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Population growth problem in developing countries: coordinated assistance essential: report to the Congress.
Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, 1978 Dec 20. 101 p.Because rapid population growth in developing countries impedes efforts to improve the quality of life, the General Accounting Office (GAO) recommends that AID work with other national and international agencies, private and voluntary organizations, to improve the coordination of population assistance to developing countries. The magnitude of the population problem, and the increasing number of developing countries establishing population programs and seeking assistance combine to make effective coordination essential, to ensure that funds are applied to the highest priorities, that country programs are as efficient as possible, and that opportunities to reduce costs are identified and taken. The report is divided into 7 sections: 1) importance of coordination: views of major donors providing population assistance (AID, UNFPA, World Bank); 2) nongovernmental organizations providing population assistance and their views on coordination: Asia Foundation; Association for Voluntary Sterilization; Family Planning International Assistance; Ford Foundation; IPPF; Pathfinder Fund; Population Council; Population Services International; World Education; World Neighbors; 3) systems, arrangements, and other coordination efforts of the World Bank, UNFPA, and AID; 4) salient features or coordination systems observed in countries visited by GAO: long-range strategy; leadership; division of program responsibility (Bangladesh; Thailand; Nigeria; Tanzania; Costa Rica; Jamaica); 5) interaction among participants in countries visited; 6) division of program responsibility and specialization by organizations involved in providing population assistance; and 7) conclusions and recommendations. Appendices include: 1) comments on the draft report by AID and the Dept. of State; 2) AID population program assistance by major organizations 1965-1979; 3) assistance for population activities by major donors 1971-1976; and 4) socioeconomic data on the countries visited.
New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
Populi. 1977; 4(3):37-47.Add to my documents.
IPPF, London, 1979. 68 p.This publication of the IPPF is designed to provide a quick reference and thumbnail sketch of available family planning, population, and related services in 123 countries worldwide. Programs are presented as mainly private sector, voluntary, public sector, IPPF, or any combination of the above distinctions. In addition, demographic data from U.N. sources are given for each country, and symbols are used to designate degree of government involvement and types of programs for quick reference. Each country received about 100-300 words in description. Of the 123 countries listed with family planning associations, 77 governments have established official programs, and some contraceptive services are provided by another 52. All 5 continents are represented.
Personal communication. 1979 Mar 23; 12.Tables show total purchases direct from manufacturers, in quantities and dollar values, of IUDs, condoms, injectables, and spermicides, out of UNFPA, WHO, Population Council, IPPF, and UNICEF Funds for individuals years from 1974 to 1978 for 40 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Th 2 types of IUDs that were mainly purchased were the Lippes Loop and the CuT200, both of which are aggregated into a single figure. Figures are given both for total value of purchases, total amounts purchased, and reimbursable procurement.
Paris, 1977. 26 pAssistance to population programs in 1975 provided by 3 main sources--the official sector in DAC member countries, multilateral organizations, and certain major agencies of the private sector active in the population field--are reviewed. The report's 2 parts provide a brief analysis of the volume, content, and geographic distribution of assistance to population programs in 1975 and a set of 10 tables presenting the basic statistical data on commitments and disbursements and available data on the sums allocated by developing countries to their own population programs. Commitments of assistance to population activities by all donors totalled $272 million in 1975, only $6 million more than in 1974. Although multilateral and private agencies' assistance stagnated or declined slightly, bilateral assistance essentially reflects a decline in commitments by the World Bank. Disbursements of assistance to population programs amounted to $215 in 1975. Commitments by DAC members of Official Development Assistance for population activities amounted to $229 million in 1975. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) plays an inportant role in influencing the activity of specialized U.N. organizations in favor of assistance to population programs. Total commitments to population programs by private sector agencies totalled $63 million in 1975, disbursements $57 million.
Reproductive science and contraceptive development: recommendations to international assistance agencies.
In: Rockefeller Foundation. Bellagio 4 population conference. A conference sponsored by The Rockefeller Foundation, Ulvshale, Denmark, June 7-9, 1977. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, November 1977. p. 63-77Focus is on the findings of a 2-year study of reproduction science and contraceptive development that are of particular relevance to the work of international asssitance agencies. The first 3 of 20 recommendations made in the Report's Summary of Findings and Recommendations are especially important. The recommendations are: 1) a variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation beyond those now available is urgently needed, and there must be increased efforts ranging from fundamental research on the reproductive processes to targeted activities in contraceptive development; 2) more attention must be given to studies of intermediate and long-term safety of methods yet to be developed; and 3) by 1980, allocations for research in the reproductive sciences related to contraceptive development and evaluation by governmental agencies should comprise substantially higher proportions of total expenditures for medical research and development assistance than is now the case. Worldwide expenditures for the reproductive sciences and contraceptive development reached a peak in 1974 and have since decreased in 1975 and 1976. Clearly, the amount of relevant research being supported throughout the world has declined at a time when the promise of major new developments is extremely high and when bringing new products to market calls for large expenditures of funds to assure their efficacy and safety. Additional focus is given to institutional and human resources, contraceptive development in the public sector, regulation and ethics of human experimentation, the special conference on contraceptive development in the public sector that was held April 27-29, 1977, rationale for support of reproductive science and contraceptive research, institutional arrangements for research in reproduction and contraceptive development, financial requirements, and new funding mechanisms.
Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
Paper presented at the 4th Belalgio Conference on Population, June 6-9, 1977. 26 pTotal international assistance for population activities amounted to only about $2 million in 1960 and $18 million in 1965 but increased rapidly to $125 million in 1970 and to well over $300 million by 1976. 1974 was a high mark in population assistance; it has been declining proportionately ever since. The main reason for this slowing down is that the largest donor, the U.S., has not continued to increase its annual assistance but in the period 1972-1975 actually reduced annual contributions. The trend reversed in 1976, but the amount was still below that given in 1972. At the same time a number of other countries have begun to contribute to population activities. The U.S. is still the largest donor with about $119 million in 1976. Sweden and Norway are the 2nd largest with about $27 million each. This is 9.5% of Sweden's total development budget. Finland and Denmark contributed $2 million and $4 million, respectively, over 4 and 2% of their total assistance programs. Other major contributors were Japan, $13 million, Canada, $10 million, and the Netherlands and the United Kingdom with $8 million. A significant development has been the increased interest by Arab oil-exporting countries in international population assistance. A number of donors provide bilateral assistance, amounting to about $28 of total assistance, but in only the U.S., Norway, and Sweden is this a major component of their population assistance. In the rest of the countries funds are channeled through multilateral organizations. The U.N. Fund for Population Activities is the largest of these. The 4 largest nongovernmental organizations in the field are the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Population Council, and the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. Emphasis of various donors varies widely with the U.S. spending over 75% of its resources in family planning programs while other countries emphasize data collection or biomedical research. Trends are to support programs which include population planning as part of overall health and welfare programs. The prospects are good for short-term increases in assistance. The long-term outlook is difficult to predict.
In: Demerath, N.J. Birth control and foreign policy: the alternatives to family planning. New York, Harper and Row, 1976. p.26-58The origin of the family planning movement is explained, followed by an examination of the organization of the family planning advocacy: 1) the Population Council, 2) the Ford Foudnation, 3) the Rockefeller Foundation, 4) the Population Crisis Committee, 5) the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 6) the U.S. Agency for International Development, and 7) the Council on Foreign Relations. Allies and disciples of the family planning establishment are examined: 1) universities, 2) government agencies, 3) church-related organizations, and 4) other voluntary associations.
In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 393-426The reproductive sciences, which had been tabooed and traditionally underfinanced, began to receive modest, but still inadequate, support in the last decade. A survey was conducted to determine past and present levels of funding for contrceptive development and reproductive biology and to estimate future funding levels. Limitations of the survey are mentioned. The total amounts spent by the U.S., 15 other industrialized countries, 9 nations and regions in the developing world, international agencies, private foundations, and the pharmaceutical industry are tabultaed. The dollar amount has increased 4-fold in the last 10 years; the impact of inflation lowers this amount in actual spending power. Of the 8 countries that have supported this type of research with the greatest funds, 6 had plateaued or were decreasing support as of 1964. Government agencies have led the field in funding with the U.S. in 1st place, mainly through the Center for Population Research of the National Institute of Child Health adn Human Development, other branches within the National Institutes of Health, and the Agency for International Development. Support is in the following 4 areas: 1) basic research in the reproductive sciences, 2) strengthening of professional capacity, 3) contraceptive development, and 4) evaluation of currently used contraceptives. Through the decade, nations other than the U.S. have taken over a larger share of the financing and of the researching. Funding levels are still inadequate and it is predicted that, unless current trends are reversed, there will be less research activity in the contraceptive/reproductive field in the future.
New York, UNFPA, 1976. (Population Programmes and Projects, Vol. 1) 319 pThis is the 1st of 2 volumes giving a comprehensive worldwide listin g of available population resources. (The 2nd volume is an inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world, issued annually.) It contains 171 agencies and organizations offering either financial or technical assistance: multilateral agencies, regional agencies, bilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, university centers, research institutions, and training organizations. A brief summary of the organization's work is given along with assistance requirements or help offered and an address. An appendix lists publications in the population field. It is indexed.
International Funds for Family Planning, Background Paper No.3, June 1, 1973 30 p. (Mimeo)The range and scale of the international funds available to the family planning movement and the purposes to which they are put are explained in this report as part of a survey of unmet needs in family planning. In 1965, the IPPF received a large donation from the Swedish government which started a new era of government and private foundation money for international assistance in population control. 61% of the $124 million available for family planning in 1971 was spent on family planning field activities. 24% of it was used for biomedical research and demographic studies, mostly in developing countries. Most of the money given to these developing countries was given to a few large national programs. Little money was allocated to the assessment of the requirements for an adequate global family planning program.
Paris, OECD Development Assistance Directorate/Development Centre, January 29, 1974. 12 p. (Unpublished)This is a statistical report on international assistance for population programs in 1972 of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Official assistance for population programs in 1972 accounted for 2.3% of total official development assistance by DAC member countries. Table 1 shows the assistance to population programs by bilateral organizations (individual governments), multilateral organizations (e.g., UN, WHO), and private organizations for: 1) demographics: advisers, surveys, training, research, and general; 2) family planning: advisers, training, research, supplies, general; 3) biomedical research; 4) intermediate recipients, 5) administrative costs. Table 2 shows aid by type of organization to: 1) world region, 2) intermediate recipients (private, multilateral); 3) administrative costs. Table 3 represents assistance to population programs by region and type of activtity. Table 4 gives figures for aid to population programs in relation to bilateral and multilateral official development assistance by donor country. Notes and definitions for the categories and figures in the tables are annexed to the report.
Aid policies. The flow of aid. Paris, December 1-4, 1970. Paris, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Development Centre, 1971. 234 pThe Third Annual Population Conference organized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Center took place in December 1970 at the Development Center in Paris. The conference was concerned with the population programs of a number of the less developed countries, with the foreign aid of the programs, and with population activities in general. A summary of the proceedings is presented. The main conclusions which arose from the review of some current population programs are given with a series of policy statements by aid donor agencies together with a brief description of their policies and mandates where appropriate, and tables showing the flow of aid in recent years. A list of addresses of donor agencies is annexed.
Paper presented at the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, November 1-13, 1972. 18 p. (Unpublished)This condensed version of a paper, available at the Development Centre Population Programme (Document CD/P/249); analyzes the flow and use of foreign assistance for population activities, which are defined as demography, family planning, and biomedical research, in Asia between 1960-1970. The geographic area "Asia," in this paper includes the countries of the Middle East, except Egypt and North Africa, and excludes Oceania. During the 1960's population aid to Asia totaled about 135 million dollars. 102 million dollars was committed during the last 3 years. All but 2% came from Sweden and the U.S. Aid has been fairly widely and equally distributed among the Asian nations. India received the most, yet the aid per head (8 cents) was one of the lowest. Korea (29 cents) and the Philippines (27 cents) led the list, followed by Ceylon and Malaysia (17 cents), Thailand (15 cents), and Pakistan (14 cents). Indonesia received only 4 cents per head. From the donor angle, there are real differences in the purpose for which the aid is given. Some, such as the U.S. and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, support family planning almost exclusively. Others, such as the Ford Foundation and the Population Council, also aid demography and biomedical research. 2 tables show the functional distribution of foreign aid in selected family planning programs. Among the categories are training, information and education, vehicles and equipment, contraceptive supplies, research and evaluation, and operational activities. It is difficult to distinguish specific aspects of population programs on which aid is concentrated. A country-by-country survey does show the importance of providing supplies and the donor's interest in research, evaluation, and training. Most aid, however, goes to support routine operational costs. The survey also indicates that an analysis of the role of aid and the activities it supports can best be done by the recipient. A detailed breakdown of the uses by donor countries would probably be counterproductive and could even slow down the flow of aid.