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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Finnish Official Development Aid for sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Saavala M

    Finnish Yearbook of Population Research. 2010; 45:143-170.

    Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP), Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Väestoliitto) engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finland's total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009), mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.
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  2. 2

    The Cluster Approach in northern Uganda.

    Huber J; Birkeland NM

    Forced Migration Review. 2007 Dec; (29):72.

    The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to support the work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Supporting gender justice in Afghanistan: opportunities and challenges.

    Mantovani A

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.

    For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    European Union. Managing migration means potential EU complicity in neighboring states' abuse of migrants and refugees.

    Human Rights Watch

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2006 Oct. 22 p. (Human Rights Watch No. 2)

    Irregular migration into the European Union (EU) poses clear challenges for European governments. Few would question the urgent need for policies to address these challenges. However, the common EU policy in this area is primarily focussed on keeping migrants and asylum seekers out of and away from Europe. The rights of migrants and refugee protection are marginalized. This briefing paper summarizes recent trends in the EU's approach. Through case studies of conditions in, and EU policies toward, Ukraine and Libya, it critiques current EU "externalization" practices. After noting some hopeful signs toward enhanced protection for asylum seekers and migrants, it concludes with recommendations to the EU and its member states. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Report of the High-level consultation on improvement of sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in Europe. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-12 December 2006.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 2007. 27 p. (EUR/07/5063690)

    Representatives nominated by the Ministries of Health from 23 Member States of the WHO European Region, the European Commission, the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF-EN) and Lund University attended a two day high-level consultation meeting to evaluate the midterm results of the project "The way forward: a European partnership to promote the sexual and reproductive health and rights of youth" (2004-2007). The situation on the trends in sexual and reproductive health status of young people in the European Union countries was analysed and tools developed by the WHO, IPPF EN and Lund University were presented. Country representatives discussed the draft policy framework on sexual and reproductive health and rights that will be presented in the final meeting of the project in October 2007 and many recommendations were received to prepare the document that would be an important tool for developing national policies and programs in the area of sexual and reproductive health of young people. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    A report on syphilis control in Turkey.

    Christiansen S

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1954; 10:627-690.

    This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-diseases-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. (author's)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Ukraine fights to re-instate loan for HIV/AIDS project.

    Ahmad K

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2006 Jun; 6(6):328.

    Ukraine plans to restructure a key HIV/ AIDS and tuberculosis control project to help ensure disbursement of a US$60 million loan recently suspended by the World Bank. Alla Shcherbinska (Ukrainian Centre to Combat HIV/AIDS) told journalists that it will take the government only a few weeks to "reconstruct" the project. However, Shiyan Chao, a senior health economist at the World Bank cautioned that: "resumption of the funds will hinge on the government's concrete actions to improve earlier shortcomings related to policy issues on tuberculosis control, procurement, fiduciary controls, and other important aspects of project management". The World Bank suspended the loan, complaining of poor implementation by the Ukrainian ministry of health. "At the time of suspension, which came after the first 3 years of implementation, only 2% of funds available for this project had been disbursed by the Ukrainian ministry of health", Merrell Tuck, a spokesperson of the Bank said. The Bank says "there is also concern about the government's full commitment to both condom use and harm reduction for injecting drug users [IDUs]". (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Mainstreaming women in development: four agency approaches.

    Jahan R

    In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 311-329.

    The world has witnessed a remarkable surge in the women's movement that has put forward over the last two decades a bold vision of social transformation and challenged the global community to respond. This article reviews the response of one set of key players: the international donor agencies dealing with women's development issues. It focuses on the actions of four donors, two bilateral (Norway and Canada) and two multilateral (the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program) and attempts to assess their performance in the last twenty years in broad strokes. It asks three basic sets of questions. First, what were the articulated objectives of their special policies and measures to promote women's advancement? Were they responsive to the aspiration of the women's movement? Second, did the donors adopt any identifiable set of strategies to realize the policy objectives? Were they effective? And finally, what were the results? Was there any quantitative and qualitative evidence to suggest progress? The two bilateral donors--Canada and Norway--were selected because they have a reputation among donors of mounting major initiatives for women. They number among the few agencies who adopted detailed women-in-development (WID) or gender-and-development (GAD) policies. In contrast, the two multilateral donors--United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank---were chosen not on the strength of their WlD/GAD mandates and policies, but because of the influence they wield in shaping the development strategies of the countries of the South. The World Bank through its conditionalities often dictates policy reforms to aid-recipient governments. The UNDP, as the largest fund, has a big presence within the United Nations system. The actions of these two agencies-- what they advocate and what they omit or marginalize--have a strong impact on the policy analysis and investments of the aid-recipient countries. The study is primarily based on published and unpublished data collected from the four donor agencies. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    Milstien J; Belgharbi L

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Feb; 82(2):128-133.

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. (author's)
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  10. 10

    London Declaration on AIDS Prevention, 28 January 1988.

    World Summit of Ministers of Health

    [Unpublished] 1988 Jan. 3 p.

    The London Declaration On AIDS Prevention, of the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention, contains 15 declarations. 1) Since AIDS is a global problem urgent action by all governments is needed to implement WHO's Global AIDS Strategy. 2) We shall do all we can to ensure that our governments undertake such urgent action. 3) All governments are recommended to form a high level committee coordinating all sectors involved in control of HIV infections. 4) Information and education is the single most important component of national AIDS programs at the present time. 5 Programs must be aimed at the general public and at specific groups, always respecting cultural values and human and spiritual values. 6) AIDS prevention programs must protect human rights and human dignity, avoiding discrimination or stigmatization. 7) The media are urged to fulfill their important social responsibility to provide factual and balanced information to the general public. 8) All sectors must cooperate to allow a supportive social environment for the effective implementation of AIDS prevention programs, and the humane care of affected people. 9) The importance of governments providing the human and financial resources necessary is essential to national health. 10) An appeal is made to all United Nations organizations, multilateral organizations and voluntary organizations to cooperate in the struggle against AIDS. 11) We appeal to those bodies to assist developing nations to set up their own programs in light of their particular needs. 12) Those involved with drug abuse must intensify their efforts, and thus impede the spread of infection. 13) WHO is called on to take several specific actions to coordinate and lead the international effort against AIDS. 14) 1988 shall be a Year of Communication and Cooperation about AIDS. 15 we are convinced that through these efforts we can and will slow the spread of HIV infection. (author's modified)
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  11. 11

    Population growth problem in developing countries: coordinated assistance essential: report to the Congress.

    U.S. Comptroller General

    Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, 1978 Dec 20. 101 p.

    Because rapid population growth in developing countries impedes efforts to improve the quality of life, the General Accounting Office (GAO) recommends that AID work with other national and international agencies, private and voluntary organizations, to improve the coordination of population assistance to developing countries. The magnitude of the population problem, and the increasing number of developing countries establishing population programs and seeking assistance combine to make effective coordination essential, to ensure that funds are applied to the highest priorities, that country programs are as efficient as possible, and that opportunities to reduce costs are identified and taken. The report is divided into 7 sections: 1) importance of coordination: views of major donors providing population assistance (AID, UNFPA, World Bank); 2) nongovernmental organizations providing population assistance and their views on coordination: Asia Foundation; Association for Voluntary Sterilization; Family Planning International Assistance; Ford Foundation; IPPF; Pathfinder Fund; Population Council; Population Services International; World Education; World Neighbors; 3) systems, arrangements, and other coordination efforts of the World Bank, UNFPA, and AID; 4) salient features or coordination systems observed in countries visited by GAO: long-range strategy; leadership; division of program responsibility (Bangladesh; Thailand; Nigeria; Tanzania; Costa Rica; Jamaica); 5) interaction among participants in countries visited; 6) division of program responsibility and specialization by organizations involved in providing population assistance; and 7) conclusions and recommendations. Appendices include: 1) comments on the draft report by AID and the Dept. of State; 2) AID population program assistance by major organizations 1965-1979; 3) assistance for population activities by major donors 1971-1976; and 4) socioeconomic data on the countries visited.
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  12. 12

    The impact of refugee flows on countries of asylum and the challenge of refugee assistance. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

    Simmance A

    In: Population distribution and migration. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 18-22 January 1993. Convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. 392-6. (ST/ESA/SER.R/133)

    With the dissolution of colonial empires and the outbreak of local and regional conflicts in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the entire focus of the refugee problem changed. In areas where refugees have settled spontaneously in sufficient numbers to justify intervention by the international community, assistance has been provided by reinforcing the local infrastructure, especially by building schools, dispensaries, or access roads. The feasibility of rural settlement programs depends entirely on the willingness of the country of asylum to make land available and, of course, to accept the prolonged and sometimes the permanent presence of refugee communities in its midst. In return, the receiving country receives assistance in opening up for agricultural activities large tracts of land that might otherwise have remained fallow. However, not every country of asylum offers, or is in a position to offer, rural settlement opportunities to refugees. In such circumstances, refugees have no choice but to live in camps or villages. Their large numbers can seriously disrupt the local administrative infrastructure, communications, and market economy, without producing any significant benefits. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) carries on all types of activities in an effort to alleviate the adverse impact of the presence of large numbers of refugees in poor countries of asylum.
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  13. 13

    In the wake of the bombings -- Kosovo's legacy for women.


    This article reports the effects of the Kosovo crisis on the lives of Albanian women. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Children's Fund stated cases of sexual harassment, torture, rape, trafficking, forced prostitution, discrimination, and exploitation of women and children refugees. One of the cases of rape was reported by the Los Angeles Times regarding a 13-year-old girl, Pranvera Lokaj, along with 20 other girls who experienced gang rape by Serb soldiers for several nights. When Lokaj returned home and narrated her story hoping for comfort, her father sent her to the Kosovo Liberation Army to escape shame from her family. The reason for this is that in an Albanian community, rape is a sensitive issue, which traumatized the rape victims leading them to lie about the crime than to be shunned by their families. Furthermore, Albanian women have also assumed a new role that being single mothers since their husbands are forcibly separated from them and killed.
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  14. 14

    First International Congress on Population Education and Development.

    In: First International Congress on Population Education and Development, Istanbul, Turkey, 14-17 April, 1993. Action Framework for Population Education on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century. Istanbul declaration, [compiled by] United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] [and] UNESCO. [New York, New York], UNFPA, 1993. 3-4.

    Resolution 5.3, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at its 26th session in 1991, authorized the Director-General to organize, jointly with the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), the first International Congress on Population Education and Development (ICPED). Congress aims were to review trends in population education worldwide over the past 2 decades, to adopt a declaration upon the role of population education in human development, and to devise an action framework in the field. The congress was also held to strengthen the integration of population education into formal and non-formal education systems. At the invitation of the Turkish government, the congress was held in Istanbul during April 14-17, 1993, during which 93 countries were represented and 245 participants attended, including 20 ministers of education and 5 deputy ministers. The 27th session of the General Conference of UNESCO in Paris during October-November 1993 welcomed the conclusions of the first ICPED and endorsed its declaration. Member states, nongovernmental organizations, and governmental agencies are encouraged to implement the principles and activities suggested in the declaration and action framework.
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  15. 15

    Statement submitted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

    United Nations. High Commissioner for Refugees

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 373-7.

    This statement from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees emphasizes the mandate from the UN General Assembly to provide international protection to refugees and to seek solutions to refugee problems. A major political issue within the European region is international migration. Ethnic tension in Eastern Europe and dislocation in the former Yugoslavia have added more refugees and asylum seekers to the those already pressuring from the developing world. European asylum seekers average about 600,000 annually. Worldwide there are about 2.5 million refugees and 20 million persons displaced in their own countries. Europe's refugees are small in number compared to world totals, but the investment of European governments to refugee and asylum maintenance exceeded the High Commissioner's Budget. Deteriorating economic conditions within Europe led to administrative measures to reduce refugee flows and to reassure populations that there is no threat to the security and stability of European society. There is a need for Europe to assume regional responsibility for refugee problems and to affirm its solidarity with the world refugee problem. The High Commissioner views a European refugee strategy as including five basic elements: 1) protecting those in need against human rights abuses and generalized violence; 2) separating refugee flows due to persecution and violence from migrants fleeing poverty; 3) increasing economic assistance to refugee programs in developing countries and to returnee programs; 4) preventing refugee flows, particularly those due to ethnic cleansing or mass expulsion as a solution to minority problems; and 5) providing public information. Governments must be held accountable for abuses. A framework is needed for linking refugee laws with humanitarian and human rights laws in order to strengthen the rights of displaced persons within their own countries as well as the rights of refugees crossing borders. Poverty creates migration pressure and leads to unrest and social upheavals, which then increase migration. Public information is necessary in sending and receiving countries. A multilateral approach or a unified approach is needed for a global problem. Fragmented and isolated solutions are insufficient. The European community is encouraged to maintain dialogue with the Office of the High Commissioner.
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV infection and breast-feeding: policy implications through a decision analysis model.

    Hu DJ; Heyward WL; Byers RH Jr; Nkowane BM; Oxtoby MJ; Holck SE; Heymann DL

    AIDS. 1992 Dec; 6(12):1505-13.

    HIV/AIDS specialists have developed and applied 3 different scenarios to a comprehensive decision analysis model to estimate mortality rates for children of mothers infected with HIV during pregnancy and for children of mothers who were not infected with HIV during delivery. Scenario I represents Central Africa where HIV prevalence and incidence are high. Some scenario I assumptions are HIV prevalence in pregnant women of 30% and proportion of initially uninfected women who become infected after delivery during lactation (d) of 6%. Scenario II is a population where HIV epidemic is rather recent (e.g., some parts of Asia). Its assumptions are HIV prevalence of 5%, and s is 2%. Scenario III symbolizes high-risk populations in North America and Western Europe (HIV prevalence and s = 1%). The scenarios also consider child mortality rates and relative risks (RRs) of mortality of breast fed children and those who were not breast fed. Universal breast feeding would effect equal or higher mortality than non-breast feeding, when the RR of mortality is no more than 1.5 and HIV prevalence/incidence is high (high prevalence = > 10% and high incidence = > 5%). In developing countries, where the RR of mortality is high if children are not breast fed (RR > 3), breast fed children have almost always lower child mortality than those who are not breast fed, regardless of HIV infection status. The decision to breast feed when the HIV status is known depends greatly on the degree of an additional mortality risk if an infant is not breast fed. The model substantiates WHO and CDC recommendations: HIV-positive women in the UK and the US should not breast feed, while those in developing countries with high RR of child mortality should breast feed. Additional research would define the range of HIV transmission rates from breast feeding and increase specific assessments of RRs for various parts of the world.
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  17. 17

    Inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world, 1988/1989: multilateral organization assistance, regional organization assistance, bilateral agency assistance, non-governmental organization and other assistance.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1990]. [12], 932 p.

    The UNFPA periodically releases a publication listing population projects supported and/or operated by various organizations. This publication also has basic demographic data and each country's population policy. The 16th edition covers the period from January 1, 1988 to June 30, 1989. The first section reviews all the countries' programs and makes up the bulk of the publication. Each division in this section begins with demographic data, followed by the government's views about population growth, specifically as it affects mortality and morbidity; fertility, nuptiality, and family; spatial distribution and urbanization; international migration. Each division next examines the population projects and external assistance. The second section examines regional, interregional, and global programs. The regional programs are divided into Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and Western Asia, and Europe. The next section lists published information sources including those used to compile the country, regional, interregional, and global reports. Other sources include periodic publications from various agencies and organizations which provide current information about population, addresses to obtain additional information, and a listing of UNFPA representatives (names, addresses, and telephone numbers) in the field. The Inventory concludes with a detailed index.
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  18. 18

    Oral contraceptives and gynecologic cancer: an update for the 1990s.

    Kaunitz AM


    The largest case control study on the association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and cancer is the US Cancer and Steroid Hormone (CASH) study. Since it did not use hospital-based patients as controls, it eliminated some biases. Since OCs suppress ovulation and suppressed ovulation is linked with reduced risk of ovarian cancer, scientists believe OCs may reduce this cancer risk. The CASH study shows that OC use indeed decreases the risk of ovarian cancer 40% (relative risk [RR]=.6 and this protection lasts for more than 10 years after OC discontinuation. Protection increases with duration of OC use (<1 year RR=.6 and >10 years RR=.2). Estrogenic stimulation of the endometrium without ample progestational protection causes endometrial cancer. Thus combined OCs which have estrogen and progestin components should reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The CASH study reveals OC use for at least 12 months reduces this risk 50%. OCs have a protective effect for at least 15 years after stopping OC use. In addition, UK national mortality data show OC use caused the decline in ovarian cancer mortality and a 40% decrease in endometrial cancer mortality over the last 20 years. A WHO 7-county case control study indicates that OC users in developing countries have the same protective effect against ovarian and endometrial cancer as those in developed countries. Studies of OC use and cervical cancer have had conflicting results due to 3 biases: cervical cancer is associated with sexual behavior and is therefore a sexually transmitted disease; detection bias. A study in Costa Rica conducted by CDC study has addressed the 1st and 3rd biases. It found no increased risk of invasive cervical cancer or carcinoma in situ with OC use. Studies of OC use and breast cancer have also had conflicting results, but the data clearly indicate that OC use does not increase the overall risk of breast cancer. In fact, OC benefits surpass breast cancer risks.
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  19. 19

    Global population assistance report, 1982-1988. September 1, 1989. Final report.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1989 Sep 1. vi, 82 p.

    International population assistance became a distinct form of aid in the 1950's . Since then assistance grew until 1972 when it reached US $400 million. In 1985 it reached its highest peak of US $512.5 million and has since declined to below US $500 million. Population assistance accounts for 1.3% of Official Development Assistance (ODA), a substantial decline from the near 2% levels attained in the 70's. This report provides information on the levels, trends and nature of population assistance from 1982-88. It is divided into 2 sections: donors and recipients. 17 donor countries provide all population assistance (PA); among these only 10 provide 95% of all funds. The US is the largest donor providing US$200 million annually (accounting for 50%) followed by Japan who contributes US$50 million (constituting 10% of the total). The 8 other countries include Canada, Denmark, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. 3 major categories are used for PA: 1) bilateral aid from individual country donors; 2) aid to UN organizations and 3) aid to non-governmental organizations. The recipients are grouped by regions: sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America (including the Caribbean) and the Middle East-North Africa. Asia has received 1/2 of all PA through bilateral channels; Latin America's PA increased up to 1985 through NGO and bilateral channels, but declined thereafter; Africa's PA began through UN channels in 1982 but by 1986 bilateral and NGO channels increased. Most of the differences in PA are due to the political and administrative conditions of population policy formulation in the developing countries, and reflect the politics and diplomacy of international assistance in general. (author's modified)
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  20. 20

    Reproduction and family planning in Ethiopian society: a survey of existing knowledge and possible application in MCH/FP services.

    Negussie B

    [Unpublished] 1986. 23 p.

    The mission makes an exploratory study of existing knowledge of reproduction and reproductive control in the social context of Ethiopian society. The bibliography to be generated by the mission will contain much material about reproductive questions and attitudes toward child spacing. This material continuously shows that children have a high value, and that they are considered as the most important natural resource that the country has. The bibliography will also cover family planning in Ethiopia. The report then identifies the different government bodies dealing with population or family planning, including sections of the Office of the National Committee for Central Planning, the Ministry of Education, the educational mass media, the University of Addis Ababa, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, and several non-governmental organizations. These units, their current activities, and their future roles in population activities are discussed. In addition to all activities which are mentioned, there is a need to intensify the collaboration between different sectors which deal with health as a subject and with health education. One of the main goals of the mission was to recommend actions to be taken by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) in support of the Ethiopian government and non-government institutions in order to improve the conditions for their work in maternal and child health and family planning services.
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  21. 21

    Returning migrant workers: exploratory studies.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1986. v, 148 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 79.)

    The research reports and statements by government representives contained in this volume were presented at the Policy Workshop on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific held at Bangkok from 15-21 October 1985. The workshop was the final activity of a 2-year Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) project on international migration policy in Asia and the Pacific, funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities. The 2nd phase of the project includes the studies reported in this volume, which were intended to be exploratory. They were meant to assess the current state of knowledge regarding return migration and to identify critical issues that would require further investigation. 5 of the studies are concerned with return migration from temporary employment, primarily in the Middle East. Because many of the labor-sending countries of the Mediterranean basin experienced a rapid expansion of labor emigration (largely to northern and western Europe) and a contraction of the flow and increase in return migration prior to current trends in Asian labor migration, it was felt that a background paper on that experience would be value to policy makers in the ESCAP region. Migration from the Pacific sub-region of ESCAP is both of more variable duration and less heavily labor-oriented than temporary migration from Asian countries to the Middle East. The workshop's objectives were 1) to bring together researchers and policy makers to review carefully the results of the 7 studies carried out as part of the project, 2) to relate the research findings to feasible government policies for the reintegration of returning labor migrants, and 3) to make and disseminate policy recommendations to governments in the ESCAP region.
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  22. 22

    Family planning program funds: sources, levels, and trends.

    Nortman DL

    New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)

    This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
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  23. 23

    Breastfeeding: growth of exclusively breastfed infants.

    Huffman SL

    Mothers and Children. 1985 Nov-Dec; 5(1):5, 7.

    Currently standards from industrialized countries are used to assess the growth patterns of breastfed infants in developing countries. Infant growth faltering is interpreted as an indicator of insufficient lactational capacity on the mother's part. 2 recent articles suggest the need for a critical reappraisal of current growth standards and their use for evaluating the adequacy of infant feeding practices. The most commonly used standards to evaluate infant growth are derived from the US National Center for Health Statistics based on anthropometric data collected in the US population 3-month intervals up to the age of 3. During this period, infant feeding practices varied greatly. Many babies were bottle-fed and given supplemental feedings early in life. No large sample of exclusively breastfed infants has been studied from birth on, and thus a standard for breastfed infants is not available. A study of fully breastfed infants was done in England and suggests that there are differences in growth rates. Among a population of 48 exclusively breastfed boys and girls, for the 1st 3 to 4 months of life, growth of breastfed infants was greater than National Center for Health Statistics Standards, while after 4 months growth velocity decelerated more quickly than the standard. The growth of infants studied in Kenya, New Guinea and the Gambia appears to falter at 2-3 months of age using the NCHS standard. Findings suggest that current FAO/WHO recommended energy intakes may be excessive. Recent studies in the US support this assertion. The adequacy of the milk production for the infants in this US study done in Texas was illustrated by their growth rates. Length for age percentiles were higher than the NCHS standards throughout the study though at birth they did not differ significantly. 1 reason these breastfed infants were able to maintain growth despite less than recommended energy intakes is that the ratio of weight gain/100 calories of milk consumed was 10-30% higher among the breastfed infants compared to formula fed infants, suggesting a more efficient use of breastmilk than formula. There is a need for studies of exclusively breastfed infants with larger samples to determine what growth pattern should be considered the norm.
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  24. 24

    Proceedings of the International Collaborative Effort on Perinatal and Infant Mortality, Vol. 1. Papers presented at the International Symposium on Perinatal and Infant Mortality, 1984; Bethesda, Maryland; sponsored by National Center for Health Statistics

    United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]

    Hyattsville, Md, United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS], 1985. xv, [369] p.

    These are the proceedings of an international symposium held in August 1984 in Bethesda, Maryland. The objective of the symposium was to improve coordination between the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] and other institutions in developed countries working in the area of perinatal and infant mortality. Emphasis was placed on how to develop programs and activities designed to improve infant health and to remove the disparities that exist among racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups in the United States. A series of papers is included on recent trends in perinatal and infant mortality in the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United States, Israel, Norway, and Sweden, together with a comparative overview. A second group of papers describes health care systems in the countries concerned. A third section deals with current research into perinatal and infant mortality in these countries. The proceedings conclude with working group and discussant reports.
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  25. 25

    The decision makers. [editorial]

    Senanayake P

    British Journal of Family Planning. 1984 Jul; 10(37):37.

    This editorial takes a broad, international look at the worldwide implications of decisions taken in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the US with regard to family planning. National authorities, like the U.K. Committee for Safety of Medicines (CSM) of the US Food and Drug Administration, address issues concerning the safety of pharmaceutical products in terms of risk/benefit ratios applicable in their countries. International repercussions of US and U.K. decision making must be considered, especially in the area of pharmaceutical products, where they have an important world leadership role. Much of the adverse publicity of the use of Depo-Provera has focused on the fact that it was not approved for longterm use in the U.K. and the US. It is not equally known that the CSM, IPPF and WHO recommeded approval, but were overruled by the licensing agencies. The controversy caused by the Lancet articles of Professors with family planning doctors. At present several family planning issues in the U.K., such as contraception for minors, have implications for other countries. A campaign is being undertaken to enforce 'Squeal' laws in the U.K. and the US requiring parental consent for their teenagers under 16 to use contraceptives. In some developing countries, urbanization heightens the problem of adolescent sexuality. Carefully designed adolescent programs, stressing the need for adequate counseling, are needed. Many issues of international interest go unnoticed in the U.K. International agencies, like the WHO and UNiCEF, have embarked on a global program to promote lactation both for its benficial effects on an infant's growth and development and for birth spacing effects. It may be of benefit to family planning professionals in the U.K. to pay attention to international activity in such issues.
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