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  1. 1
    087732

    Workers, [with] Family Responsibilities Convention. [Status].

    International Labour Organisation [ILO]

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Tenth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1993. 289.

    On 9 June 1992, Slovenia became a party to this Convention. The Convention requires that parties accept as their national policy that men and women with family responsibilities should be able to exercise their right to work without discrimination against them because of these responsibilities. The Convention applies to workers with dependent children and workers with other family responsibilities.
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  2. 2
    101391

    Country statement submitted by the government of Lithuania.

    Lithuania

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 227-33.

    Assessment of the demographic situation in Lithuania is difficult because of interactive changes in economic and social conditions, policy, and demographic structure. The net reproduction rate until the 1990s was near one. After the 1990s, fertility declined and emigration increased. The population declined to 3,751,000 in 1993. There is an increase in the aging of population; in 1992, the proportion over 60 years of age was 16.5%. Fertility decline contributed the most to population aging, and the substantial immigration prior to 1990 slowed the aging process, whereas mortality had little impact. Net immigration prior to 1990, which was primarily within the republics of the former USSR, was about 7-9000 annually. Immigration was 21,900 in 1988 and 6,200 in 1992. Net emigration was -21,500 in 1992. Jewish emigration was high, partly because of receiving country policies. In 1990, family policy was formulated to broaden financial support for families with children. Since 1991, the health of the population has deteriorated. In 1991, the number of disabled among the working age population increased 30%. Life expectancy was 70.5 in 1992; with female life expectancy about 11 years higher. 55.3% of all mortality is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Health care policy is being formulated according to WHO health principles and with an emphasis on life styles, environment, and primary health care issues. Short- and long-term policy measures will be in accordance with principles of equity and human justice. Programs will be monitored and evaluated.
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  3. 3
    101390

    Country statement submitted by the government of the Republic of Latvia.

    Latvia

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 221-6.

    Conscious efforts to increase population began after 1980 in Latvia, and the government adopted longterm plans in 1986 to increase social development, life expectancy, and the net reproduction rate. At present, although abortions exceed births, the total fertility rate is approaching replacement level. Divorce decreased and leisure time for working women increased. After independence in 1990, a new demographic program was established to support families, increase fertility, regulate employment, and provide social protection, balanced migration and population distribution, humane living conditions, and health care for all. In 1992, a Demographic Commission was charged with drafting a population policy. Prior to 1991, immigration to Latvia was the highest in Europe; thereafter, immigration has declined. Policy has been established with the goal of zero immigration and repatriation or emigration of foreigners. There is no family policy per se, but allowances and financial subsidies are provided to at-home mothers with children and to pregnant women. Contraception is available at public and private facilities, and family size is individually determined. Abortion is legal. Although sterilizations are permitted, vasectomies have not been performed. Motor vehicle accidents and suicide contribute to a high proportion of deaths. Cardiovascular disease and cancer are other major causes of death. Maternal health is considered poor. Health and mortality conditions are reflective of unhealthy life styles and insufficient medical care. Economic conditions inhibit investment in health care improvements. Latvia is involved in population conferences and UN initiatives.
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  4. 4
    101404

    Country statement submitted by the government of Turkey.

    Turkey

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 341-54.

    In Turkey, the proportion of nuclear families has increased from 58.1% to 73% over the past 20 years. Household size averages 4.8 persons, and average age at marriage is 18.2 years. 0.79% of women are divorced and 8.05% are widowed. 20% of marriages are consanguineous, and 1.6% are polygamous. There are 8.3% religious-only marriages, which do not protect the rights of women. In 1983, Turkey accepted a more liberal fertility regulation policy, making abortion legal and emphasizing family planning. The crude birth rate declined from 51/1000 in 1933-53 to 29/1000 at present. The crude death rate declined from 31.4/1000 to 8/1000. Total fertility dropped from 6.6 to 4. Annual growth is 2.2%, and the government desires an annual growth rate of 1.5% by the year 2000. Contraceptive prevalence is 77%, of which 38% is for effective methods. A separate Women's Ministry is being established to increase the status of women and raise literacy among women. Life expectancy is 64.3 years for males and 66.6 years for females. 50% of child mortality occurs in infants. Infant mortality was 62.3/1000 in 1989, and maternal mortality was 132/1000 live births. Targets for the year 2000 include a decrease in infant mortality by 33%, in child mortality by 50%, and in perinatal deaths and maternal mortality by 50% as well as minimization of health differentials. Major causes of adult mortality are cardiovascular disease, accidents, intoxication, infection, and respiratory disease. Total and youth dependency ratios are decreasing, whereas the elderly dependency ratio is increasing. Economic integration of all countries in the European Community is expected to yield a desirable homogeneity which will be sensitive to cultural diversity. The government has determined the amount of support it can devote to population affairs through foreign aid, the women's status ministry, and health reform. The most recent five-year development plan expects increases in remittances from workers abroad. Turkey is also the recipient of migrants, particularly from Iran, Iraq, and Bulgaria.
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  5. 5
    101402

    Country statement submitted by the government of Sweden.

    Sweden

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 325-30.

    Population growth in Sweden has been unregulated. The total fertility rate of 2.1 is at replacement level and satisfactory. The aging of the population is expected to occur around 2010. Immigration in 1991 was 44,000 persons, with 18% from other Nordic countries, 61% claiming relatives in Sweden, and 35% claiming refugee status. During 1992, 60,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia requested asylum. The large numbers of asylum-seekers has resulted in a policy shift that restricts entrants to those fulfilling the UN definitions. The immigration policy has been in effect since 1968 and was formulated without any connection to population policy. Sweden has ratified UN conventions on migrant workers and has been part of the free Nordic labor market, which allows freedom of labor migration between Scandinavian countries. 85% of Swedish mothers have worked outside the home. Family policy is supportive of the dual roles of working and child care. There is a parental insurance system which compensates for lost income for both parents while caring for a newborn child at home. Day care facilities meet demand, and there is financial support for families with children, particularly single-parent families. Consensual unions are common. Contraceptives and family planning services are readily available. Life expectancy is 74.8 years for males and 80.4 years for females. Health inequalities linked to socioeconomic groups have been addressed by the 1992 establishment of a National Institute of Public Health. Sweden has played a dominant role in international development since the 1960s. 7.0% ($165-170 million) of Sweden's total foreign aid program was directed to population issues in 1992. Strategies focus on human rights, socioeconomic factors, and unbalanced development. Many countries in Africa have received support. Women are viewed as key to development and population issues for health, ethical, social, and human rights reasons. Sweden is also concerned about the relationship between environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, and population issues.
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  6. 6
    101395

    Country statement submitted by the government of Poland.

    Poland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 261-71.

    Economic changes in Poland have restricted social welfare development and services. Population has been below replacement level since 1989, and life expectancy has declined with a relatively high infant mortality. There is considerable emigration of the young and skilled, and 2.5 million were unemployed in 1992. There will be an increase in the population aged 45-64 years and among pensioners. Although there is no formal population policy, the government has aimed to reach replacement level fertility, to improve the quality of life, to balance the distribution of the population, and to formulate better international agreements on economic migration into and out of Poland. There is public concern about uncontrolled immigration from countries of the former Soviet Union, since Poland is a transit stop for refugees on their way to Germany or Scandinavia. Preferential treatment is been given to Polish migrants in the former Soviet Union. Illegal foreign labor has increased, and crime is a problem. There are plans for policy reform and for the establishment of an Immigration Office. Marriage is declining, and cohabitation is increasing. The birth rate declined from 19.7/1000 in 1983 to 14.3 in 1991. 8% of total births were to juveniles, 6% were born out of wedlock, and 8% were low birth weight. Contraception is available through pharmacies; sterilization is not performed, and abortion regulations are under debate. Unfavorable lifestyles and health behaviors contribute to a poor health situation and an increase in male mortality in all age groups. Circulatory system diseases are a primary cause of death, followed by cancers, injuries, and poisoning. Infant mortality was 15.0/1000 live births in 1991, mostly due to perinatal complications (50%) and developmental defects (27%). Hepatitis B infection is high in Poland, with 30 cases/1000; tuberculosis is declining, but was still high at 42.3/100,000 in 1990 and accounted for 40% of all infectious disease mortality. HIV infections numbered 1996 cases by 1991. Life expectancy is 66.1 years for males and 75.3 years for females. The Polish health strategy conforms to WHO directives and emphasizes general health promotion and at-risk populations. Poland is particularly concerned about population problems in the Eastern and Central European region and in countries of the former Soviet Republic.
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  7. 7
    085991

    Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention (ILO No. 156).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:94.

    The following countries ratified the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention in 1988; 1) Argentina, 17 March 1988; 2) Greece, 10 June 1988; 3) Netherlands, 24 March 1988; and 4) San Marino, 19 April 1988. (full text)
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  8. 8
    101387

    Country statement submitted by the government of Ireland.

    Ireland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 195-7.

    Ireland's government considers that population size, growth, and structure are reflected in policies to secure a reasonable standard of living and to guarantee rights in the case of unemployment, disability, sickness, or old age. In 1992, legislation established family planning services through health services. Guidelines have been issued on sex and family life education. The Health Department has a comprehensive health promotion program for improving health status, for targeting specific groups and illnesses, and encouraging healthier life styles. Maternity benefits to those with insurable employment are available for 70% of wages, and tax benefits are available to low-income earners. Ireland supports the full and equal participation of women in the development process and agrees with the European Community's guidelines on family planning programs. A first-time contribution to the UN Population Fund was made in 1993, and further contributions are under consideration.
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  9. 9
    101386

    Country statement submitted by the government of Hungary.

    Hungary

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 187-93.

    Hungary has both below replacement fertility and high mortality. There has been a deterioration in the stability of families, with a high divorce rate. Population policy is aimed toward reducing the population decline and providing a more favorable age structure. The objective is to reduce mortality, increase fertility, and strengthen material and social conditions of families. Due to resource limitations, the government will rely on the moral renewal of society. An Office of Refugee Affairs was established in 1989. In 1991, there were 75,000 refugees or displaced persons, including ethnic Hungarians. Many new arrivals are from the former Yugoslavia. Marriage and remarriage have declined since the mid-1970s. There is postponement of marriage and first and second births. 87% of children are born to married women. Family policy, since 1992, provides for free prenatal care and pregnancy allowances, at the same time regulating abortion. Social allowances are given to families with children for child raising. Male mortality is particularly high among those aged 30-59 years. High mortality was attributed to life style risk factors and mental hygiene, level of health care, and the role of environmental factors. Hungary is very interested in international cooperation within the European Community and gives support to population activities.
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  10. 10
    101380

    Country statement submitted by the government of Finland.

    Finland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 147-52.

    In the 20 years following World War II, Finland's population growth declined markedly. Recent increases confirm fertility at 1.79 for 1991, which is higher than it has been since 1970. Fertility is expected to increase until 2010. The country is very homogenous: the largest minority are Swedes, who comprised 6% of the population in 1991, and Lappish people. There are integrated labor markets between Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark. Migrants with Finnish origins from the former Soviet Union have increased. Refugees numbered 6000 in 1993. Finnish family policy strives to secure close and firm human relationships for children and family members, to improve economic conditions for families, and to secure the preconditions for balanced population development. Family type does not determine the nature of family support. Parental leave amounts to 263 week days and is 66% of annual income. Child home care for children under 3 years of age and municipal day care are provided. Men's life expectancy was 71.4 years in 1991; women's was 79.3 years. Infant mortality was low at 6/1000 in 1991. Cardiovascular diseases are a primary cause of death; declines have occurred in this disease group since 1970. Accidents and suicide are very high in Finland compared to other Nordic countries. Lower social classes have a higher mortality rate. Future emphasis will be on outpatient treatment, promotion of health prevention, and a balance between health care and illness treatment. Finland's position is that rapid population growth is related to poverty and slow socioeconomic development. Increased levels of education and gender equality are viewed as necessary for poverty alleviation. Improvements in basic health care also contribute to social development and thus slower growth. International funding has increased and was 85 million in 1991. Development and population related aid will be reduced in 1993 to 0.4% of the gross national product.
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  11. 11
    101372

    Country statement submitted by the government of Austria.

    Austria

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 61-6.

    About 7% of the total population of 7.9 million in Austria are international migrants, mostly from the former Yugoslavia and Turkey. Austria has also received displaced persons and illegal immigrants. OECD has recommended that Austria and other European countries contribute at least 1% of public development aid to population related projects. Austria has been increasing its contributions to reach this recommendation as one means of responding to migration pressure. A comprehensive foreigner and immigration policy has been devised which distinguishes between refugees and asylum seekers and displaced persons and other immigrants. Legal settlement is dependent on the socioeconomic capacity of Austria. Austria has also been active internationally in conferences and agreements. Migratory gains between 1981 and 1991 have contributed to a population growth of 3.2%. Smaller birth rates have contributed to an increased older population aged over 60 years (20.3% in 1991; 6.8% aged 75 years and older). In 1987, the total fertility rate was 1.43 children and the net reproduction rate was 0.68. Family policy has redistributed income to favor low-income families and granted generous maternity leave. The general policy direction is for further increased education about contraception and expansion of services for young people. Free condom distribution is currently being piloted in schools. Life expectancy has been increasing and in 1991 was 72.6 years for males and 79.2 years for females, mostly due to reduced mortality among the aged.
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  12. 12
    099913

    Statement of Turkey.

    Alpago O

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    In her address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Turkey's Minister of State noted that Turkey's population policy began to reflect an antinatalist viewpoint in the 1950s. She also called for an end to all forms of discrimination against women and asked the international community to support efforts to strengthen the family, which the Turkish government regards as the basic element of society. Whereas Turkey does not support abortion as a method of family planning, the country recognizes the right of women to safe motherhood and opposes coercion in any form. In Turkey, accessibility, availability, acceptability, and affordability of health care is stressed. Turkey has also increased its attention to the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Since the 1970s, Turkey has recognized the need to address environmental concerns, and sustainable development is one of the main objectives of government policy. Other important issues are the collection of population data and placing priority on solving the problems of international migration. Turkey has pledged its support to the UN and the ICPD.
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  13. 13
    085136

    Covenant on Economic, Social, Cultural Rights. [Additional parties and location].

    United Nations

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, 8th cumulative suppl., compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1991. 158.

    Since 1983, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights has been ratified by the following countries: Algeria, 12 September 1989; Argentina, 8 August 1986; Burundi, 9 May 1990; Cameroon, 27 June 1984; the Congo, 5 October 1983; Equatorial Guinea, 25 September 1987; Ireland, 8 December 1989; the Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; Luxembourg, 18 August 1983; Niger, 7 March 1986; the Philippines, 23 October 1986; San Marino, 18 October 1985; Somalia, 24 January 1990; Sudan, 18 March 1986; Togo, 24 May 1984; Democratic Yemen, 9 February 1987; and Zambia, 10 April 1984. Provisions of the covenant guarantee equal rights for men and women, pay equity, maternity benefits, social protection for children and the family, and the rights to housing, education, and health care, among other things.
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  14. 14
    078925

    Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention (ILO No. 156).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:77.

    The government of France ratified this UN Convention on Workers with Family Responsibilities on March 16, 1989; the government of Uruguay ratified it on November 16, 1989; and the government of the Yemen Arab Republic ratified it on March 13, 1989.
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  15. 15
    031334

    Protection of working mothers: an ILO global survey (1964-84).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.

    This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
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