unwilling and unable to solve this problem for the vast majority of displaced Serbs. In addition, fear of arbitrary arrest on war-crimes charges and discrimination in employment and pension benefits also deter return. Human Rights Watch believes that these problems are a result of a practice of ethnic discrimination against Serbs by the Croatian government. The report concludes with a list of recommendations to the government of Croatia and the international community to deal with these persistent problems and finally make good on the promise of return. (author's)
The right and access for all to housing and to the city. Contribution to Habitat II from French associations of international solidarity.
Paris, France, Centre de Recherche et d'Information pour le Developpement, 1995 Nov. 8 p.This paper was prepared, discussed, and adopted by a working group representing most associations of international solidarity (AIS) working in France and in partnership with associations in Europe and countries of the South, on living conditions and urban development. AIS supports the principles of sustainability, equality, citizenship, and solidarity. They believe that translating these principles into urban development strategies and programs would make it possible to achieve the two main aims announced by the UN in the context of Habitat II: adequate housing for all and sustainable human settlements. The inventory drawn up by AIS is the result of observations made during their practical experience at local level and with regard to their principles. This inventory on housing and the urban scene can be drawn up at four levels: local, national, geopolitical regional, and global. The proposals of AIS are organized around eight themes: partnership; institutional framework; specific methods and policies; AIS projects and interventions; national policies on housing, habitat, and the city; strategies and interventions by national institutions; the international system; and relations with other actors such as municipalities, researchers, experts and professionals, administrations, companies and the economic sector, cooperation agencies, international institutions, residents' associations, popular movements, and trade unions.
In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Ninth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1992. 181.The following countries became parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1989-1991: a) Albania, 4 October 1991; b) Algeria, 12 September 1989 c) Burundi, 9 May 1990; d) Estonia, 21 October 1991; e) Grenada, 6 September 1991; f) Haiti, 6 February 1991; g) Ireland, 8 December 1989, h) Israel, 3 October 1991; i) Lithuania, 20 November 1991; j) Malta, 13 September 1990; k) Nepal, 14 May 1991; l) Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; m) Somalia, 24 January 1990; and n) Zimbabwe, 13 May 1991. The Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, freedom of movement, freedom from arbitrary and unlawful interference with the home and family, protection of children and the family, the right to marry and found a family, and equality of spouses within marriages. In addition, the following of the above countries also became parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the same dates: Albania, Estonia, Grenada, Haiti, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Nepal, and Zimbabwe. This Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits, housing, education, health care, and protection of the family, children, and mothers. See Multilateral Treaties, Index and Current Status, p. 181.
In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, 8th cumulative suppl., compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1991. 158.Since 1983, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights has been ratified by the following countries: Algeria, 12 September 1989; Argentina, 8 August 1986; Burundi, 9 May 1990; Cameroon, 27 June 1984; the Congo, 5 October 1983; Equatorial Guinea, 25 September 1987; Ireland, 8 December 1989; the Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; Luxembourg, 18 August 1983; Niger, 7 March 1986; the Philippines, 23 October 1986; San Marino, 18 October 1985; Somalia, 24 January 1990; Sudan, 18 March 1986; Togo, 24 May 1984; Democratic Yemen, 9 February 1987; and Zambia, 10 April 1984. Provisions of the covenant guarantee equal rights for men and women, pay equity, maternity benefits, social protection for children and the family, and the rights to housing, education, and health care, among other things.
WORLD HEALTH. 1991 Mar-Apr; 14-5.Less developed countries are undergoing rapid, unplanned, and uncontrolled urbanization at the expense of their populations' health. Physical expansion of cities has outpaced the abilities of city planners and management and has contributed to the spread of tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, threadworm, cholera, dysentery, and other diarrheal diseases. Overcrowding, lack of access roads, dangerous roads, drinking water scarcity, frequently collapsing buildings, uncollected garbage, lack of sewers, inadequate air space, and houses littered with human feces are common conditions contributing to high mortality rates especially among children. In this context, the World Health Organization's Environmental Health in Rural and Urban Development Program, which is designed to promote awareness about the association between health and planning, is noted. Guidelines for change are also a component of the program, and are encouraged for adoption by planners of less developed countries, especially Africa. Urban rehabilitation and upgrading are recommended in the guidelines while maintaining central focus upon promoting the population's health. While examples of rampant urbanization are drawn primarily from Nigeria, ancient Greek and Roman societies as well as the UK are mentioned in the context of urban planning with a view to health.
[The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.
In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1982 Jan; 4(1):7-16.This study describes 3 nutrition intervention programs in Sri Lanka; Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Samgamaya; Redd Barna, the Norwegian Save the Children Program; and the US Save the Children fund. The Sarvodaya Shramadana Sangamaya is a private, nonprofit organization that began in 1958 devoted to mobilizing voluntary labor for village reconstruction. It is now engaged in a series of development projects in over 2,000 villages. One of its main objectives is to mobilize community resources for development. The children's service now integrates pre-school, nutrition, and community health services. There are an estimated 86 day care centers. The main service available in these day care centers, apart from physical care, is the provision of nutrition. Pre-school nutrition programs are also administered. The program costs about Rs230/beneficiary per year. The International Council of Educational Development from the United States was invited to review the program. Recommendations are given. The Norwegian Save the Children (Redd Barna) program in Sri Lanka was started in 1974. Projects are of 2 types: 1) settlement projects; and 2) integrated community development projects which aim to improve the standard of living with particular attention to child welfare. The US Save the Children Fund (SCF), a private, nonprofit voluntary organization, began its 1st project in Sri Lanka in urban community development in a slum and squatter settlement within Colombo. It focused on housing, but also includes other programs such as health and nutrition. These activities are carried out through a pediatric clinic, a home visits register, a nutritional status survey, a supplementary feeding program, nutrition, education, and a day care center. The approximate cost of the nutrition program would be Rs7700/month for an average of Rs13/month, or Rs156/year/beneficiary.