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In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 123-32.Since the Czech Republic was newly created in January 1993 there has not been any attempt to stipulate desirable population levels. Population policy has been discussed, but the concern, if any, is for the aging of the population. Migration has been primarily from Slovakia; the numbers have declined since the 1950s to about 1000 from Slovakia and about 3000 from the rest of the world. The estimated illegal immigration is around 5000/year. There were an estimated 90,000 illegal immigrants in the Czech Republic in 1993. The German policy to return illegal emigrants to the nearest safe country from which the emigrants came could make the Czech Republic a dumping ground. The typical pattern is marriage, and out of wedlock births stood at 9.8% in 1991, mostly to single women. The divorce rate has increased to 40.8/100 new marriages in 1991; the highest rates were among women aged 20-29 years and men aged 25-35 years. The typical age at marriage is 19 years. Fertility is not likely to exceed 2 children/woman. The abortion rate is very high and almost equal to the birth rate (92.0/100 births). There is limited contraceptive awareness and usage. Legislation is being drafted with some restrictions on abortion and withdrawal of free abortions. The life expectancy is 67-68 years for men and 76 years for women. Decree no. 273 provides for government promotion of healthy life styles through prevention and primary health care. Regular health examinations are required for all children. The goals in 1993 were to implement intergovernmental health agreements and to draw laws on public health protection, chemical substances, health services, provision of health care, mandatory employment injury insurance, abortion, and legal protection of health resorts. International cooperation in development was considered beneficial.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 61-6.About 7% of the total population of 7.9 million in Austria are international migrants, mostly from the former Yugoslavia and Turkey. Austria has also received displaced persons and illegal immigrants. OECD has recommended that Austria and other European countries contribute at least 1% of public development aid to population related projects. Austria has been increasing its contributions to reach this recommendation as one means of responding to migration pressure. A comprehensive foreigner and immigration policy has been devised which distinguishes between refugees and asylum seekers and displaced persons and other immigrants. Legal settlement is dependent on the socioeconomic capacity of Austria. Austria has also been active internationally in conferences and agreements. Migratory gains between 1981 and 1991 have contributed to a population growth of 3.2%. Smaller birth rates have contributed to an increased older population aged over 60 years (20.3% in 1991; 6.8% aged 75 years and older). In 1987, the total fertility rate was 1.43 children and the net reproduction rate was 0.68. Family policy has redistributed income to favor low-income families and granted generous maternity leave. The general policy direction is for further increased education about contraception and expansion of services for young people. Free condom distribution is currently being piloted in schools. Life expectancy has been increasing and in 1991 was 72.6 years for males and 79.2 years for females, mostly due to reduced mortality among the aged.
Europe and Central Asia Region, Middle East and North Africa Region, population projections, 1992-93 edition.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population and Human Resources Dept., 1992 Nov. xcv, 203 p. (Policy Research Working Papers WPS 1016)Statistical information and a summary introduction were provided for Eastern Europe and Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East, and North African regions for selected demographic and economic measures. Measures included income, birth and death rates, fertility rates, rate of natural increase, net migration rate, growth rate, infant mortality rate, dependency ratio, and population projections to 2150. Detailed age and sex distributions were also provided. Both World Bank and nonborrower countries were included. The figures were updated from the 1990-91 Edition. The summary described and discussed recent demographic trends and future projections, and reviewed countries and regions by income level. Noteworthy changes by country were indicated. World Bank borrower countries were divided into the following regions: sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Europe and Central Asia, Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, which were regrouped into 4-6 country departments and into 4 income groups. The largest population was in East Asia and the Pacific with 30% of world population. Other large regions included South Asia with 21%, Africa with 10%, Europe and Central Asia with 9%, Latin America and the Caribbean with 8%, and the Middle East and North Africa with 5%. Country departments reflected the regions as a whole, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa with growth rates of 32.% to 2.8%. East Africa had the highest rates and Sahelian and South African countries the lowest rates. The Middle Eastern countries had rates of 3.0% in contrast to North African countries rates of 2.7%. Diversity was greatest in Asian departments. Rates were 2.0-2.6% in South Asia and 1.9-1.4% in East Asian and Pacific departments. The lowest rates were in European and Central Asian departments. In 1992, less developed countries comprised 77% of the world population. The projections indicated that by 2150 the population would reach 12.2 billion, of which 88% would live in developing countries. The 1992 projections differed from 1990-91's in that the projections were revised downward due to AIDS mortality. World fertility was projected to decline from 3.2 now to 2.9 by 2000 and 2.4 by 2025. Life expectancy was expected to reach 70 years in about 2010. The proportion aged would rise in more developed countries.
In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 17-26.Although demographic statistics are grossly inadequate, a fairly convincing panorama of the population situation and trends has been prepared by demographers based on fragmentary information, coupled with assumptions and tested against collateral information. Population study reveals a 1st stage early in the recent historic perspective during which fertility and mortality rates were very high and the corresponding rates of natural growth were low. The 2nd stage of the transition begins with a decline in the death rates while fertility rates remained at high levels, and even increases, population growth accelerates during this period. This stage is characterized by rapid urbanization provoked by displacement of population from rural areas to urban centers. Fertility rates begin to decrease at a later period, in some cases more than 20 years after the decline of death rates--tending to level off with death rates at low levels. In this stage, population growth is near zero and has in some cases decreased. The entire transition may take at least 50 years. The key question is how to determine the crucial character of the interactions between population and the critical problems of our society: poverty; underdevelopment; gaps of income between and within countries; food; and environment. In 3 symposia at Cairo, Honolulu, and Stockholm, it was concluded that there were 3 schools of thought. 1 considered rapid population growth as a major cause of structural rigidities of the less developed economies, and therefore reduction of population growth as a 1st priority for improvement of living standards. Another, putting its faith in technological innovation, considered that the way to development was by socioeconomic changes rather than demographic paths of action. The 3rd considered the demograpic approach as one of many leading to the attainment of economic and social progress. The consensus was that there are limits to the growth of population both in the short-term and in the long-term. A World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Rumania in 1974 addressed the issues of recent population trends; relations between population change and economic and social development; relations between population, resources, and environment; and population, family, and well being.
Background paper prepared by the Secretary General for the World Population Conference, Bucharest, Romania, August 19-30, 1974. New York, United Nations, May 24, 1974. 105 p.During 1972-1973, a second inquiry among governments on population growth and development was carried out. Questionnaires were sent out in October 1972; and by the end of 1973, 80 governments had sent in replies. A report based on the replies is presented. World population growth accelerated greatly after 1950. For all the less developed regions, the rate of natural increase is expected to be at its highest level during the 1970s and then very slowly begin to ebb off. In Africa, the upward trend may continue for 2 decades before declining. In most of the countries, it is assumed that the rate of economic growth will be higher in the 1970s than it was in the 1960s. Progress has been achieved in some areas of social development, particularly in education and public health. Of the areas in which population growth was rapid during the past decades, only Asia is almost universally pursuing a policy of reducing the rate of population increase. Low rates of population growth have been achieved in most of Europe, Northern America, and Oceania. Family planning activities are spreading throughout the world. The role of a national demographic service and the need for highly-trained demographers are being recognized in most of the countries. Many of the countries acknowledged the part played by the U.N. agencies in the organization and improvement of the process of collecting demographic data. Proposals for the expansion of the U.N.'s role in organizing exchanges of experience between interested countries in certain areas are made.
Population trends and issues, statement made at the Meeting of the Netherlands Association of Demographers, The Hague, Netherlands, 14 September, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 7 p. (Speech Series No. 97)If world population is to stabilize by the end of the next century, it will be necessary to strengthen and sustain the downward trend in fertility already begun in most developing countries. Whatever reductions have been achieved in the rate of population growth are the result of fertility declines accompanied by moderate reduction in mortality. Added to the challenge of high birth, mortality and growth rates in some parts of the developing world, a number of issues of equal importance have emerged since the United Nations World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974. There are, for example, issues relating to aging, international and local migration, including urbanization, and the interrelationships between population, resources, the environment and development. Most of these problems have national as well as international dimensions. The Government of the Netherlands has taken important steps to alleviate some of these problems. For example, it considers that social and economic policy should constantly take in requirements resulting from changes in the age structure of the population. The Government has been a major donor to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) since its inception and has contributed nearly US$105 million in 14 years.