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Journal of Human Lactation. 2010 Aug; 26(3):297-303.The objective of this study was to translate and psychometrically assess a Portuguese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The original English version of the BSES-SF was translated to Portuguese and tested among a sample of 89 mothers in southern Brazil from the 2nd to 12th postpartum week followed by face-to-face interviews. The mean total score of the Portuguese version of the BSES-SF was 63.6 +/- 6.22. The reliability analysis of each item in the scale attained significant Cronbach's alphas of 0.63 or superior. The Cronbach's alpha generated by the entire range of 14 questions was 0.71. A factor analysis identified one factor that contributed to 20% of the variance. This study demonstrates that the original English version of the BSES-SF was successfully adapted to Portuguese. The Portuguese version of the BSES-SF constitutes a reliable research instrument for evaluating breastfeeding self-efficacy in Brazil.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011 Jun 1; 89(6):442-50.OBJECTIVE: To appraise the process of development and clinical content of national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical practice guidelines of countries in the eastern Mediterranean and to formulate recommendations for future guideline development and adaptation. METHODS: Twenty-three countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean and United Nations Children's Fund Middle East and North Africa regions were invited to submit national HIV clinical practice guidelines for review. The guideline development methodology was assessed using an adaptation of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument and guideline content, using a checklist to evaluate concordance with WHO 2006 generic guidelines. FINDINGS: Twelve countries submitted 20 guidelines developed between 2004 and 2009. Median scores were poor (i.e. < 0.6) for the methodological quality domains of rigour of development, stakeholder involvement and applicability and flexibility. Scores were better for the domains of scope and purpose (median: 0.82, interquartile range, IQR: 0.58-0.89) and clarity and presentation (median: 0.67, IQR: 0.50-0.78). Concerning guideline content, recommended first-line treatment and eligibility criteria for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults were in line with WHO recommendations in most guidelines. However, recommendations on antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of vertical HIV transmission, diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection in infants, monitoring patients on ART, treatment failure and co-morbidities were often lacking. CONCLUSION: The large majority of national HIV clinical practice guidelines had methodological weaknesses and content inaccuracies. Countries require assistance with the adaptation process to ensure that guidelines are valid and up to date and accurately reflect WHO global clinical care recommendations for patients with HIV.
United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNICEF, 2007. 100 p.The aim of this review is to document the experience of PMTCT in Ukraine to date, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of lessons learned within the current PMTCT programme. The report is structured around the four pillars of PMTCT: primary prevention of HIV infection within the context of MTCT; prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women; prevention of transmission from HIV positive women to their child; providing care and support to HIV positive women, their infants and their family. Since the initiation of the first national PMTCT programme in Ukraine in 2001, Ukraine has made substantial progress towards prevention of HIV infection in infants. Evaluation of the first programme in 2003 by a national and international team, including WHO and UNICEF, allowed consolidation of effort and the development of the next phase of the PMTCT programme. Furthermore, the findings facilitated the development of 'The Strategic Framework for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Infants in Europe' (2004). This outlined strategies for the implementation of the prevention of HIV infection in infants at a national level, with the aim of achieving the Dublin Declaration PMTCT goals. (excerpt)
A nongovernmental organization's national response to HIV: the work of the All-Ukrainian Network of People Living with HIV.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Jul. 47 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/07.23E; JC1305E)The All-Ukrainian Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (the 'Network') was formed in the late 1990s by HIV-positive individuals alarmed at the surging HIV epidemic in their country and the lack of resources and support for themselves and others living with the virus. It has grown rapidly and steadily since then, providing services and support to more than 14 000 people living with HIV. Its roots are in the self-help ethos, based on the belief that people living with HIV must be directly involved in leading national and local responses to HIV. The Network's four key strategy components are: increasing access to non-medical care, treatment and support; lobbying and advocating to protect the rights of people living with HIV; seeking to increase acceptance towards people living with HIV throughout society; and enhancing the organizational capacity of the Network. (excerpt)
Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a new WHO guideline.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99 Suppl 1:S117-S121.It is estimated that more than 2 million women are living with obstetric fistulas (OFs) worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, and yet this severe morbidity remains hidden. As a contribution to the global Campaign to End Fistula, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a manual intended as a practical working document. Its 3 main objectives are to draw attention to the urgency of the OF issue and serve as an advocacy document for prompt action; provide policy makers and health professionals with brief, factual information and principles that will guide them at the national and regional levels as they develop strategies and programs to prevent and treat OFs; and assist health care professionals as they acquire better skills and develop more effective services to care for women treated for fistula repair. (author's)
So does it mean that we have the rights? Protecting the human rights of women and girls trafficked for forced prostitution in Kosovo.
London, England, Amnesty International, .  p.Trafficking of women for forced prostitution is an abuse of human rights, not least the right to physical and mental integrity. It violates the rights of women and girls to liberty and security of person, and may even violate their right to life. It exposes women and girls to a series of human rights abuses at the hands of traffickers, and of those who buy their services. It also renders them vulnerable to violations by governments which fail to protect the human rights of trafficked women. Amnesty International considers the trafficking of women for the purposes of forced prostitution to be a widespread and systematic violation of the human rights of women. Since the deployment in July 1999 of an international peacekeeping force (KFOR) and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) civilian administration, Kosovo has become a major destination country for women and girls trafficked into forced prostitution. Women are trafficked into Kosovo predominantly from Moldova, Bulgaria and Ukraine, the majority of them via Serbia. At the same time, increasing numbers of local women and girls are being internally trafficked, and trafficked out of Kosovo. (excerpt)
[Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
European Union. Managing migration means potential EU complicity in neighboring states' abuse of migrants and refugees.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2006 Oct. 22 p. (Human Rights Watch No. 2)Irregular migration into the European Union (EU) poses clear challenges for European governments. Few would question the urgent need for policies to address these challenges. However, the common EU policy in this area is primarily focussed on keeping migrants and asylum seekers out of and away from Europe. The rights of migrants and refugee protection are marginalized. This briefing paper summarizes recent trends in the EU's approach. Through case studies of conditions in, and EU policies toward, Ukraine and Libya, it critiques current EU "externalization" practices. After noting some hopeful signs toward enhanced protection for asylum seekers and migrants, it concludes with recommendations to the EU and its member states. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Sep. 108 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 14(A))Since mid-2005, hundreds of civilians have been killed, more than 10 thousand houses burned, and approximately 212,000 persons have fled their homes in terror to live in desperate conditions deep in the bush in northern Central African Republic (CAR). Bordering eastern Chad and war-ravaged Darfur in Sudan, this area has been destabilized by at least two major rebellions against the government of President Francois Bozize. The vast majority of summary executions and unlawful killings, and almost all village burnings, have been carried out by government forces, often in reprisal for rebel attacks. While both main rebel groups have been responsible for widespread looting and the forced taxation of the civilian population in areas they control - and rebels in the northeast have committed killings, beatings, and rape - their abuses pale in comparison to those of the Central African Armed Forces (Forces armees Centrafricaines, FACA) and the elite Presidential Guard (Garde presidentielle, GP). As the International Criminal Court (ICC) begins investigations into atrocities committed during the 2002-2003 rebellion against former President Patasse, it should also investigate possible war crimes under its jurisdiction committed in the current round of fighting. (excerpt)
USAID / Moldova antitrafficking assessment -- critical gaps in and recommendations for antitrafficking activities.
Washington, D.C., Development Alternatives, WID Tech, 2002 Oct.  p. (USAID Contract No. FAO-0100-C-00-6005-00)The objective of this assessment is twofold: (1) to provide USAID/Western New Independent States (WNIS) with a road map of existing trafficking-prevention activities undertaken by donor agencies and bilateral, international-development and host-country-government institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Moldova; and (2) to help USAID/WNIS identify critical gaps in existing approaches in Moldova that new interventions might address. The road map and accompanying list of recommendations provide U.S. government officials in USAID/WNIS with the information and tools necessary to design specific activities at a later date. (excerpt)
Report of the High-level consultation on improvement of sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in Europe. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-12 December 2006.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 2007. 27 p. (EUR/07/5063690)Representatives nominated by the Ministries of Health from 23 Member States of the WHO European Region, the European Commission, the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF-EN) and Lund University attended a two day high-level consultation meeting to evaluate the midterm results of the project "The way forward: a European partnership to promote the sexual and reproductive health and rights of youth" (2004-2007). The situation on the trends in sexual and reproductive health status of young people in the European Union countries was analysed and tools developed by the WHO, IPPF EN and Lund University were presented. Country representatives discussed the draft policy framework on sexual and reproductive health and rights that will be presented in the final meeting of the project in October 2007 and many recommendations were received to prepare the document that would be an important tool for developing national policies and programs in the area of sexual and reproductive health of young people. (author's)
Lancet. 2006 Dec 9; 368(9552):2081-2094.William Harvey was born in Folkestone on April 1, 1578. He was educated at the King's School, Canterbury, Gonville, and Caius College, Cambridge, and the University of Padua, graduating as doctor of arts and medicine in 1602. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1607 and was appointed to the Lumleian lectureship in 1615. In the cycles of his Lumleian lectures over the next 13 years, Harvey developed and refined his ideas about the circulation of the blood. He published his conclusions in 1628 in Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, which marks the beginning of clinical science. In it, Harvey considered the structure of the heart, arteries, and veins with their valves. By carefully devised experiments and supported by the demonstration of the unidirectional flow of the blood in the superficial veins of his own forearm, he established that the blood circulated, and did not ebb and flow as had been believed for more than 1000 years. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for Europe, Health Evidence Network, 2006 Feb. 37 p. (Health Evidence Network Report)This is a Health Evidence Network (HEN) synthesis report on the effectiveness of empowerment strategies to improve health and reduce health disparities. The report shows that empowering initiatives can lead to health outcomes and that empowerment is a viable public health strategy. The key message from this review is that empowerment is a complex strategy that sits within complex environments. Effective empowerment strategies may depend as much on the agency and leadership of the people involved, as the overall context in which they take place. HEN, initiated and coordinated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, is an information service for public health and health care decision-makers in the WHO European Region. Other interested parties might also benefit from HEN. This HEN evidence report is a commissioned work and the contents are the responsibility of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect the official policies of WHO/Europe. The reports were subjected to international review, managed by the HEN team. (author's)
[Kyiv], Ukraine, UNDP, 2004.  p.The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) organized a series of "Leadership for Results" workshops on May 24-31 2004 to develop and boost leadership skills of several participants' categories: trade union leaders, public figures, physicians, women-leaders, Peer Education Program trainers, etc. Allan Henderson, who facilitated this workshop, pointed out that "these workshops are not meant to make leaders of those who are not leaders, but rather to provide the opportunity for people who already are leaders to step out of the day-to-day business and address their own development." The task for participants is to improve themselves and society, to get to the higher leadership level, to develop more holistic outlook and support leadership skills with more comprehensive background. The structure of this leadership workshop stipulates three meetings with three months intervals. Methods applied in the workshop are as follows: education (knowledge transfer); training (practice of skill development) and coaching (establishing new opportunities for the future). The first workshop on May 24-25 that UNDP held jointly with the International Labor Organization (ILO) welcomed over 70 leaders from four most active trade union associations in Ukraine. It was just recently that trade unions started paying attention to the problem of HIV/AIDS. For the majority of participants it was their first workshop. (excerpt)
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, . 15 p.Ukraine is at a critical point in its response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country has the highest rate of HIV infection prevalence in Europe and the CIS, about one per cent of the adult population. At the heart of generating an effective national response on HIV/AIDS are committed, mobilized leaders who are speaking out and taking action in their respective spheres of influence. Analysis of successful responses around the globe has highlighted leadership as a key ingredient for overcoming stigma and effective action in both prevention and care. Leaders for an effective national response must come from all levels of society -- national, regional and local Government; NGOs; media; schools; youth organizations; and the household. In modern, democratic Ukraine, citizens enjoy unprecedented freedoms and choices. Each leads his or her own life in a very personal way. Faced with the present onslaught of HIV/AIDS such individuals need basic information and support for their safe behaviour choices to avoid infection, for their compassion for those living with the virus and for their inclusion in the nationwide response. (excerpt)
[Kyiv], Ukraine, UNDP, . 11 p.HIV/AIDS presents the greatest challenge to human development the world has ever seen. With nearly 42 million people living with HIV/ AIDS, 20 million already dead and 15,000 new infections daily, its devastating scale and impact constitute a global emergency that is undermining social and economic development throughout the world and affecting individuals, families, communities and nations. HIV/AIDS reverses gains in human development and denies people the basic opportunities for living long, healthy, creative and productive lives. It impoverishes people and places burdens on households and communities to care for the sick and dying, while claiming the lives of people in their most productive years. HIV/AIDS also results in social exclusion and violations of human dignity and rights affecting people's psychological well-being. While the long-term consequences may not yet be visible here, Ukraine is glimpsing the enormity of the problem in its newly independent country. The number of reported cases of HIV infection in the country has increased 20 times in the past five years yielding estimates of 300,000 to 400,000 people already infected, which is approximately 1% of the adult population. The Declaration of Commitment of the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS notes "the potential exists for a rapid escalation of the epidemic". The dynamics of the spread of the epidemic can be indicative of the potential magnitude of future human development impacts, deepening over time and affecting future generations. (excerpt)
Connections. 2005 Feb-Mar;  p..A nurse at the maternity hospital told me that it would be better for me to try not to get attached to my baby, to leave him there and start a new life, recalls a 17 year-old single mother who did not know where she could find support for herself and her son and was advised to give him up. Roughly two percent of all women giving birth in Romania abandon their children immediately after delivery, leaving their newborns at maternity hospitals and pediatric institutions and making them wards of the state. The majority of these women are very young, poorly educated, and live below the poverty line, according to a recent UNICEF report cited in an article in Medical News Today. Societal factors also play a role in perpetuating this practice, explains Pierre Poupard, a UNICEF representative in Romania. "Unfortunately, young mothers going into hospitals are confronted with conservative attitudes and practices. The system remains very traditional and penalizes the poor and marginalized," he acknowledges. (excerpt)
Odessa workshop helps build capacity among Ukrainian clinicians who care for people living with HIV / AIDS.
Connections. 2004 Jan;  p..A recent Anti-retroviral Therapy Training Workshop held in Odessa, Ukraine, marked the start of an ongoing collaboration between AIHA and the Los Angeles-based AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF). It was the first training hosted under the aegis of the newly established World Health Organization Regional HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Knowledge Hub for which AIHA is the primary implementing partner. This Knowledge Hub was created in response to the burgeoning HIV/AIDS pandemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to serve as a crucial capacity-building mechanism for reaching WHO's "3 by 5" targets for the region. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3): p..Large-scale corruption in developed and developing countries is closely connected to contracting-out, concessions, and privatization. The encouragement of privatization of public services and infrastructure by the World Bank and others has multiplied the potential scale of this business. At the same time it has multiplied the incentives for multinational companies active in these sectors to offer bribes in order to secure concessions and contracts. One of the sectors most at risk is water and sanitation. The concessions invariably involve long-term monopoly supply of an essential service, with considerable potential profit. Often, major construction works are involved, which are themselves a source of profit. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Jul 2; 331:46-47.I want to congratulate you, Prime Minister Blair, on the hard work that you and your team have put into the Commission for Africa’s report. It is an honest document, probing gently but fearlessly into the reasons why so many endeavours in this great continent have failed. You emphasise the responsibility of African leaders to drive development from within Africa but at the same time make clear the responsibility of the richer countries to commit to serious partnership in the process, with the aim being Africa’s development rather than their own. I am sure you don’t need reminding that these principles will be difficult to put into practice, but I am hopeful that the report will be a template for action. When I heard about the commission last year I tried to contact you, requesting that at least one of the commissioners be involved in health care. Maybe you were overwhelmed by advice, as my letters went unanswered. However, your report has touched on matters of health, with sections on HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. These diseases are of enormous importance and are already being tackled by many groups in Africa. I am not involved in HIV treatment myself, but many of my patients are infected by the virus and my wife is working in a palliative care project for dying children, most of whom have HIV or AIDS, so I know first hand of the misery and hopelessness in so many lives. (excerpt)
Protecting choice means making choices. Legislators worldwide must choose to preserve the Cairo consensus.
Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):48-50.At the ten year mark of the ICPD Programme of Action, never HAS a woman’s right to decide freely the number and spacing of her children been so widely recognised and exercised—yet paradoxically challenged. These challenges are both old and new, and they call upon us as European parliamentarians to make a number of fundamental policy, diplomatic and budgetary choices. In 1994, the adoption of the ICPD Programme of Action by 179 countries marked a major shift towards placing the individual at the centre of development and abandoning demographic targets. The Millennium Development Goals further enshrined women’s right to make their own decisions as a global development objective. Despite this explicit political will and the great strides forward of the past decade, trends have emerged that force us to reassess our long-held strategies. The first is the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In 2004, the worst-case scenarios of the early 1990s are becoming reality. The developed world watches as entire generations suffer in less developed countries from a disease that is both preventable and treatable—one that has been controlled in donor countries. Yet rather than coming together to fight a common enemy, the HIV/AIDS community and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocates have seemed to drift apart. (excerpt)
Health Policy. 2005 Sep; 73(3):339-351.This article argues that the health-related Millennium Development Goals do not appropriately address the challenges faced by the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. By ignoring adult mortality, their achievement would result in relatively small gains in life expectancy. To achieve greater impact, policies in this region must supplement the classical Millennium Development Goals with indicators of adult health, in particular cardiovascular diseases and external causes of death. In addition, countries, with support from the international community, must improve the quality of vital registration data to enable more accurate estimation of the disease burden. (author's)
IDU. Injecting Drug User Intervention Impact Model. Version 2.0, May 2000. A tool to estimate the impact of HIV prevention activities focused on injecting drug users.
London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2000 May. 53 p.IDU 2.0 is one of five simulation models within HIVTools. IDU 2.0 can be used, within a particular setting, to estimate the impact on HIV transmission of prevention activities focusing on the injecting drug users (IDU's). It can also be used to explore the likely impact of different policy options. The program simulates the transmission of HIV between injecting drug users, and the transmission of HIV and STDs between IDU's and their sexual partners, both in the presence and absence of an intervention. The extent to which an intervention may avert HIV infection is estimated using a range of context specific inputs. This includes epidemiological information describing the prevalence of HIV infection among the IDU's and their non-IDU sexual partners at the start of the intervention, and the probabilities of HIV and STD infection. Behavioural inputs are used to describe the patterns of needle sharing, sexual behaviour and condom use among the IDU's reached and not reached by the intervention. Demographic and intervention specific inputs are used to estimate the size of the total IDU population, the proportion of males and females in the IDU population, and the proportion of each reached by the intervention. These are then used to project the overall patterns of needle sharing, sexual behaviour and condom use among IDU's with and without the intervention. (excerpt)