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  1. 1

    Answering the call: The international donor community's response to the HIV / AIDS crisis in Eurasia.

    Henderson JR

    CommonHealth. 2005 Spring; 19-23.

    On the occasion of World AIDS Day, December 1, 2003, Peter Piot, executive director of the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) had some good news to share: Spending on HIV/AIDS programs rose 50 percent in 2003, from 3.1 to 4.7 billion dollars. In large part he attributed this to the efforts of the international donor community. International donor contributions traditionally stem from UN programs, affluent governments, development banks, and quasiprivate or private organizations, such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Various other donor agencies, including The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria--a partnership between governments, civil society, and the private sector--are providing valuable resources in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The support provided by these groups could not come at a more critical time. According to the latest statistics, 42 million people are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has described the pandemic as the greatest threat to the well-being of future generations. Two of the areas most affected by the disease are the World Bank's Eastern Europe and Central Asia sub-regions--which include all of the countries of the former Soviet Union--where the AIDS epidemic is growing at a faster rate than anywhere else in the world. According to a United Nations Report published in February 2004, "One out of every 100 adults walking down the streets of a city in Eastern Europe or the Commonwealth of Independent States carries the HIV virus that causes AIDS." (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Industrial restructuring for sustainable development: three points of departure.

    Simonis UE

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 168-88.

    Man's envisaged economic conversion is integration of ecology and economy through reduction in resource input of production which results in a reduction of emissions and wastes that adversely affect the natural environment. Some industrial nations, the UN Environment Programme, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development already use environmental indicators of adverse effects of production (e.g., emission data). We know less about the environmental significance of input factors in industrial production and which indicators contribute environmentally significant information about the structure of the economy, however. Using data from 31 countries, not including the US, an economist demonstrates that delinking of energy, steel, and cement consumption and weight of freight transport from the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) results in environmental gratis effects (rate of usage of input factors having a negative impact on the environment stays lower than the growth rate of GDP). It appears that the trend in developed countries is industrial restructuring. The conventional environmental policy is react-and-cure strategies on air and water pollution, noise, and waste. This costly policy needs to be improved by comparing environmental expenditures with data on environmental damage, identifying problems before ecosystems are destroyed, and incorporating cost-effective preventive measures. Environmental impact assessments are a means to accelerate technical knowledge and public awareness. Environmental standard setting should be a continuous process. Economy as it now exists indicates disharmony with nature (i.e., natural raw materials are swapped for produced waste materials polluting the environment). We should incorporate the external effects of production within our conscious or subconscious guiding principles, return the costs to the economic units that cause the environmental problem, and include the ecological viewpoint into all investment and economic decision making. We have yet to adapt a throughput economy (systematic reduction of depletable resources and generation of pollution emissions and wastes through recycling and clean technology).
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  3. 3

    Europe and Central Asia Region, Middle East and North Africa Region, population projections, 1992-93 edition.

    Vu MT; Bos E; Levin A

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population and Human Resources Dept., 1992 Nov. xcv, 203 p. (Policy Research Working Papers WPS 1016)

    Statistical information and a summary introduction were provided for Eastern Europe and Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East, and North African regions for selected demographic and economic measures. Measures included income, birth and death rates, fertility rates, rate of natural increase, net migration rate, growth rate, infant mortality rate, dependency ratio, and population projections to 2150. Detailed age and sex distributions were also provided. Both World Bank and nonborrower countries were included. The figures were updated from the 1990-91 Edition. The summary described and discussed recent demographic trends and future projections, and reviewed countries and regions by income level. Noteworthy changes by country were indicated. World Bank borrower countries were divided into the following regions: sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Europe and Central Asia, Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, which were regrouped into 4-6 country departments and into 4 income groups. The largest population was in East Asia and the Pacific with 30% of world population. Other large regions included South Asia with 21%, Africa with 10%, Europe and Central Asia with 9%, Latin America and the Caribbean with 8%, and the Middle East and North Africa with 5%. Country departments reflected the regions as a whole, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa with growth rates of 32.% to 2.8%. East Africa had the highest rates and Sahelian and South African countries the lowest rates. The Middle Eastern countries had rates of 3.0% in contrast to North African countries rates of 2.7%. Diversity was greatest in Asian departments. Rates were 2.0-2.6% in South Asia and 1.9-1.4% in East Asian and Pacific departments. The lowest rates were in European and Central Asian departments. In 1992, less developed countries comprised 77% of the world population. The projections indicated that by 2150 the population would reach 12.2 billion, of which 88% would live in developing countries. The 1992 projections differed from 1990-91's in that the projections were revised downward due to AIDS mortality. World fertility was projected to decline from 3.2 now to 2.9 by 2000 and 2.4 by 2025. Life expectancy was expected to reach 70 years in about 2010. The proportion aged would rise in more developed countries.
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  4. 4

    Sustainable development through global interdependence.

    Attiga AA

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 88-107.

    A new global geopolitical structure is taking shape, a multipolar system strengthened by various regional economic powers (e.g., the European Economic Community). These powers will inevitably vie for global status. This system will be based on a succession of bridges and linkages of global interdependence on human rights and freedom, energy and environmental management, international trade and finance, technological and science development, and modern communications. These bridges and linkages should effect a more balanced global structure. The best prospect for a system of cooperation and interdependence among nations is the UN. Proper engineering of these bridges and linkages within a global and regional framework can bring about sustainable development. If competition between various economic power blocs is the guiding principle of these bridges and linkages, the world will experience a new era of regional and global conflict. For example, developed countries and their transnational companies once controlled the oil industry. They exploited huge oil reserves in developing countries and did not provide them appropriate compensation for depletion of their most important natural resource. Host countries reacted to this unfair treatment and took over and nationalized the companies, leading to a sizable increase in oil prices in the 1970s. This then caused global economic instability and general mistrust between exporting and importing countries. Demand for oil fell, and the producing countries could not decide how to distribute the oil sales reduction among themselves, so the buyers took control and still have control of the oil market. The demand for oil is rising and preserves are shrinking which will result in a rapid increase in oil prices. Thus, all nations must invest in development of new sources of energy. Oil should be just a short bridge towards sustainable development. Developed countries should place peaceful resolution of regional conflicts and bilateral disputes at the top of their agenda. Internationalism should replace nationalism and multilateralism should replace bilateralism.
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  5. 5

    International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities.

    Russell SS

    Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, 1993. v, 83 p.

    As a joint effort of the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe, the aim of this report was to identify international migration research and research-related activities in major political and institutional context, general overviews, and data sources, migration is discussed in terms of demography, international policies, economic and labor market aspects, highly skilled workers, development, integration, migration networks, ethnic relations, refugees and asylum seekers. East-west migration is also treated in a political and institutional context, with general overviews and data sources cited. The development and labor markets as well as ethnicity and return migration are considered. South-north migration is examined in a broad manner, with special emphasis on migration in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The review is meant to serve as a useful resource and as a stimulus for dialogue. Basic data are missing on east-west migration and labor, migration patterns within the Middle-East, and north-south movements other than from North Africa. Basic institutional sources for data and research on international migration are available from the Council of Europe; the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the International Labor Organization; the International Organization for Migration; the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America, and Australia; and the European Community. 13 major publications are primary sources of data, of which the most extensive is OECD's SOPEMI Report. 9 sources of data pertain to demographic aspects of migration. The 1986 SOPEMI report and updates document national policies and practices of entry control in OECD member countries; the UN Population Division also published a survey of population policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities also publishes a document on noncommunity citizens. Researchers who have analyzed recent trends are identified, and research papers are cited for labor aspects of migration, highly skilled workers and migration, migration and development, integration and ethnic relations, migrant networks, refugees and asylum seekers, security, return migration, clandestine migration and ethical issues.
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  6. 6

    International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 64 p.

    The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
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  7. 7

    Out from behind the contraceptive Iron Curtain.

    Jacobson JL

    WORLD WATCH. 1990 Sep-Oct; 3(5):29-34.

    In the early 1950s, the Soviet Union and several of its Eastern European satellites completed their transition from high to low fertility before the US and Western Europe. They did this even though there were not enough modern contraceptives available to meet the needs of its citizens. As late as 1990, the Soviet Union had no factories manufacturing modern contraceptives. A gynecologist in Poland described domestically produced oral contraceptives (OCs) as being good for horses, but not for humans. The Romanian government under Ceaucescu banned all contraceptives and safe abortion services. Therefore, women relied on abortion as their principal means of birth control, even in Catholic Poland. The legal abortion rates in the Soviet Union and Romania stood at 100/1000 (1985) and 91/1000 (1987) as compared to 18/1000 in Denmark and 13/1000 in France. All too often these abortion were prohibited and occurred under unsafe conditions giving rise to complications and death. Further, the lack of contraceptives in the region precipitated and increase in AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. On the other hand, abortion rates were minimalized in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary due to the availability of modern contraceptives and reproductive health services. Hungary and East Germany even manufactured OCs. OC use in these 2 nations rated as among the world's highest. East Germany also treated infertility and sexually transmitted diseases. The region experienced a political opening in latecomer 1989. In 1989, IPPF gave approximately 15 million condoms and 3000 monthly OC packets to the Soviet Union to ease the transition. More international assistance for contraceptive supplies and equipment and training to modernize abortion practices is necessary.
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