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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Gonorrhoea surveillance, laboratory diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 11 countries of the eastern part of the WHO European region.

    Unemo M; Shipitsyna E; Domeika M

    APMIS Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Et Immunologica Scandinavica. 2011 Sep; 119(9):643-649.

    Quality-assured worldwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is crucial for public health purposes. In the countries of the eastern part of the WHO European region the knowledge regarding gonococcal AMR is limited, and antimicrobials of many different types, sources and quality are used for gonorrhoea treatment. This study surveyed gonorrhoea incidence, laboratory diagnosis and gonococcal AMR testing in 11 independent countries of the former Soviet Union. The national gonorrhoea incidences remain mainly high. In general, gonococcal culture and AMR testing were rarely performed, poorly standardized and rarely quality assured. To establish a gonococcal AMR surveillance programme in Eastern Europe, i.e. the geographical area of the former Soviet Union, several actions have recently been undertaken by the Eastern European Sexual and Reproductive Health (EE SRH) Network and the WHO. The information provided herein will be useful in this respect.
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  2. 2

    Epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe. Report of a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 13-15 May 1996.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. [3], 14 p. (EUR/ICP/CMDS 08 01 01)

    In response to the alarming rise in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the newly independent states, the WHO Regional Office for Europe, WHO headquarters and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS organized a meeting of experts from the most affected countries to exchange information and to identify priority actions for the control of the epidemic. The participants included 15 experts from Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The participants called for urgent action, including a careful assessment of the existing systems for STD control, reallocation of resources among the various activity areas and strong advocacy to generate awareness at the top level of government and strengthen its support for the recommended initiatives. They also urged that national coordination of programmes to promote sexual health and prevent STDs and HIV be strengthened, that statutory services be made more accessible and acceptable to patients and that efforts be made to ensure that all health workers managing patients with STDs, including those in the private sector, provide high-quality care. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Global surveillance network for gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility.


    5-10% of the drugs budget of some developing countries is allocated for drugs which treat people with gonorrhea. Uncontrolled gonorrhea can result in pelvic inflammatory disease which in turn can cause infertility and pregnancy and neonatal infection which in turn can cause blindness. Besides gonococcus does develop resistance to antibiotics. Further resistance consists of both plasmid and chromosomal mediated resistance. Even though there is limited specific data on gonococcal resistance, many countries have high rates of gonococcal infections despite the availability of inexpensive antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. Some gonococcal strains are even resistant to thiamphenicol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethroprim. The remaining antibiotics that gonococcus has not yet developed resistance to (ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and spectinomycin) are costly. Yet their use may be the most cost effective method if the other antibiotics are not working. Health administrators need information on gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility. Besides resistant gonococcal strains can disperse rapidly with the ease and extent of international travel. So the WHO Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Programme is organizing a global surveillance network to monitor gonococcal susceptibility to antibiotics now in clinical use and to integrate this with the probable clinic efficacy of these drugs. The 3 interregional coordinating centers include the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research in Gonocci in Copenhagen, Denmark, Eastern Sydney Area Health Service in Randwick, Australia, and National Laboratory for STDs in Ottawa, Canada. These centers recruit participants from their regions and organize quality control and technical support. They encourage laboratories in developing countries to participate.
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