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Food and nutrition security in poverty alleviation: concepts, strategies, and experiences at the German Agency for Technical Cooperation.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 11 Suppl:S341-S347.Poverty alleviation and food and nutrition security remain one of the priority areas of development policies for the German government. Poverty exists when individuals or groups are not able to satisfy their basic needs adequately. Poverty consists of at least three dimensions: (i) the availability of essential resources for basic needs; (ii) financial and other means of poor individuals and groups; and (iii) the physical, intellectual, social, and cultural status and position of poor individuals and groups. Following this model, the severity of poverty is the collective gap between the availability of the essential resources (i) and the individual ability to meet basic needs (ii) + (iii). Basic needs are not covered if individuals or groups are not able to develop themselves physically, intellectually, and/or socially according to their genetic potentials. As a result, growth retardation of children (‘stunting’), who are biologically and socially the most vulnerable individuals of the society, is a valid cultural independent indicator for poverty. One form of poverty is food and nutrition insecurity. Food security is achieved if adequate food (quantity, quality, safety, sociocultural acceptability) is available and accessible for and satisfactorily utilized by all individuals at all times to live a healthy and happy life. Food and nutrition programmes have four dimensions: (i) categorical; (ii) socio-organizational; (iii) managerial; and (iv) situationrelated dimensions. As shown in three examples of Indonesian–German programmes, despite the complexity of poverty and food and nutrition security, with adequate targeting of the most vulnerable population, adequate identification of problems for a proper selection of interventions and frequent evaluation, reduction of poverty and food insecurity can be achieved. (author's)
Connections. 2006 Jan;  p.In September 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) awarded Ukraine a 2.5 million dollar grant to combat the country's growing tuberculosis epidemic, according to Mykola Polischuk, who was Minister of Health at the time the grant was awarded. This funding will provide for the purchase of high-quality medications and allow for the cost-effective treatment of 75,000 patients over three years beginning in January 2006. The new treatment program will employ the DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy-Short Course) strategy, which has been recognized as the world's best strategy for fighting TB largely due to its reliance on cheaper microbiological methods of diagnosis rather than X-rays. Patients are first identified using microscopy services then prescribed the correct dosage of anti-TB medicines for a period of six to eight months. If administered accurately, DOTS can successfully treat TB in 99 percent of cases. Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko echoed WHO's decision to increase TB funding in October when he pledged to increase health funding, restore the country's failing health system, and fight the spread of HIV and tuberculosis, according to the Associated Press. (excerpt)
Report of the expert meeting: “3 by 5”, What Are the Implications? Organized by the Royal Tropical Institute, Aids Fonds and Share-Net, 16 September 2004, Amsterdam.
Amsterdam, Netherlands, KIT, 2004. 27 p.In 2003, the WHO started an initiative to expand access to HIV treatment. “3 by 5” is the name of the global target of providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to three million people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited countries by the end of 2005. It is a step towards the goal of providing universal access to treatment for all who need it. The WHO’s framework for emergency scaling up of anti-retroviral therapy contains 14 key strategic elements. These elements fall into five categories – the pillars of the “3 by 5” campaign: i) global leadership, strong partnership and advocacy; ii) urgent, sustained country support; iii) simplified, standardized tools for delivering antiretroviral therapy; iv) effective, reliable supply of medicines and diagnostics; and v) rapid identification and application of new knowledge and successes. The strategy also aims to develop guidelines for ensuring the quality of anti-retroviral drugs and to build country-level capacity for delivery and utilization of simple diagnostics for monitoring patient adherence to treatment as well as drug resistance. In the first six months of this strategy, progress was made towards the goal of increasing access to treatment. But much remains to be done, and urgently, if the world is to meet its target of providing treatment to three million people by the end of 2005. (excerpt)
EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Aug-Sep; (60):3.The president of the study group on demography and global population called for an intensification of the fight against maternal mortality worldwide. In general terms, the minister confirmed that reducing and preventing maternal mortality are Foreign Affairs Ministry priorities. He also noted the theme of projects to prevent risk factors, including the development of reproductive health with UNPFA, women’s promotion, child protection to prevent the genital mutilation of girls, girls’ education, microcredit, cooperation, the development of quality care, personnel training, economic access to quality care, measures against communicable diseases, safe blood transfusion, nutrition, and the implementation of systems to effectively manage supplies of essential medicines, equipment, and supplies. On all of these subjects, the minister declared himself open to the co-financing of decentralized projects in the country’s priority zones. A midwife training project is being implemented in Haiti. A government minister noted that lessons learned from the first multibilateral accord between France and UNFPA will, given its success, open the door to future collaboration and interventions. Comoros and Haiti would be interested. Otherwise, converting the debt of very poor countries into projects would present the opportunity to increase available funding for population policies.