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USAID / Moldova antitrafficking assessment -- critical gaps in and recommendations for antitrafficking activities.
Washington, D.C., Development Alternatives, WID Tech, 2002 Oct.  p. (USAID Contract No. FAO-0100-C-00-6005-00)The objective of this assessment is twofold: (1) to provide USAID/Western New Independent States (WNIS) with a road map of existing trafficking-prevention activities undertaken by donor agencies and bilateral, international-development and host-country-government institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Moldova; and (2) to help USAID/WNIS identify critical gaps in existing approaches in Moldova that new interventions might address. The road map and accompanying list of recommendations provide U.S. government officials in USAID/WNIS with the information and tools necessary to design specific activities at a later date. (excerpt)
Food and nutrition security in poverty alleviation: concepts, strategies, and experiences at the German Agency for Technical Cooperation.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 11 Suppl:S341-S347.Poverty alleviation and food and nutrition security remain one of the priority areas of development policies for the German government. Poverty exists when individuals or groups are not able to satisfy their basic needs adequately. Poverty consists of at least three dimensions: (i) the availability of essential resources for basic needs; (ii) financial and other means of poor individuals and groups; and (iii) the physical, intellectual, social, and cultural status and position of poor individuals and groups. Following this model, the severity of poverty is the collective gap between the availability of the essential resources (i) and the individual ability to meet basic needs (ii) + (iii). Basic needs are not covered if individuals or groups are not able to develop themselves physically, intellectually, and/or socially according to their genetic potentials. As a result, growth retardation of children (‘stunting’), who are biologically and socially the most vulnerable individuals of the society, is a valid cultural independent indicator for poverty. One form of poverty is food and nutrition insecurity. Food security is achieved if adequate food (quantity, quality, safety, sociocultural acceptability) is available and accessible for and satisfactorily utilized by all individuals at all times to live a healthy and happy life. Food and nutrition programmes have four dimensions: (i) categorical; (ii) socio-organizational; (iii) managerial; and (iv) situationrelated dimensions. As shown in three examples of Indonesian–German programmes, despite the complexity of poverty and food and nutrition security, with adequate targeting of the most vulnerable population, adequate identification of problems for a proper selection of interventions and frequent evaluation, reduction of poverty and food insecurity can be achieved. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2002. 28 p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/02.23)Although the past 15 years have seen a decline in child mortality due to pneumonia, it remains a very important cause of death in developing countries. In Africa in particular, pneumonia and malaria are by far the most important causes of death for children under 5. The overall aim of this meeting was to help to define practical community approaches which could deliver a rapid reduction in this preventable mortality. WHO has developed and supported the use of case management of pneumonia through the ARI Programme and later as a part of IMCI. The main focus for these initiatives has been the health facility, although much of the demonstration of the efficacy of the clinical interventions was carried out at community level, using community health workers. IMCI uses the same clinical methodology. Although IMCI stresses the promotion of care-seeking by families with sick children, in general, the clinical management of such children is offered at the first level health facility. The importance of providing care without delay for children with malaria has led to the development and introduction, so far on a small scale, of interventions based in the community, either through a community health worker or directly by families, who are provided with packs of antimalarials. These two diseases in childhood, pneumonia and malaria, have major overlaps in terms of clinical presentation, the requirements for their effective management and the feasibility of providing standardised care in the community. Technically sound and operationally manageable community interventions that tackled both conditions would offer a most valuable tool for use in the reduction in child mortality in developing countries. (excerpt)
The safety and feasibility of female condom reuse: report of a WHO consultation, 28-29 January 2002, Geneva.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002. , 15 p.According to the recommendations of the first consultation, this second meeting (January 2002) was planned to review the resulting data and to develop further guidance on the safety of reuse of the female condom. The specific objectives and anticipated outcomes of this second consultation were to: Review the results and evaluate the implications of the recently completed microbiology and structural integrity experiments and the human use study; Develop a protocol or set of instructions for disinfecting and cleaning used female condoms safely; Outline future research areas and related issues for programme managers to consider when determining the balance of risks and benefits of female condom reuse in various contexts and settings. (excerpt)
Stockholm, Sweden, Kvinnoforum, 2002 Feb. 87 p.This third edition of the Resource Book for Working Against Trafficking in Women and Girls in the Baltic Sea Region serves as a useful tool for different actors working against trafficking in and around the area. It presents a global overview on what trafficking is about, introduces the networking projects conducted by Kvinnoforum and its partner organizations in six countries in the Baltic Sea Region, and provides contacting details and work of organizations, governmental institutions and others in the six countries.
Lancet. 2002 Jun 29; 359(9325):2255.At the meeting of the European Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (RCC), the WHO declared that the poliovirus has been eradicated in Europe. The 51 countries in the European region have been free of indigenous wild poliomyelitis for more than 3 years. The eradication of polio was confirmed by the independent RCC panel of experts, who have been studying surveillance data and evidence from national certification committees since 1996. However, the WHO stressed that until global eradication has been achieved parents must have their children vaccinated even though the risk of polio is lower. While in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria/Niger, the intensity of polio transmission is still high. Hence, for 2002, it is the goal of the WHO to stop wild polio transmission in all countries.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002; 80(1):78.According to the AIDS Epidemic Update released in November 2001 by the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), HIV/AIDS infection is escalating globally. The disease is spreading most quickly in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where an estimated 1 million people are now infected with the disease. Furthermore, statistics show that about 5 million people were infected with HIV in 2001 (versus 5.3 million in 2000) and an estimated 40 million (versus 36.1 million) are believed to be living with the virus worldwide. In response to this threat, prevention and aggressive harm-reduction programs are at work, according to the Director-General of WHO, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland. He cited several Asian countries, like Thailand and Cambodia, whose efforts of prevention are effectively working in reducing the incidence of HIV/AIDS. Poland and several African states have also shown exemplified actions in controlling the epidemic. Dr. Jesus Maria Garcia Calleja, a UNAIDS epidemiologist stressed the need of will and commitment from all sectors to prevent further outbreak. In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, since the spread is still in its early stages, a comprehensive response is needed to reduce risky sexual and drug-injecting behavior among young people, and to tackle the socioeconomic and other factors that promote the spread of the virus.
Strengthening immunization systems and introduction of hepatitis B vaccine in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States.
Vaccine. 2002; 20:1475-9.On June 24-27, 2001, the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board conducted a meeting in St. Petersburg, Russia. The aim of this meeting was to review and strengthen a 1996 immunization initiative and to introduce the hepatitis B vaccine in central and eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States. This meeting was organized in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), the Children's Vaccine Program, WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). This conference has several partner agencies that augment the process of enforcing affordable and sustainable programs. This partnership has helped encourage 11 countries to apply for support for immunization services and universal hepatitis B immunization from GAVI/The Vaccine Fund. Information on how to improve hepatitis B programs was also elicited.