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  1. 1
    353556
    Peer Reviewed

    Examining Turkey and member states of European union in terms of health perspectives of millennium development goals.

    Lorcu F; Bolat BA; Atakisi A

    Quality and Quantity. 2012 Apr; 46(3):959-978.

    Development is related not only to production and increase in per capita income but also to social, cultural and political improvements. The purpose of development is that individuals would live long, healthy and happy lives thanks to economic development of society. From this perspective, it is obvious that the human factor is fundamental to the concept of development. This study examines the most important element in human development-health. As health indicators, it uses the health perspectives in the United Nations millennium development goals that are "reduce child mortality", "improve maternal health" and "combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases". In the study, European Union (EU) member states and candidate country Turkey are compared in terms of health related goals among millennium development goals by using Multidimensional scaling and Cluster analysis. Initially, countries with similar and dissimilar health indicators are mapped in multidimensional space by multidimensional scaling analysis. Further, the same method is used to reveal similar and dissimilar health indicators among countries. Then, the findings are compared using Cluster analysis and are identified to be similar.
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  2. 2
    332923

    The MDGs in Europe and Central Asia: achievements, challenges and the way forward.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; International Labour Organization [ILO]; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; World Food Programme; UNESCO; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]; World Health Organization [WHO]; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; United Nations Industrial Development Organization [UNIDO]; United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD]; International Trade Centre

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2010. [127] p. (ECE/INF/2010/2)

    This report, prepared jointly by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Regional Offices for Europe and Central Asia of the United Nations Funds, Programmes and Specialized Agencies, takes stock of progress made in reaching the MDG goals and offers decision-makers policy-oriented, operationally feasible suggestions for bolstering progress towards fully achieving these goals by 2015. It also identifies and contextualizes the greatest challenges facing human development, taking into account the specific characteristics of the UNECE region. The overall message of this report is twofold. On the one hand, most of the region’s economies have made remarkable progress towards the MDGs over the period 1995-2008, with two caveats: first, success has been greater when it is measured on the basis of global rather than national MDG definitions; second, large disparities exist among countries and subregions within the pan-European region, as well as among population groups and geographic areas within countries. On the other hand, given the huge setbacks associated with the transition recession crisis in the early 1990s and the more recent economic effects of the global financial crisis, a significant number of countries will find it difficult to fully achieve the MDGs by 2015. In order to meet the targets, these countries will have to overcome a number of specific development challenges.[Excerpts]
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  3. 3
    322445

    Millennium Development Goals and streamlining the UN development architectures.

    Fues T

    International Studies. 2007; 44(1):23-37.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) exemplify the enduring commitment and potential of the United Nations to serve as a catalyst for collective action in the cause of equitable and all round development of all nations and peoples. Indeed, the restructuring of the development apparatus as an important element of the larger challenge of the UN reform has acquired greater urgency in view of the manifest need to push for timely implementation of MDGs. Strengthening the role of the Economic and Social Council is a tricky issue that apparently puts the industrially advanced countries and the developing countries in opposite camps. Among the issues on which both the European developed and the Asian developing countries have showed interest, the idea of air ticket levy for raising resources for development is worthy of being pursued vigorously as part of the UN reform negotiations. Likewise, there is more than sufficient potential for old European Union countries like Germany and fast developing countries like China to bridge gaps in their policy objectives and work as partners in strengthening the multilateral mechanism dedicated to development purposes. (author's)
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  4. 4
    320692

    Towards achieving the MDGs in Sudan: Centrality of women's leadership and gender equality.

    Danbolt IL; Gumbonzvanda N; Karame K

    [Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.

    Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    191973

    Ensuring women's access to safe abortion care in Europe.

    Ipas

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Ipas, 2003. [2] p.

    This document compiles facts and recommendations for action to prevent maternal mortality from unsafe abortion, ensure legal abortion is safe and accessible to all women, put legal abortion and postabortion care within reach of all women throughout health systems, and review laws and policies that place women’s lives in danger or contain punitive measures against women who have undergone illegal abortion. These essential steps to protect women’s health and guarantee their human rights — endorsed by the world community over the past decade — require concerted action from health systems, professional associations, parliamentarians, women’s organizations and all relevant stakeholders. Implementing safe, legal abortion services, removing barriers to existing services, and informing the public about where they can obtain abortion care are key measures to ensure safety and access to abortion in order to safeguard women’s health. The material included here is drawn from the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women, the corresponding 5-year reports on progress, and the UN Millennium Goals. The most recent estimates of public health impact of abortion in the region are also included. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    186765

    Mainstreaming women in development: four agency approaches.

    Jahan R

    In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 311-329.

    The world has witnessed a remarkable surge in the women's movement that has put forward over the last two decades a bold vision of social transformation and challenged the global community to respond. This article reviews the response of one set of key players: the international donor agencies dealing with women's development issues. It focuses on the actions of four donors, two bilateral (Norway and Canada) and two multilateral (the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program) and attempts to assess their performance in the last twenty years in broad strokes. It asks three basic sets of questions. First, what were the articulated objectives of their special policies and measures to promote women's advancement? Were they responsive to the aspiration of the women's movement? Second, did the donors adopt any identifiable set of strategies to realize the policy objectives? Were they effective? And finally, what were the results? Was there any quantitative and qualitative evidence to suggest progress? The two bilateral donors--Canada and Norway--were selected because they have a reputation among donors of mounting major initiatives for women. They number among the few agencies who adopted detailed women-in-development (WID) or gender-and-development (GAD) policies. In contrast, the two multilateral donors--United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank---were chosen not on the strength of their WlD/GAD mandates and policies, but because of the influence they wield in shaping the development strategies of the countries of the South. The World Bank through its conditionalities often dictates policy reforms to aid-recipient governments. The UNDP, as the largest fund, has a big presence within the United Nations system. The actions of these two agencies-- what they advocate and what they omit or marginalize--have a strong impact on the policy analysis and investments of the aid-recipient countries. The study is primarily based on published and unpublished data collected from the four donor agencies. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    187603

    Foreign aid, democratisation and civil society in Africa: a study of South Africa, Ghana and Uganda.

    Hearn J

    Brighton, England, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS], [1999]. 28 p. (Discussion Paper No. 368)

    The 1990s have seen increased interest on the part of Western governments in funding civil society in Africa in an attempt to promote the continent's democratisation process. This discussion paper examines how a range of foreign donors has developed civil society initiatives in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. All three countries form part of the new generation of African states that are seen as turning their back on decades of authoritarian rule, instead embracing open government and open economies in productive 'partnerships' with the West. After defining what donors mean by 'civil society', this discussion paper is divided into two main sections. The first section identifies who the major foreign donors to civil society are in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. It examines the relative importance and differences in approach of the United States, Germany, the World Bank and the Like-minded Group of donors (the Nordic countries, the Netherlands and Canada). The second major section discusses the broad objectives of donors in African countries. The study found that civil society organisations committed to the promotion of liberal democracy and economic liberalism are the most popular with donors. The paper concludes that although assistance to civil society is relatively small, and is directed at a very particular section of civil society, in each of these societies it funds some of the key actors involved in influencing economic policy and defining the content of democracy. (author's)
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  8. 8
    173633

    [From Istanbul to Jakarta] D'Istanbul a Djakarta.

    Equilibres et Populations. 2002 Jun-Jul; (78):[1] p..

    Created 2 years ago to help UNFPA realize the Cairo objectives, the Interim Working Group (IWG) has since expanded its mobilization efforts. For example, in May 2001, the group organized a conference in Istanbul attended by more than 125 officials from the UN, developing countries, NGOs, public and private donors, and technical agencies. Work undertaken at the conference led to both a declaration of intent and concrete commitments. Participants also sparked national-level initiatives, with the article citing the example of Indonesia, where in the context of economic crisis, the country can no longer satisfy the poor population's contraceptive supply demand.
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  9. 9
    067009

    Report: Albania.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Division for Arab States and Europe

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. [6], 33 p.

    A United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) mission to Albania in 1989 attempted to identify the country's priority population issues and goals. Albania, a socialist country, has made many accomplishments, including an administrative structure that extends down to the village level, no foreign debt, universal literacy, a low death rate (5.4/1000), and involvement of women in development. At the same time, the country has the highest birth rate in Europe (25.5/1000), a high incidence of illegal abortion, lack of access to modern methods of contraception, and inadequate technology in areas such as medical equipment and data collection. Albania's population policy is aimed at maintaining the birth rate at its current level, reducing morality, and lowering the abortion rate by 50% by 1995. Goals for the health sector include increasing life expectancy, reducing infant and maternal mortality, improving the quality of health services, and decreasing the gap between the standard of living in rural and urban areas. Family planning is not allowed except for health reasons. Depending on trends in the total fertility rate, Albania's population in the year 2025 could be as low as 4.6 million or as high as 5.4 million. Albania has expressed an interest in collaborating with UN agencies in technical cooperation projects. The UNFPA mission recommended that support should be provided for the creation of a population database and analysis system for the Government's 1991-95 development plan. Also recommended was support to the Enver Hoxha University's program of strengthening the teaching of population dynamics and demographic research. Other recommendations included activities to strengthen maternal care/child spacing activities, IEC projects, and to raise the status of women.
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  10. 10
    050519

    Sexuality and family planning programme. Health for All 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe. Sexuality and Family Planning Unit

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, Sexuality and Family Planning Unit, 1986 May. 12 p.

    In 1965, the World Health Assemble gave the World Health Organization (WHO) a mandate to offer advice on family planning to member states and later states that family planning is an important part of basic health services. In 1884 the 33 members of the European region adopted a plan of action for a consolidated health policy. The goal of this plan and strategy, is for people to have access to health services that will make it possible to have socially and economically productive lives. There will be 4 main areas of effort including, promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention medicine, better primary health care systems, and more effective political, managerial, technical, manpower, and research to ensure the above. There are ongoing studies to consider sexual health in a variety of cultures. These will assess changing sex roles, information interchange on lifestyle factors and demographic trends, ideas on childrearing styles, and recommendations on the development of healthy sexual relationships. There will be assessments of harmful sexual behavior and the reduction of sexually transmitted diseases. To improve basic health care systems, this program will help[ clarify concepts, investigate needs, analyze present services, get client input, compare information, and draw up guidelines. Methods will be examined to improve information exchange and the distribution of research and other pertinent material. There will be guidelines for legislative proposals in relation to lifestyles that promote better health by 1991. The development of ways to integrate family planning programs and services and connect them to key areas of society, is a goal to be reached by 1993. Also training programs to improve the various aspects of family planning and sexuality, including the attitudes of health professionals is needed.
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  11. 11
    109761

    London Declaration on AIDS Prevention, 28 January 1988.

    World Summit of Ministers of Health

    [Unpublished] 1988 Jan. 3 p.

    The London Declaration On AIDS Prevention, of the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention, contains 15 declarations. 1) Since AIDS is a global problem urgent action by all governments is needed to implement WHO's Global AIDS Strategy. 2) We shall do all we can to ensure that our governments undertake such urgent action. 3) All governments are recommended to form a high level committee coordinating all sectors involved in control of HIV infections. 4) Information and education is the single most important component of national AIDS programs at the present time. 5 Programs must be aimed at the general public and at specific groups, always respecting cultural values and human and spiritual values. 6) AIDS prevention programs must protect human rights and human dignity, avoiding discrimination or stigmatization. 7) The media are urged to fulfill their important social responsibility to provide factual and balanced information to the general public. 8) All sectors must cooperate to allow a supportive social environment for the effective implementation of AIDS prevention programs, and the humane care of affected people. 9) The importance of governments providing the human and financial resources necessary is essential to national health. 10) An appeal is made to all United Nations organizations, multilateral organizations and voluntary organizations to cooperate in the struggle against AIDS. 11) We appeal to those bodies to assist developing nations to set up their own programs in light of their particular needs. 12) Those involved with drug abuse must intensify their efforts, and thus impede the spread of infection. 13) WHO is called on to take several specific actions to coordinate and lead the international effort against AIDS. 14) 1988 shall be a Year of Communication and Cooperation about AIDS. 15 we are convinced that through these efforts we can and will slow the spread of HIV infection. (author's modified)
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  12. 12
    049191

    Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]. European Region on Immunization Activities

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)

    Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
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  13. 13
    723567

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.

    UNICEF/WHO JOINT COMMITTEE

    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  14. 14
    143469

    Some significant achievements. South Africa. The Hague Forum.

    Fraser-Moleketi G

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):30.

    In South Africa, 1 in every 6 people is classified as poor, of whom 95% are African. Poverty is rural-based and concentrated among female-headed households. South Africa has made some progress since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in satisfying the reproductive health needs of youth and women. The country will now continue mobilizing technical and financial resources, strengthening coordination mechanisms and monitoring systems, consolidating and harmonizing national information systems, and building capacity to implement the ICPD program of action and the population policy. Focus will be given to alleviating poverty; addressing the needs of women, the disabled, youth, children, and the elderly; encouraging men to take greater responsibility as heads of households; modifying production and consumption patterns to be environmentally sustainable; and integrating reproductive health and rights into the activities of the country's social, economic, and environmental sectors.
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  15. 15
    139907

    Summary report: ICPD Advocacy in the Global Information and Knowledge Management Age: Creating a New Culture, Ankara, Turkey, 1-4 December 1998. Draft.

    Cohen SI; Gikonyo W; Hoekman A

    [Unpublished] 1998. [2], 27 p.

    This report summarizes a 1998 seminar organized as part of the 5-year review process for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The seminar was attended by 40 specialists in various aspects of information and communication for development and 20 national observers. Its goal was to provide population agencies with the vision and strategies needed to make new alliances with a new range of information and communication technology (ICT)-related partners. Thus, the seminar reviewed the social and methodological implications of how the new ICTs can be used to support implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action. After explaining the importance of ICTs for ICPD advocacy, the report describes the seminar's purpose and participants. Next, the report covers issues involved with expanded access to information and improved governance, shaping the ICT policy environment, empowering women to use ICTs for ICPD advocacy, and the relationship of community organizing and ICTs. The report continues by providing a new paradigm for media advocacy that is informed by a synergistic approach. After looking at the impact of ICTs on organizational change, virtual learning and population issues, and ways to partner with the ICT "industry," the report concludes with a section that focuses on harnessing ICT tools for ICPD advocacy. Textboxes describe: 1) ICTs, 2) selected inter-country UN Population Fund experiences in the use of ICTs, 3) the seminar agenda, and 4) selected seminar recommendations.
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  16. 16
    139953

    The politics of inclusion and exclusion: fortress Europe and the reproductive rights agenda.

    Keysers L

    Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):18-24.

    This article examines the 5-year review process for implementation in Europe of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). After an introductory section that explores the context in which these goals must be achieved, the article explains how the international women's lobby was able to frame the population agenda in terms of reproductive health and women's empowerment and notes that implementation of this agenda will be challenged by cultural biases, state systems, and the market place. Next, the article gives a few examples of contradictions and gaps as reproductive health is fostered in a "population" context in developing countries and notes that Europe must acknowledge such contradictions and use them to inform funding priorities and conditions. After calling for European activists and policy-makers to analyze "domestic" population problems and differential treatment of the poor, unwanted, and excluded, the article points out that feminists must support women's rights to reproductive self-determination and safety. The next section discusses how Europe fits into the ICPD agenda as a donor and questions European population policies, especially as they reflect immigration biases. After outlining an activist agenda that includes monitoring implementation of the reproductive health/rights agenda, monitoring development cooperation, and addressing the policies of inclusion/exclusion, the article ends by identifying clusters of priorities and actions for implementing a proposed European agenda for reproductive health/rights.
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  17. 17
    132668

    Capacity-building activities in the Arab States.

    El Sioufi M

    HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):24.

    The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.
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  18. 18
    133660
    Peer Reviewed

    World Health Assembly winds up on a sober note.

    McGregor A

    Lancet. 1998 May 23; 351(9115):1566.

    Proposals at the 51st World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva, Switzerland, during May 11-16, 1998, to switch a proportion of World Health Organization (WHO) funding, especially from southeast Asia to Africa, with some funds going to Eastern Europe and the former communist states, were strongly opposed by developing countries. The assembly finally agreed that funding for the 28 least-developed countries would not be affected, and that the reduction for any region would not exceed 3% per year over a 6-year period. The WHA president discussed the considerable work which remains to be done against disease, the promotion of health universally, and in reducing existing disparities between the rich and the poor. Delegates from the 191 member states earlier adopted a declaration calling for "Health for All for the 21st Century" to replace WHO's previous goal of "Health for All by the Year 2000." Giving priority to tobacco and malaria, the reorganization of WHO will initially focus upon the following 4 areas: monitoring, reducing, and where possible eradicating communicable diseases; combatting non-communicable diseases; helping countries build sustainable health systems, with focus upon women and mothers; and ensuring that the WHO will advocate for health. Judging by the applause, the WHA's favorite guests were US First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and Cuban President Fidel Castro. President Castro noted that only 3% of the $800 billion currently devoted worldwide annually to military expenditures would cover the cost of universal access to basic healthcare services.
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  19. 19
    127401
    Peer Reviewed

    Primary health care in Turkey: a passing fashion?

    Tatar M; Tatar F

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1997 Sep; 12(3):224-33.

    The global goal of the World Health Organization stated at Alma-Ata in 1978 to achieve health for all by the year 2000 through primary health care (PHC) garnered commitments at all levels from developed and developing countries. Turkey signed the Alma-Ata conference document, declaring its commitment to the PHC approach. However, that commitment was largely ignored among policymakers until 1990 when the country's plan to establish a strong PHC service by 2000 was put back on track. The organization and finance of Turkey's health system is described. Results of a case study conducted in Turkey to explore the following are presented: Turkey's response to Alma-Ata, perceptions of Turkish health policymakers about PHC and related issues, and the prospects for PHC in Turkey. Major changes must occur in Turkey before the primary health care principles as defined in the broad definition of the concept can be applied.
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  20. 20
    102378

    International Conference on Population Aging. Keynote address.

    Tabone V

    BOLD. 1992 Nov; 3(1):9-10.

    This is the keynote address of H.E.Dr. Vincent Tabone, President of Malta, at the International Conference on Aging, which was held in San Diego in September 1992. He states that the conference celebrates the tenth anniversary of the Vienna International Plan of Action, and provides an opportunity to evaluate progress and plan future direction. Dr. Tabone, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, first introduced the question of aging at the UN General Assembly over twenty years ago; the United Nations Secretariat established its first program in the field of aging in 1970. At the World Assembly on Aging in 1982, all members adopted the International Plan of Action, which defined guidelines for policies and programs in support of the aging populations. As a direct result of this, and in support of the needs of developing countries, the UN signed an agreement with the government of Malta that established the International Institute on Aging as an autonomous body under the auspices of the UN; it is the major expression of the Vienna Plan of Action. Concern for aging populations has developed enough maturity and momentum to oversee its own progress. Although current events may relegate the social and economic implications of the aged to the sphere of rhetoric, they demand thinking in terms of generations and transcend all political boundaries. This conference will evaluate progress toward deflecting a situation where the elderly constitute an increasing proportion of the population, without adequate and appropriate provision for their livelihood, and could have direct bearing on encouraging and ensuring the continuity of the family's vital and traditional role in preserving the dignity, status, and well-being of its aging members. A nation which begrudges its dues to the elderly, the successful products of society and triumphs of life, denies its past. This conference is a reaffirmation of commitment to the United Nations Principles for Older Persons, an omen of the review of the Global Targets on Aging for the year 2001 by the General Assembly at its forty-seventh session in October, and a stepping stone in the path toward integrating the elderly more fully into the mainstream of society. The year 1992 is a year for solidarity between the generations.
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  21. 21
    082185

    Workplan: fiscal 1993, 1 April 1993 to 31 March 1994.

    Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception [AVSC]

    New York, New York, AVSC, 1993 Mar 16. vi, 43, 108, 47, 15 p.

    The March 1993 Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) workplan outlines strategic plans to expand services to USAID priority developing countries while reducing services in other countries and to add all contraceptive methods requiring a medical procedure to its services. AVSC plans on continuing to focus on voluntary sterilization. Its guiding principles still are expanding access to services, guaranteeing free and informed choice, and ensuring the safety and effectiveness of services. AVSC plans to develop comprehensive country programs and to take on special or global programs. Some anticipated special programs include medical quality assurance, voluntarism and well-informed clients, client-centered service systems, and vasectomy and male involvement. Managerial plans are country level planning and evaluation, continuous strategic planning, annual workplan development, decentralization, strengthening technical capacity, interagency collaboration and strategic alliances, and diversification of funding. AVSC's 1993 funding sources are dominated by USAID (57% from USAID central office and 27% from USAID missions). UNFPA and the World Bank together comprise 8% and private sources make up another 8%. AVSC plans to provide services in some countries for which USAID does not provide funding: Iran, Vietnam, the former Soviet Union, and the US. Specific issues that AVSC faces in fiscal year 1993 are insufficient USAID funding, resistance by other agencies to collaborate, addressing the highly competitive bidding game related to requests for proposals with the USAID Office of Population, assuring partners and supporters of its continued emphasis on voluntary sterilization, confronting the effect of adverse press coverage on vasectomy and prostate cancer, and remaining mindful of contraceptive choice issues.
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  22. 22
    237098
    Peer Reviewed

    [The health-for-all strategy: are we reaching our targets to reduce mortality?] Helse for alle-strategien--nar vi malene for redusert dodelighet?

    Guldvog B

    Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening. 1992; 112(1):57-63.

    The author examines Norway's efforts toward attaining the WHO goal of health for all by the year 2000. "This article presents and discusses the sub-goals for expectation of life and mortality, and analyzes the possibilities of reaching them." Consideration is given to reductions in mortality from accidents, cardiovascular effects, and cancer; age-specific mortality rates; and deaths from suicide and homicide. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
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  23. 23
    070996

    Integrating development and population planning in Turkey.

    Dulger I; Kocaman T; Polat M; Uner S

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. viii, 67 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/112)

    Targeted to planners and policy makers as a tool helpful for policy formulation, this report describes the integration of population and development planning in Turkey. With economic development accompanied by rapid population growth, Turkish planners have considered the important relation of such growth to income and social welfare. Reducing the rate of population growth has been a part of all 5-year development plans. The paper presents background information on Turkey, describes the structure of the study, analyzes positive results and difficulties, and discusses the information, methods, and institutions used to efficiently integrate the 2 subjects. Chapters discuss development and population trends, issues and objectives, and frameworks, knowledge, methodologies, institutions, and procedure for integrated planning. Plan implementation is then also considered. In closing, the paper notes that the concept of integrated planning has no been fully embraced by the country's planners, and that population policy formulation has yet to be truly linked with development planning. Demographic data has, however, been introduced into both overall planning and at some sectoral levels.
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  24. 24
    054973

    Bulgaria.

    Filipov G

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 27-8.

    The People's Republic of Bulgaria has successfully worked to combat social and economic problems. The results can be seen in the increase of the average life expectancy which is not 71.14 years and the decrease of the infant mortality rate from 145/1000 live births in 1943 to 16.8 in 1983. The government has dealt with the problem of employment; both men and women are equally employed in Bulgaria's highly productive society. Of greatest concern to the government of Bulgaria is the aging of its society. The government is working to improve the situation by implementing population programs which encourage and increasing birth rate. The government of Bulgaria believes that it is its duty to provide living conditions worth raising children in. The government also feels that a great deal of the misery experienced in underdeveloped countries can be alleviated if only a fraction of the resources used for armaments could be used for social and economic programs in these countries. In addition to this, the government of Bulgaria feels strongly that peaceful cooperation between nations and an end to the arms race is the one of the most important solutions in dealing with demographic changes worldwide.
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  25. 25
    055107

    Yugoslavia.

    Planinc M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 175-6.

    10 years after the Bucharest Conference, which adopted the World Plan of Action, there is a second World Population Conference to be held in Mexico. The Conference will deal with considering progress since the Bucharest Conference and new population problems which need to be addressed, with respect to the diversity of the governments and cultures represented in Mexico. The Conference is faced with the prospect of deciding in which manner each country should deal with their population problems in the future. However factors such as inflation, growing debts, and unemployment should not be viewed as secondary to population variables. Factors such as bloc policies and arms races are other reasons for the depletion of funds which could be better used for economic and social development. The country of Yugoslavia is affected by these factors, as well. The government believes that peaceful development, globally, might lead to faster social and economic development in lesser developed countries which experience excessive poverty and population growth. Increase diversity in population problems is of great concern to the Yugoslavian government. However, support of United Nations programs, humanitarian aid from developed countries, and the increasing implementation of the World Plan of Action by various countries encourages the Yugoslavian people. However, it is up to each country to develop and implement its own population policy. Factors such as maternal and infant mortality; status of women; rights of each family to decide the size and spacing of their families; and the well-being of the family should be taken into account.
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