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British Journal of Nursing. 2016 Mar 24-Apr 13; 25(6):344-5.Add to my documents.
The introduction of confidential enquiries into maternal deaths and near-miss case reviews in the WHO European region.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2007 Sep; 15(30):145-152.Most maternal deaths can be averted with known, effective interventions but countries require information about which women are dying and why, and what can been done to prevent such deaths in future. This paper describes the introduction of two approaches to reviewing maternal deaths and severe obstetric complications in 12 countries in transition in the WHO European Region - national-level confidential enquiries into maternal deaths and facility-based near-miss case reviews. Initially, two regional meetings involving stakeholders from 12 countries were held in 2004-2005, followed by national meetings in seven of the countries. The Republic of Moldova was the first to pilot the review process, preceded by a technical workshop to make detailed plans, provide training in how to facilitate and carry out a review, finalise clinical guidelines against which the findings of the confidential enquiry and near-miss case review could be judged, and a range of other preparatory work. To date, near-miss case reviews have been carried out in the three main referral hospitals in Moldova, and a national committee appointed by the Ministry of Health to conduct the confidential enquiry has met twice. Several other countries have begun a similar process, but progress may remain slow due to continuing fears of punitive actions against health professionals who have a mother or baby die in their care. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.Laboratories and laboratory networks are a fundamental component of tuberculosis (TB) control, providing testing for diagnosis, surveillance and treatment monitoring at every level of the health-care system. New initiatives and resources to strengthen laboratory capacity and implement rapid and new diagnostic tests for TB will require recognition that laboratories are systems that require quality standards, appropriate human resources, and attention to safety in addition to supplies and equipment. To prepare the laboratory networks for new diagnostics and expanded capacity, we need to focus efforts on strengthening quality management systems (QMS) through additional resources for external quality assessment programmes for microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular diagnostics. QMS should also promote development of accreditation programmes to ensure adherence to standards to improve both the quality and credibility of the laboratory system within TB programmes. Corresponding attention must be given to addressing human resources at every level of the laboratory, with special consideration being given to new programmes for laboratory management and leadership skills. Strengthening laboratory networks will also involve setting up partnerships between TB programmes and those seeking to control other diseases in order to pool resources and to promote advocacy for quality standards, to develop strategies to integrate laboratories' functions and to extend control programme activities to the private sector. Improving the laboratory system will assure that increased resources, in the form of supplies, equipment and facilities, will be invested in networks that are capable of providing effective testing to meet the goals of the Global Plan to Stop TB. (author's)
Resourcing global health: a conference of the Global Network of WHO for Nursing and Midwifery Development, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2006.
Midwifery. 2006 Sep; 22(3):200-203.With the focus of the World Health Report 2006 Working for health together firmly on the issue of human resources in health, the subject is officially placed among those at the top of the international agenda. The debates at this conference, held June 7--9 and hosted by the WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nursing & Midwifery Education, Research & Practice, based in Glasgow Caledonian University's School of Nursing, Midwifery and Community Health, were therefore highly topical and drew significant speakers from both the host country Scotland and 20-plus other nations. The conference was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN). (excerpt)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy. Trip report: May 17-20, 2006.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 May 29. 33 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-499; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO-Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority of whom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which will allow RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. (excerpt)
Odessa workshop helps build capacity among Ukrainian clinicians who care for people living with HIV / AIDS.
Connections. 2004 Jan;  p..A recent Anti-retroviral Therapy Training Workshop held in Odessa, Ukraine, marked the start of an ongoing collaboration between AIHA and the Los Angeles-based AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF). It was the first training hosted under the aegis of the newly established World Health Organization Regional HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Knowledge Hub for which AIHA is the primary implementing partner. This Knowledge Hub was created in response to the burgeoning HIV/AIDS pandemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to serve as a crucial capacity-building mechanism for reaching WHO's "3 by 5" targets for the region. (excerpt)
Meeting on training in reproductive health for CCEE / NIS. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, 26-28 June 1995.
Copenhagen, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. , 15 p. (EUR/ICP/FMLY 94 03/MT04; EUR/HFA Target 16)Responding to the needs for training in reproductive health, European public health training programmes have been increasingly offering training to participants from countries of central and eastern Europe/newly independent states of the former Soviet Union (CCEE/NIS). The WHO Regional Office for Europe convened a meeting to identify ways to better coordinate and cooperate in efforts made by the various schools, institutions and organizations with courses in reproductive health. After an overview of the current situation in reproductive health in CCEE/NIS (including the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS) and a summary of the relevant research activities in the Region, participants presented their training programmes and discussed training objectives for the future. Two working groups were formed to address clinical/research and management/behavioural training needs, respectively. Finally, the participants drew conclusions and made recommendations on ways to better coordinate training activities and facilitate twinning arrangements between relevant organizations, calling for coordination by WHO and the establishment of a clearing-house based in the WHO Regional Office for Europe. Governments, donors and individuals were called upon to support and advocate reproductive health programmes and services. (author's)
Review and evaluation of national action taken to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: report of a technical meeting, The Hague, 30 September - 3 October 1991.
[Unpublished] 1991. 24 p. (WHO/MCH/NUT/91.2)The report of the national actions in marketing breast-milk substitutes includes a review and evaluation summarized in the accompanying annex and the results of a meeting. Participants found the evaluation helpful, that progress had been made, and that the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes must be viewed in a broad context. Lessons learned and recommendations are given for the development and implementation of national measures, as well as the training and education in the health sector, the information to the general public and mothers, monitoring and enforcement, and manufacturers and distributors of products within the scope of the Code. Successful implementation depends on a clear international perspective, on all concerned parties' involvement in development and monitoring, and a continuing commitment to a complex process. Difficulties encountered were lack of 1) political commitment, 2) integration of sectors, and 3) recognition that the Code applied to all counties; there were also questions about the scope of products included in the Code. There is no limit to age group. Partial adoption is not sufficient and has a negative impact. The Code was being ignored in countries moving toward a market economy. Health professionals were unaware of new developments in infant feeding practices. The Code assumes a compatible relationship between manufacturers and health personnel, which is not the case. Manufacturers used mass media and formal and informal educational sectors to disseminate information about their products with the approval of authorities who considered the use consistent with the Code. The expanding international telecommunications systems have proved to be a crippling challenge to some countries without the tools to know how to regulate programming. The feeding bottle is an inappropriate child care symbol for breast feeding, which is frequently found in public places. Monitoring has been uneven. Enforcement is hampered by an absence of, inadequacy in, and inability to apply sanctions. Joint health and industry provisions are weaker than the Code, and marketing strategies do not conform to the Code. Manufacturers apply the Code differently in developed and developing countries. Not enough attention has been paid to feeding or pacifier products. Retail stores sell infant formula next to other infant food products which is misleading.
[Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
The independence and integrity of health professionals. 54th Session of the Commission on Human Rights. Statement, Permanent Mission of Denmark.
[Unpublished] 1998.  p.This paper presents a statement on the 54th Session of the Commission on Human Rights concerning the independence and integrity of health professionals. Health professionals are exposed in relation to human rights violations. Besides, in number of cases they have been in danger solely because of their professional activities. Some health professionals particularly doctors have abused human rights. Thus, health professionals may become human rights defenders or become violators themselves. They should act in accordance with their professional and ethical principles. Consequently, the Commission on Human Rights appoints a special UN post of Rapporteur on the independence and integrity of health professionals.
In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988].  p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)In 1986 the European Regional World Health Organization (WHO) Office convened a meeting of health workers' organizations to develop a strategy for implementing breastfeeding promotion. The elements in this strategy are outlined along with the reasons why some countries have seen increases in breastfeeding and a discussion of the possible ways international organizations can help. The "International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes" constitutes the clearest mandate for an "action program" in the field of breastfeeding. It provides a framework for action and for the formulation of a breastfeeding promotion strategy. Further, the "Code" identifies the obligations of both governments and health workers. According to the Resolution recommending the "Code," one of the obligations of governments is to report regularly to WHO on the progress in 5 areas of infant nutrition: encouragement and support of breastfeeding; promotion and support of appropriate weaning practices; strengthening of education, training, and information; promotion of health and social status of women in relation to infant and young child feeding; and appropriate marketing and distribution of breast milk substitutes. The WHO member states in the European Region have taken their reporting obligation seriously; 71 reports from 29 of the 32 members states have been received. The picture that emerges is one of large diversity with regard to breastfeeding both among and within countries. The European Strategy outlines 7 priority areas for action: the basic attitude of health workers; maternity ward routines; the formation of breastfeeding mothers' support groups; ways to support employed mothers who want to breastfeed; research in breastfeeding; commercial pressure on health workers; and the need for advocacy of breastfeeding. The promotion of breastfeeding is the cumulative effect of activities from several different disciplines that becomes evident in the statistics as an increase in breastfeeding. Factors that contribute to an increase in breastfeeding, based on the Scandinavian experience, are outlined. In regard to establishing a breastfeeding policy, the various activities that can encourage and support breastfeeding fall into 3 categories: making breast milk available to the baby by influencing the material conditions of breastfeeding; increasing knowledge either about human milk or about lactation management as well as about changing attitudes and behavior; and assuring the quality of the milk itself. Ideally, an organization with an advisory and to some degree an executive, decision-making function coordinates these activities.
Targets for health for all. Targets in support of the European regional strategy for health for all.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office of Europe, 1985. x, 201 p.This book sets out the fundamental requirements for people to be healthy, to define the improvements in health that can be realized by the year 2000 for the peoples of the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), and to propose action to secure those improvements. Its purposes are as follows: propose improvements in the health of the people in order to achieve health for all by the year 2000; indicate where action is called for, the extent of the collective effort required, and the lines along which it should be directed; provide a tool for countries and the Region to Monitor progress toward the goal and revise their course of action if necessary. The targets proposed are intended to indicate the improvements that could be expected if all the will, knowledge, resources, and technology already available were pooled in the pursuit of a common goal. The target levels set are based on historical trends in the fields concerned, their expected future evolution, and the knowledge available on the probable effects of intervention. These levels are intended to inspire and motivate Member States when they are determining their own priorities, targets, and capabilities and thus the degree to which they can contribute to reaching the regional targets. The base year for all the targets in 1980. The year 2000 is the completion data retained for all targets related to health improvements. Targets related to lifestyles, the environment and care respectively have 1990 or 1995 as their date of completion unless specific problems justify the allocation of a later year. Targets embodying measures to bring about the changes in research and health development support should be reached before 1990. The aim is to give people a positive sense of health so that they can make full use of their physical, mental, and emotional capacities. A well informed, well motivated, and actively participating community is a key element to the attainment of the common goal. The focus of the health care system should be on primary health care -- meeting the basic health needs of each community through services provided as close as possible to where people live and work, readily accessible and acceptable to all, and based on full community participation. Health problems transcend national frontiers.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Europe Region, 1984 Jun. 122 p.Reflections, speculations, and partial evaluations of work already undertaken in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Europe Region concerning migrants and planned parenthood are presented. This project, initiated by the Federal Republic of Germany Planned Parenthood Association (PPA), PRO FAMILIA, stemmed from the practical experiences and problems of 1 family planning association in the Europe region. The original substantive framework, consisting of data collection and correspondence, plenary meetings, and subworking group meetings on specific areas of interest, was not altered. Throughout the project, as the work was accomplished, the emphasis shifted to different aspects to migrant work. The 1st questionnaire was intended to provide a sociodemographic profile of the participating countries, a show European migratory movements, and ascertain the ethnicity of the target groups in the different countries. The 2nd questionnaire was related specifically to PPA and/or other family planning center's data and activities and attempted to explore PPA attitudes toward migrant clients, when special facilities for migrants were provided, and whether PPAs felt there was a particular need for such services. The report provides a sociodemographic background of migration in Europe. In addition it includes information from donor countries and recipient countries, examining family planning services in the Federal Republic of Germany and the UK. It also covers training; information, education, and communication; adolescence and 2nd generation migrants; and migrant work. It is necessary to be particularly aware of political sensitivities in treating immigrant fertility regulation. Ideally, the aim is to provide an integrated service for migrants and natives both, catering to individual needs. Until this is feasible, the goal must be to work toward an integrated service, recognizing the needs and providing special services where possible if this is judged tobe the best approach to catering to those needs. Migrant needs must be discovered rather than assumed. Better use should be made of the available printed material, which should be utilized to complement oral information where possible. Experience has shown that family planning personnel working with migrants need additional training. The main components of this training should include self-awareness, insight, and knowledge.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 412 p.This report on the world health situation comes in 2 volumes, and this, the 2nd volume, reviews the health situation by country and area, with the additions and amendments submitted by the governments, and an addendum for later submissions. Information is presented for countries in the African Region, the Region of the Americas; the Southeast Asia Region, the European Region, the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and the Western Pacific Region. The information provided includes the following areas: the primary health problems, health policy; health legislation; health planning and programming; the organization of health services; biomedical and health services research; education and training of health manpower; health establishments; estimates of the main categories of health manpower; the production and sale of pharmaceuticals; health expenditures; appraisal of health services; demographic and health data; major public health problems; training establishments; actions taken; preventive medicine; and public health.
In: Connor E, Mullan F, ed. Community oriented primary care: new directions for health services delivery. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1983. 250-7.Education of doctors for community oriented primary care (COPC) in the Netherlands is described. A basic doctor has 6 years of training and is prepared for further specialty training in general practice (currently only 1 year), clinical specialty (4-6 years), and social medicine (4 years). After high school, a weighted lottery is performed. Out of 6000 interested graduates, 1950 are placed in medical faculties. Only straight A students have a double chance. In 1970, the Dutch government started a new medical faculty that was community oriented and emphasized primary health care. For this, the educational system of this facility had to be different. A problem-oriented system was adopted. In 1974, an integrated innovative curriculum was started. The basic philosophy emphasizes a preference for orienting medical education to primary care. By the 5th and 6th year, students must acquire: 1) practical experience in solving primary care problems; and 2) the ability to recognize unusual problems and develop appropriate referral. During the 1st 4 years the problem-solving process is encountered; the problems must be increasingly complex; and the teaching program progresses from the general to the specific. The teaching program should begin with health problems and proceed to consider normal and abnormal functioning. The original arrangement for hospital internships is not yet feasible. It seems that hospital organization is too rigid to combine with a less department-linked program. Evaluation is mandatory. A theoretical final M.D. exam was designed. The World Health Organization (WHO) held a meeting at which key figures from 18 selected schools were brought together. From this meeting, it was agreed that a network would be developed linking schools. The network members met again and formulated objectives.