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[Population and development: the principal stakes five years after the Cairo Conference] Population et developpement: les principaux enjeux cinq ans apres la Conference du Caire.
Paris, France, Centre Francais sur la Population et Developpement [CEPED], Laboratoire Population-Environnement, 2001 Jun. , 220 p. (Documents et Manuels du CEPED No. 12)The UN General Assembly has evaluated the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development’s program of action adopted in Cairo. This document pulls together some of the papers drafted during that evaluation conducted during June 30-July 2, 1999. It is comprised of the following 16 chapters: population, environment, and development; rural settlement, agricultural change, and property administration; urban growth and city management; international migration; fertility decline, human development, and population policies; young child mortality; reproductive health and AIDS; the spread of AIDS and its impact upon population growth; education policies in developing countries; recent employment trends and perspectives; the current context and policies to reduce poverty and inequity; gender, population, and development; the French perspective upon the environment; the stakes and politics of demographic aging in France; international migration dynamics in France; and poverty and exclusion in modern society. A different author wrote each chapter.
[Unpublished] 1999  i.This paper reports on the national and regional consultations and the 2-day debate at The Hague. This nongovernmental organization (NGO) Forum final report was presented at the Hague Forum to the Commission on Population and Development in March, and to the UN General Assembly Special Session in New York. The report related clearly what NGOs believe should be included in their own agendas, and those of others, for future action. The debate at the NGO Forum was divided into five substantive areas. These included the discussions on the current situation, examples of good practice, obstacles to resource mobilization, obstacles to effective advocacy, and recommendations for future actions.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999  p.This document presents the reactions of the European Union (EU) delegation to the 1999 World Population Monitoring Report. According to the EU delegation, the Monitoring Report contains valuable information on past and present trends of demographic change. It presents major demographic trends covering the period from the World Population Conference 1974 in Bucharest to the present and through the year 2050. Furthermore, the report offers some comments on the determinants of fertility and mortality changes, highlights the issue of urbanization, and discusses the socioeconomic implications and challenges of population aging. The EU believes that population aging and intergenerational solidarity are essential issues in the review of progress made toward the Cairo Program of Action for 2004. The report commends the quality of work of the Population Division and hopes that concerns about population growth, poverty, food provision and the environment will be addressed consistently over coming years. Concerning the future work program of the Population Division, the EU hopes that the 2000 monitoring report addresses issues of education, male identity and responsible fatherhood. In addition, they agree with the recommendations regarding topics for the years 2001-04. Lastly, the EU suggests that a thorough discussion of the quinquennial review and appraisal presented by the Population Division should be conducted.
The urban generation: heirs to the new urban future, youth plan to make their presence felt in Istanbul.
COUNTDOWN TO ISTANBUL: HABITAT II. 1996 May; 1(7):19.UN statistics indicate that youth comprise up to 30% of the world's population. As almost one-third of humanity, youth deserve to actively participate in debates which will influence the future of their world. Accordingly, a large group of youth has been working with the Habitat II Secretariat, governments, and nongovernmental organizations to create channels for youth participation and involvement in Habitat II. Youth can also bring a great deal more to the Habitat process than just sheer numbers, both now and in the future. Their energy, commitment, and ability to do much with few resources can bring vitality to the process of creating and implementing the Habitat Agenda and Global Plan of Action. Youth bring unique perspectives which need to be taken into account. The key youth issues in need of action of Habitat II include sustainable approaches to the environment, including education; children and adolescents living in poverty; the provision of adequate shelter; employment opportunities; and access to resources, especially for rural youth. A lack of access among adolescents to essential resources such as shelter, education, and employment can prevent youth from developing into contributing members of society. Youth participants at the Istanbul conference are expected to make a commitment to taking responsibility for their own development, fostering youth awareness, and becoming involved in the implementation of Habitat II.
Population and development linkages: new research priorities after the Cairo and Beijing conferences.
The Hague, Netherlands, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], 1996. 23 p. (NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series 13)This document contains the text of the 1996 Hofstee Lecture organized by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute. The 1996 lecture, entitled "Population and Development Linkages: New Research Priorities after the Cairo and Beijing Conferences," was delivered by Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Dr. Sadik suggested that research is needed to explore 1) the interrelations between population, sustainable development, and the environment and 2) to improve design and implementation of more effective reproductive health programs and solve methodological problems. After sketching the linkages between population and development, her lecture analyzed research needs to clarify the population/development relationship in terms of macroeconomic linkages, population/environment linkages (for rural and for urban environments), microeconomic linkages (such as education, poverty, and unintended poverty), and macro-microeconomic linkages. The next part of her lecture presented sociocultural research and operations research proposals to identify the constraints on full access to reproductive health services and to improve quality of care. Dr. Sadik concluded that results of investigations in the areas of methodological development; conceptual clarification; and substantive, theoretical, and applied research should be consolidated into databases to enhance policy development and measurement of progress in meeting the goals of the world population conferences. In response to this lecture, Dr. Piet Bukman of the Netherlands discussed the problem of achieving food security and the urgent need for an effective population policy that will adopt short-term as well as longterm measures to limit global population growth.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1994. xii, 400 p.This sixth annual issue reviewing world resources gives the most current information on natural resources and the global environment. Special attention is given to the interaction between population and the environment. Chapter topics include the following: natural resource consumption trends and environmental consequences, the interactions between population and the environment, women in development, pesticide use, forests and rangelands, biodiversity, energy, water, atmosphere and climate, industry, international institutions, national and local policies and institutions. It is concluded that the environmental impact of increased consumption is a function of life styles and the extent of industrial activity and geographic patterns of production, terms of trade, level of technology, and extremes of wealth and poverty. Renewable resources are the only resources in danger of depletion due to high consumption levels in industrialized countries. Resource consumption in industrialized countries has the greatest impact on the Earth's atmosphere. Poverty and the inability to meet basic needs requires the use of natural resources to the point of degradation. Case studies of the two most populous countries in the world (China and India) reveal the most challenging problem of development in India is food and energy production. The rapid economic growth and the massive size of the population are threatening the environment and resources in China. Unfortunately, China's environmental policy leans toward the notion that one should not give up eating for fear of choking. Government policies on resource management, wealth or poverty, land tenure, land use planning, and general economic circumstances in India and China determine whether undesirable environmental impact occurs and the extent and nature of the impact. In China, the growing environmental problems may slow development or impoverish the population. In India, population growth is straining resources and increasing the risk of serious degradation. Sustainable development is dependent on the role of women. The Netherlands was the first to establish policies to regulate consumption and production. Chile is a rapidly developing country committed to sustainable development. Madagascar may have the most advanced environmental action plan in a country beset with poverty and population growth. Ample statistical tables, which are available on computer disc, document conditions.
[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994.  p.In her address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Turkey's Minister of State noted that Turkey's population policy began to reflect an antinatalist viewpoint in the 1950s. She also called for an end to all forms of discrimination against women and asked the international community to support efforts to strengthen the family, which the Turkish government regards as the basic element of society. Whereas Turkey does not support abortion as a method of family planning, the country recognizes the right of women to safe motherhood and opposes coercion in any form. In Turkey, accessibility, availability, acceptability, and affordability of health care is stressed. Turkey has also increased its attention to the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Since the 1970s, Turkey has recognized the need to address environmental concerns, and sustainable development is one of the main objectives of government policy. Other important issues are the collection of population data and placing priority on solving the problems of international migration. Turkey has pledged its support to the UN and the ICPD.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 168-88.Man's envisaged economic conversion is integration of ecology and economy through reduction in resource input of production which results in a reduction of emissions and wastes that adversely affect the natural environment. Some industrial nations, the UN Environment Programme, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development already use environmental indicators of adverse effects of production (e.g., emission data). We know less about the environmental significance of input factors in industrial production and which indicators contribute environmentally significant information about the structure of the economy, however. Using data from 31 countries, not including the US, an economist demonstrates that delinking of energy, steel, and cement consumption and weight of freight transport from the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) results in environmental gratis effects (rate of usage of input factors having a negative impact on the environment stays lower than the growth rate of GDP). It appears that the trend in developed countries is industrial restructuring. The conventional environmental policy is react-and-cure strategies on air and water pollution, noise, and waste. This costly policy needs to be improved by comparing environmental expenditures with data on environmental damage, identifying problems before ecosystems are destroyed, and incorporating cost-effective preventive measures. Environmental impact assessments are a means to accelerate technical knowledge and public awareness. Environmental standard setting should be a continuous process. Economy as it now exists indicates disharmony with nature (i.e., natural raw materials are swapped for produced waste materials polluting the environment). We should incorporate the external effects of production within our conscious or subconscious guiding principles, return the costs to the economic units that cause the environmental problem, and include the ecological viewpoint into all investment and economic decision making. We have yet to adapt a throughput economy (systematic reduction of depletable resources and generation of pollution emissions and wastes through recycling and clean technology).
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 88-107.A new global geopolitical structure is taking shape, a multipolar system strengthened by various regional economic powers (e.g., the European Economic Community). These powers will inevitably vie for global status. This system will be based on a succession of bridges and linkages of global interdependence on human rights and freedom, energy and environmental management, international trade and finance, technological and science development, and modern communications. These bridges and linkages should effect a more balanced global structure. The best prospect for a system of cooperation and interdependence among nations is the UN. Proper engineering of these bridges and linkages within a global and regional framework can bring about sustainable development. If competition between various economic power blocs is the guiding principle of these bridges and linkages, the world will experience a new era of regional and global conflict. For example, developed countries and their transnational companies once controlled the oil industry. They exploited huge oil reserves in developing countries and did not provide them appropriate compensation for depletion of their most important natural resource. Host countries reacted to this unfair treatment and took over and nationalized the companies, leading to a sizable increase in oil prices in the 1970s. This then caused global economic instability and general mistrust between exporting and importing countries. Demand for oil fell, and the producing countries could not decide how to distribute the oil sales reduction among themselves, so the buyers took control and still have control of the oil market. The demand for oil is rising and preserves are shrinking which will result in a rapid increase in oil prices. Thus, all nations must invest in development of new sources of energy. Oil should be just a short bridge towards sustainable development. Developed countries should place peaceful resolution of regional conflicts and bilateral disputes at the top of their agenda. Internationalism should replace nationalism and multilateralism should replace bilateralism.
JINKO MONDAI KENKYU / JOURNAL OF POPULATION PROBLEMS. 1992 Jul; 48(2):22-7.The second meeting to spearhead the "Independent Commission on Population and Quality of Life" (temporary name), initiated sand sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, was held in Italy on March 4 and 5, 1992. The meeting was attended by 21 people representing the US, Britain, Germany, Holland, Sweden, Japan, Indonesia, Mexico, and Egypt, as well as the UN Population Fund, Ford Foundation, MacArthur Foundation, and Hewlett Foundation. The topics the commission discussed were its scope and purpose; its role; the selection of its staff director and chairman; its official title; its location; schedule of meetings, reports, publications, hearings, and activities; and its budget and fund raising. Made up of distinguished politicians, scholars, celebrities, intellectuals, and women from developing countries, the Commission will have its own new perspective in conducting international population projects. Population problems handled by the Commission should include international migration, aging populations, poor public health, and the low status of women as well as population control by planned parenthood in developing countries. Environmental issues will also be included. The Commission currently lists 8 candidates for chairmen and 6 candidates for staff director. The Commission will be called either the "Independent Commission on Population" or the "Independent Commission on Population and Quality." The majority favored Europe as the headquarters site. It was suggested that 4 to 5 million dollars per three years will be needed. The following countries and organizations will be able to offer financial assistance in one way or another: Sweden, Holland, Britain, Germany, US, the UN Population Fund, the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Japan, the World Bank and the Hewlett Foundation have already been asked to contribute. It was suggested that other Nordic countries and Canada also be approached about funding.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. xiii, 100 p. (UNEP-World Bank Symposium)The World Bank and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) have published a book of selected papers presented at a series of workshops (1983-1988) on environmental accounting and its use in development policy and planning. The book also contains three contributions not presented at the workshops but written by workshop participants. Most chapters centers on financial and economic factors and the possibilities of revising the UN System of National Accounts (SNA) to include environmental and natural resource issues. The first chapter reviews environmental and resource accounting and includes a discussion of the failings of current national income measures as well as the depletion of natural resources. The second chapter proposes a measure of sustainable net national product. The third chapter presents a proper measurement of income from depletable natural resources. The fourth chapter suggests a means to introduce natural capital into the SNA. The fifth chapter describes measuring pollution with the national accounts system. Next the book provides guidelines to correct national income for environmental losses. A whole chapter is devoted to the French model of environmental accounting in development policy. A chapter on linkages between environmental and national income accounts follows the French model. The ninth chapter is a discussion on environmental and nonmarket accounting in developing countries. The tenth chapter outlines a proposed environmental accounts system. The eleventh chapter discusses environmental accounting and the system of national accounts. An account of recent developments and future works conclude this volume. The appendix lists the participants at the joint UNEP-World Bank workshops.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. xiv, 385 p.The World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Programme, and the UN Development Programme collaborate to produce the World Resources series to provide organizations and individuals with accessible and accurate information on the trends and conditions of natural resources and protection of the environment. This information is needed to reach sustainable development, eliminate poverty, improve the standard of living, and preserve biological life-sustaining systems. This 5th volume stresses sustainable development as does the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. Part I, entitled Sustainable Development, includes an overview chapter and 3 case studies of possible means to achieve sustainable development in industrialized countries, low income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Part II focuses on one region of the world, Central Europe, to discuss how it was able to degrade the environment, the magnitude of the damage, and what possible steps to take to ameliorate the situation. Part III addresses basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in population and human development, food and agriculture, forests and rangelands, wildlife and habitat, energy, freshwater, oceans and coasts, atmosphere and climate, and policies and institutions (governmental and nongovernmental organizations). Part IV lists core and supporting data from the World Resources Data Base. This volume contains an index and a World Resources Data Base index.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 105-9. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)In 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, romania, WHO discusses degradation of the environment and population. In developing countries, poor sanitary conditions and communicable diseases are responsible for most illnesses and deaths. Physical, chemical, and psychosocial factors, as well as pathogenic organisms, cause disease and death in developing countries. Variations in individuals and between individuals present problems in determining universally valid norms relating to environment and health. Researchers must use epidemiological and toxicological methods to identify sensitive indicators of environmental deterioration among vulnerable groups, e.g., children and the aged. Changes in demographics and psychosocial, climatic, geographical, geological, and hydrologic factors may influence the health and welfare of entire populations. Air pollution appears to adversely affect the respiratory tract. In fact, 3 striking events (Meuse valley in France , Donora valley in Pennsylvania [US], and London  show that air pollution can directly cause morbidity, especially bronchitis and heart disease, and mortality. Exposure to lead causes irreparable brain damage. Water pollution has risen with industrialization. Use of agricultural chemicals also contribute to water pollution. Repeated exposure to high noise levels can result in deafness. Occupational diseases occur among people exposed to physical, chemical, or biological pollutants at work which tend to be at higher levels than in the environment. Migrant workers from developing countries in Europe live in unsafe and unhygienic conditions. Further, they do not have access to adequate health services. Nevertheless, life expectancy has increased greatly along with urbanization and industrialization. A longer life span and environmental changes are linked with increased chronic diseases and diseases of the aged.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1992; 13(2-3):232-6.In 1989, the city of Rennes, France created its healthy city committee consisting of people from different sectors to strengthen health and the environment and to encourage public participation. It organized existing activities and integrated the health dimension into municipal decisions at all levels to create joint healthy city projects. For example, over 18 months, the Brittany Youth Information Center, the city of Rennes, the National School of Public Health, representatives of about 60 groups, teenagers, and private citizens organized and implemented an adolescent health week in November 1990. The intersectoral and participative approach of preparation resulted in new working relationships contributing to health for all. Some other healthy city projects included noise abatement actions, family gardens, a health information and documentation center, creation of a sexually transmitted disease/AIDS group, and roof safety campaigns. Organizers of all projects considered the health criteria including quality of the environment, support for the disabled, safety, and access to health care. Rennes became part of national and regional networks in France consisting of 30 cities. It also joined the WHO-European network and the French-speaking network where cities shared information via meetings and symposia. WHO emphasized a different health promotion topic each year such as community participation and equity. Issues discussed at the 1990 symposium in Stockholm were clean cities campaigns, nonpolluting urban transportation, the social and cultural environment, and unique urban problems of eastern European countries. The French-speaking network involved French-speaking areas and countries in Canada, Europe, and Africa. Sharing problems of cities in the developed countries could allow developing countries to avoid some of the same problems. The healthy cities approach cannot be just the responsibility of municipal authorities but also requires the backing of national governments and international groups.
INTEGRATION. 1992 Mar; (31):26-31.In 1989, the UN General Assembly agreed to sponsor a conference on environment and development and that the Heads of State would attend this 1st ever Earth Summit in June 1992. The planned agenda included making concrete changes to the basis of our economic life, relations between and among nations, and the outlook for the future. This would result in restructuring world priorities. Despite the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the human Environment acknowledging the basic link between environment and development, the environment has deteriorated even further, especially ozone depletion. Yet some governments did set up environmental agencies or ministries, like the US Environmental Protection Agency, but they were not allowed to influence economic policy or the policies and/or practices of major sectoral agencies. These environmental organizations relied too heavily on regulation. The 1992 conference needs to result in a political commitment to place reduction of poverty worldwide as the 1st priority since poverty and underdevelopment are strongly related to destruction of the environment. It is particularly important that developing countries improve their strengths by developing their human resources and institutional capacities (science, technology, management and professional skills) and reduce their vulnerabilities, such as dependence on foreign experts. This can best be achieved if they have access to technology. Moreover they must reduce population growth and reach population stability quickly. The 1992 conference in Brazil should also result in a global partnership based on common interest, mutual need, and shared responsibility. The world ecoindustrial revolution has already begun in some countries, such as Japan which has reduced energy use 40% since 1975. In fact, Japan has proven that environmental improvement can be accomplished with high rates of economic growth.
[Relationships between the population and environment in the world and in our surroundings] A nepesseg es a kornyezet viszonya a vilagban es szukebb kornyezetunkben.
STATISZTIKAI SZEMLE. 1989 Mar; 67(3):266-80.The relationship between population and the global environment is analyzed using data from U.N. sources. The author emphasizes the necessity of international programs to protect the environment and to assist countries in the management of their natural resources. Specific consideration is given to the situation in Hungary. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) (ANNOTATION)
In: State of the world 1988. A Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society. New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1988. 3-21.Most of the recognized threats to the world environment, such as the destruction of forests by acid rain, the ozone hole, population growth, energy use, and the greenhouse effect, have moved from hypothetical projections to present-day realities which can be solved only by international efforts. The Montreal accords of 1987 to limit the production of chlorofluorocarbons and the UN call for a cease-fire in the Iran-Iraq war were steps in this direction. But a look at the "vital signs" of the earth as expressed by environmental crises will show how much more is needed. Deforestation for agriculture and logging causes as estimated loss of 11 million hectares of forest each year. Deforestation means erosion. The topsoil layer, once 6-10 inches deep over the globe is being blown or washed away at the rate of 26 billion tons a year. The soil is not only being depleted, it is being contaminated by agricultural pesticides and toxic wastes. In Poland, for example, 1/4 of the soil is unfit for food production, and only 1% of the water is safe for drinking due to chemical contamination. The depletion of the ozone layer is no longer observed only in Antarctica; it has dropped up to 9% in North Dakota, Maine, and Switzerland. The loss of forests and the acidification of lakes and soil are causing whole species to become extinct. World population continues to grow, as each year 80 million more people are born than die. But the real problem is not population growth per se; it is the relationship between population size and the sustainable yield of local forests, grasslands, and croplands. In 1982 India's forests could sustain an annual harvest of 30 million tons of wood; the estimated demand was 133 million tons. In 9 Southern African countries the number of cattle exceed the carrying capacity of the grasslands by 50% to 100%. In India enough fodder is raised to supply only 50% to 80% of the needs of cattle. The results of deforestation, overgrazing and overplowing is desertification, which compounded by drought, brings famine. The relationship between population growth and land degradation is reflected in per capita food production. In China it has risen by 1/3 since 1970, but in Africa it has fallen by 1/5; and India, despite the Green Revolution, will have to import grain if there is another failure of the monsoons. Another indicator of environmental ill-health is energy consumption, which is again on the rise. Industrial use of oil and coal, especially in the US, the USSR, and China, has resulted in air pollution and acid rain, which by September 1987 had damaged 30.7 million hectares of forests in Europe. But by far the most serious result of the burning of fossil fuels and wood is the 7 billion tons of carbon discharged annually into the atmosphere, causing the greenhouse effect, which will raise the global temperature between 1.5 and 4.5 degrees Celsius by year 2050. Patterns of World settlement and agriculture will change drastically; irrigation and drainage systems will have to be adjusted; and a rise in sea levels between 1.4 and 2.2 meters by year 2100 could inundate coastal cities. In view of these deteriorating "vital signs" of the planet, nations must work together to turn one earth into one world. The Montreal accord on ozone protection and the 1987 US-Soviet arms limitation were a good beginning. The greenhouse effect and the changing climate are logical candidates for the next round of world environmental deliberations.
[World population at a turning point? Results of the International Conference on Population, Mexico, August 14-16, 1984] De wereldbevolking op een keerpunt? Resultaten van de Internationale Bevolkingsconferentie, Mexico, 6-14 augustus 1984.
Brussels, Belgium, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS], 1985. viii, 274 p. (CBGS Monografie No. 1985/3)The aim of this report is to summarize the results of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, and to review the findings of working groups and regional meetings held in preparation for the conference. Chapters are included on developments in the decade since the 1974 World Population Conference, world population trends, fertility and the family, population distribution and migration, mortality and morbidity, population and the environment, results of five regional U.N. conferences, the proceedings and results of the Mexico City conference, and activities involving Belgium.