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In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 235-9.Population is expected to increase at a rate of 0.5% annually in Malta. Population aging will continue as a result of increased life expectancy and declining fertility. In 1989, the birth rate was 15.1/1000. Excess population in Malta has found release through migration, and only 22% returned during the period 1946-74. Migration and emigration were balanced between 1974 and 1987. Since then, an increase in emigration has added to population aging. In 1990, the population pyramid indicated an unstable population. 24.3% are aged 30-44 years, 30.7% aged under 20 years, and 14.7% aged over 60 years. People aged 20-60 years comprised the largest population group (54.6%). By 2020, the elderly will comprise 23.3% of total population. Expenditures on services and social security for the elderly have increased since 1987 in accordance with government policy on increased social spending. The second phase of the demographic transition began after 1942 with a decline in infant mortality. The third phase began in the mid-1950s with a stabilization of the crude mortality rate and a decline in the birth rate. Responsible parenthood was encouraged in 1956 and thereafter, because of government concerns about future economic and social conditions and population density. The largest drop in the crude birth rate (33-16.3) occurred between 1950 and 1970. The final transition occurred after 1970 and was characterized by low birth and death rates.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. viii, 134 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/131)The most recent UN analysis of fertility levels and trends over the period 1965-89 in selected countries which have achieved fertility transition from high to low fertility is presented. The study is both descriptive and analytical. All low fertility countries analyzed, with the exceptions of Romania, Ireland, and the former USSR, had total fertility of 2.1 or less in 1988-89 and include the following: Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Singapore, most European countries, Canada, the US, Australia, and New Zealand. Low fertility countries from other geographical regions were omitted due to the lack of countries with similar sociocultural contexts available for comparison purposes. Low-fertility countries with population under 300,000 were also not considered. Data coverage, quality, and availability; the measurement of fertility; and comparability problems both across countries and through time are discussed in the first chapter. Patterns of fertility decline are then presented with consideration given to period, cohort, overall, and adolescent fertility; population reproduction; age at child-bearing; number of births; birth order, and births by legitimacy status. A scenario of societal process is then hypothesized which may have favored or conditioned changes in reproductive values and modified the proximate determinants of fertility. Specifically, attention is given to demographic conditions, technological progress and economic development, the role and status of women, effects on couples and families, changing reproductive norms, marriage, divorce, contraception, abortion, diversity of conditions, and fertility policies. Analysis reveals a sharp fertility decline from 1965 to the mid-1980s followed by a stabilization of period fertility in some countries and upward fluctuations in several. This decline has affected in all groups, with greatest reductions at age 35 and over, and has been led by the greater practice of contraception and changing societal attitudes on marriage and reproduction. UN medium-variant projections foresee the population of more developed regions increasing by 12% over 1990-2025 versus 75% in less developed regions. Population aging should also be expected. Social and immigration policy are finally discussed in the context of these population trends.
[Population and development: the principal stakes five years after the Cairo Conference] Population et developpement: les principaux enjeux cinq ans apres la Conference du Caire.
Paris, France, Centre Francais sur la Population et Developpement [CEPED], Laboratoire Population-Environnement, 2001 Jun. , 220 p. (Documents et Manuels du CEPED No. 12)The UN General Assembly has evaluated the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development’s program of action adopted in Cairo. This document pulls together some of the papers drafted during that evaluation conducted during June 30-July 2, 1999. It is comprised of the following 16 chapters: population, environment, and development; rural settlement, agricultural change, and property administration; urban growth and city management; international migration; fertility decline, human development, and population policies; young child mortality; reproductive health and AIDS; the spread of AIDS and its impact upon population growth; education policies in developing countries; recent employment trends and perspectives; the current context and policies to reduce poverty and inequity; gender, population, and development; the French perspective upon the environment; the stakes and politics of demographic aging in France; international migration dynamics in France; and poverty and exclusion in modern society. A different author wrote each chapter.