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Food and nutrition security in poverty alleviation: concepts, strategies, and experiences at the German Agency for Technical Cooperation.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 11 Suppl:S341-S347.Poverty alleviation and food and nutrition security remain one of the priority areas of development policies for the German government. Poverty exists when individuals or groups are not able to satisfy their basic needs adequately. Poverty consists of at least three dimensions: (i) the availability of essential resources for basic needs; (ii) financial and other means of poor individuals and groups; and (iii) the physical, intellectual, social, and cultural status and position of poor individuals and groups. Following this model, the severity of poverty is the collective gap between the availability of the essential resources (i) and the individual ability to meet basic needs (ii) + (iii). Basic needs are not covered if individuals or groups are not able to develop themselves physically, intellectually, and/or socially according to their genetic potentials. As a result, growth retardation of children (‘stunting’), who are biologically and socially the most vulnerable individuals of the society, is a valid cultural independent indicator for poverty. One form of poverty is food and nutrition insecurity. Food security is achieved if adequate food (quantity, quality, safety, sociocultural acceptability) is available and accessible for and satisfactorily utilized by all individuals at all times to live a healthy and happy life. Food and nutrition programmes have four dimensions: (i) categorical; (ii) socio-organizational; (iii) managerial; and (iv) situationrelated dimensions. As shown in three examples of Indonesian–German programmes, despite the complexity of poverty and food and nutrition security, with adequate targeting of the most vulnerable population, adequate identification of problems for a proper selection of interventions and frequent evaluation, reduction of poverty and food insecurity can be achieved. (author's)
[The hidden starving. Nutrition in underdeveloped countries] Den dolda svalten: Nutrition v utvecklingslanderna -- ett angelaget arbete.
NORDISK MEDICIN. 1997 Jun; 112(6):204-5.Undernutrition and malnutrition among children and women have diminished in most low-income countries in recent decades except for large parts of Africa. The Swedish International Agency for Development Cooperation (Sida), UNICEF, and the World Bank have financed nutrition projects. The right type of intervention can achieve much for children, especially when breast feeding is promoted. Although the importance of iodine has been known for a long time, the intensive iodination of salt worldwide has been propagated only in recent years. Research has shown that even slight deficiency of iodine leads to reduced ability to learn among children. 23-45% of child mortality could be reduced if the vitamin A needs of children could be assured. A combined strategy of large doses of vitamin A in capsule form as well as vitamin A-rich meals prepared from vegetables is recommended. Iron deficiency affects about half of the women and small children in many countries. Children's learning ability also worsens if iron deficiency is present. In the poorest countries nutritional assistance often falters because of the lack of local capacity to distribute and utilize aid. Sida has been singularly responsible for building up capacity to absorb aid in many African countries. In Ethiopia and Zambia mixed results have ensued, but in Zimbabwe and Tanzania the outcome has been splendid after many years of exertion. In these countries the nutritional status of children has improved in the 1990s despite their stagnating economies. The Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre is technically the best developed on the continent, while Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health has succeeded in carrying out a nationwide nutrition program, and for most children (nearly 1 million) it provided a feeding program amidst recurring droughts. The promotion of the importance of breast feeding is borne out by the fact that exclusive breast feeding protects children against disease and stunting.