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  1. 1
    294629

    Breastfeeding and infant-mother interaction.

    Zetterström R

    Acta Pædiatrica. Supplement. 1999 Aug; 88(430):1-6.

    The prevalence of breastfeeding varies very much throughout the world. In some countries, such as in Scandinavia, it is extremely high, whereas it is rather low in many industrialized countries such as northern Italy. In urban areas of many developing countries the prevalence is extremely low, although it may be high in rural areas. For instance, in rural Guinea-Bissau in West Africa it is reported to be 100% at 3 mo of age, and this high prevalence may be explained by the fact that infants who have not been breastfed die before this age. In Sweden the prevalence at 2 mo of age was around 95% in 1945 (including infants fed by milk-mothers) but then gradually dropped until 1972, when it was as low as 20%. However, during the following 10-y period the prevalence gradually increased to around 80%. The main reasons for the decline most probably were that infant formulae, then considered to be safe, became available, that an increasing number of women started to work outside their homes, making formula feeding part of the feminist movement, and finally that no real attempts were made to promote breastfeeding in the maternity wards and well-baby clinics. The reverse trend started in 1972, when the attitude towards breastfeeding changed completely. Well-educated mothers became aware of the new discoveries of the importance of breastfeeding from immunological and nutritional points of view, and organized campaigns. Within a few years, the Swedish parliament passed a law which guaranteed all mothers paid leave from their work (80% of their salary) for 9 mo after childbirth, which has now been increased to 12 mo. The WHO/UNICEF code from 1980, which regulates the marketing of infant formula, has also probably played an important role. After a plateau for the prevalence of breastfeeding between 1982 and 1990, a further increase has taken place, particularly between 6 and 9 mo of age. Whereas the first phase in the increase of the prevalence of breastfeeding was, to a certain extent, the result of the concern of well-educated mothers, the second phase (1990-1998) may, at least partly, be explained by the fact that Swedish maternity wards then implemented the suggestion, launched by WHO/UNICEF, to create "baby-friendly" maternity hospitals with the aim of enabling all women to practise exclusive breastfeeding immediately after birth. Methods to stimulate lactation and proper nutritional suckling behaviour of the newborn were then developed. (author's)
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  2. 2
    289823

    International migration.

    Population Index. 1948 Apr; 14(2):97-104.

    Research in migration has been peculiarly susceptible to the changing problems of the areas and the periods in which demographers work. American studies of international movements diminished after the passage of Exclusion Acts, and virtually ceased as immigration dwindled during the depression years. On the other hand, surveys of internal migration proliferated as the facts of mass unemployment and the social approaches of the New Deal focused governmental attention on the relation of people to resources and to economic opportunity. Geographers and historians took over the field the demographers had vacated. The studies of pioneer settlement directed by Isaiah Bowman and those of Marcus Hansen dealing with the Atlantic crossing are outstanding illustrations of this non-demographic research on essentially demographic problems. Even when demographers investigated international movements they served principally as quantitative analysts of historical exchanges. This is not to disparage such studies as that of Truesdell on the Canadian in the United States, or of Coates on the United States immigrant in Canada, but merely to emphasize the point that Americans regarded international migration as an issue of the past. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    192675

    The intricacy of demography and politics: the case of population projections.

    Martinot-Lagarde P

    [Unpublished] 2001. Presented at the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, IUSSP, 24th General Conference, Salvador, Brazil, August 18-24, 2001. 17 p.

    The purpose of this paper is to sketch the common lines of development of both the scientific elaboration of world population projections and the international political debate that prepared the ground for such projections and encouraged their development. A partial history of the elaboration of world population projections has already been written. International population debates from the XIX° and XX° centuries are also under scrutiny. But the link between these two developments has not been fully established. The link between projections and politics work both ways. In one direction, projections can contribute to a rationalization of government in the area of economic development, urban planning and so on. They provide societies with a partial view of their future. In the other direction, population projections cannot be undertaken without the help and support of governments and major international organizations. They rely on accurate and detailed censuses. They are costly and time consuming. At both end of the spectrum, there is a need for a global consensus not only within the scientific community and political arenas for population projections to be computed, received and considered as legitimate. More than many other instruments of demographic analysis, the history of world population projections demonstrate these linkages. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    115447

    The Vatican and population policy: a chronology.

    Catholics for a Free Choice

    In: The Pope and population policy, [compiled by] Catholics for a Free Choice. Washington, D.C., Catholics for a Free Choice, [1994]. [4] p.

    The pope is trying to control the language of a draft Program of Action for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The ICPD document, a blueprint for a 20-year campaign to stabilize world population, differs from its predecessors in that it links population growth with reproductive rights and urges family planning and the advancement of women's health and equality. These efforts are directly contrary to the Vatican's extremely conservative policies on population and the role of women, and explain why the Vatican has given such unprecedented attention to the Cairo conference in recent months. However, Vatican intervention in population policies is not new. This paper documents Vatican efforts to control population debate from 1961 to 1994.
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  5. 5
    108369

    [Trends in European family planning programs] Tendenzen der Familienplanungsarbeit in Europa.

    Heinrichs J

    PRO FAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1992 Sep-Oct; (5):4-5.

    Organized family planning work as it is known today is quite new, although the means and methods of conscious targeting of reproductive behavior are as old as human society. In all societies the regulation of the number of birth has been a central issue. The transition from predominantly agrarian to industrial economic system has also transformed the structure of the family and its role as the location of the reproduction of the labor force. Scientific and medical research as well as the struggle of women for equality and their increasing participation in the work force and thereby their changing position in the family have all played a major role. Reproductive behavior has often been subjected to population policy goals, thus it was not surprising that Nazi Germany suppressed every attempt to introduce family planning. In the 1950s and 1960s privately organized family planning associations were established in many developing countries with the objective of reducing the rapidly increasing birth rate. As a result, even today the International Planned Parenthood Federation debates the issue of identification of family planning with birth control. In specific cases the counseling offered is restricted to problems in the use of contraceptives, undesired infertility, sexuality and partnership, and sterilization. In addition, it is necessary to provide counseling on psychosocial issues and to discuss issues in small groups. Counseling sites have to be established that use these techniques, as practiced for years by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in the European region, which has set up task forces to study how segments of the population can be reached. The established family planning organizations have been concerned with unwanted pregnancy and its prevention, unwanted infertility, sex education for all age groups, marriage counseling, and therapy. Accordingly, emancipatory family planning work has been undertaken in 20 European countries.
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  6. 6
    059089

    Global population assistance report, 1982-1988. September 1, 1989. Final report.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1989 Sep 1. vi, 82 p.

    International population assistance became a distinct form of aid in the 1950's . Since then assistance grew until 1972 when it reached US $400 million. In 1985 it reached its highest peak of US $512.5 million and has since declined to below US $500 million. Population assistance accounts for 1.3% of Official Development Assistance (ODA), a substantial decline from the near 2% levels attained in the 70's. This report provides information on the levels, trends and nature of population assistance from 1982-88. It is divided into 2 sections: donors and recipients. 17 donor countries provide all population assistance (PA); among these only 10 provide 95% of all funds. The US is the largest donor providing US$200 million annually (accounting for 50%) followed by Japan who contributes US$50 million (constituting 10% of the total). The 8 other countries include Canada, Denmark, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. 3 major categories are used for PA: 1) bilateral aid from individual country donors; 2) aid to UN organizations and 3) aid to non-governmental organizations. The recipients are grouped by regions: sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America (including the Caribbean) and the Middle East-North Africa. Asia has received 1/2 of all PA through bilateral channels; Latin America's PA increased up to 1985 through NGO and bilateral channels, but declined thereafter; Africa's PA began through UN channels in 1982 but by 1986 bilateral and NGO channels increased. Most of the differences in PA are due to the political and administrative conditions of population policy formulation in the developing countries, and reflect the politics and diplomacy of international assistance in general. (author's modified)
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  7. 7
    029096

    Freedom to choose: the life and work of Dr. Helena Wright, pioneer of contraception

    Evans B

    London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.

    This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.
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  8. 8
    247433

    [Contribution of Hungarian demographic science and Hungarian demographers to the work of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population] A magyar demografiai tudomany es a magyar demografusok hozzajarulasa a Nemzetkozi Nepessegtudomanyi Unio munkajahoz

    Horvath R

    Demografia. 1984; 27(1):51-76.

    The author describes the development of demography in Hungary from 1928 to the present, with a focus on the contribution of Hungarian demographers to the activities of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). This paper is part of an IUSSP project that deals with the history of the Union and involves the preparation of papers on such activities in several countries. (summary in ENG, RUS) (ANNOTATION)
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  9. 9
    268019

    Remarks.

    Heckler MM

    In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C., edited by Richard Cash. Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development [AID], Bureau for Science and Technology, 1983. 4-5. (International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, 1983, proceedings)

    The Honorable Margaret Heckler, secretary of Health and Human Services, presents the goal of the conference--discussion of the remarkable potential of oral rehydration therapy and its importance to the health of infants and children throughout the world. The conference celebrates the scientific advances of recent years that give new hope for millions of children every year. Over 500 million episodes of diarrhea afflict infants in developing countries each year; each year, some 5 million children lose their lives to these diseases. In Europe, and in North America as well, diarrhea is the 6th most common cause of death among small children. At the turn of the century, mortality due to cholera was 60%. A scientist in Calcutta and 1 in Manila developed methods of intravenous therapy that reduced mortality dramatically to 20%. Treatment of the disease remained relatively unchanged until the middle of the century when work in Egypt and Asia resulted in a therapy method that reduced mortality for cholera to less than 1%. The crucial discovery of an effective cholera agent occurred in India in 1959. In 1962, scientists in Manila established the vital role of oral glucose in the absorption of sodium and water. The large-scale use of oral rehydration therapy was demonstrated in Dhaka and Calcutta in the 1960s, when 100s of cholera cases were managed under field conditions during a rural epidemic. A massive epidemic during a refugee crisis in 1971 was well-coped with by the Johns Hopkins group in Calcutta by treating 3700 patients over an 8-week period. This was one of the 1st large-scale uses of prepackaged materials for oral hydration, costing only US$750. In Dhaka and Calcutta in the early 1970s the critical discovery that noncholera diarrheal diseases could be treated with the oral rehydration therapy developed for cholera was made. The discovery of the role of glucose in accelerating the absorption of salt and water was underscored in the British journal "Lancet" as being potentially the most important medical advance of this century. A strong coalition of interest exists between governments and scientists of many nations as well as the international organizations to promote oral rehydration therapy. WHO, UNICEF, USAID and other agencies are playing an extremely important part in discovering how oral rehydration therapy can best be incorporated into broader health services, and how to prevent diarrheal diseases from occurring.
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