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  1. 1

    Prevention of HIV infection in infants: Documenting and learning from the Ukraine experience.

    Thorne C; Newell ML; Zhylka N

    Kyiv, Ukraine, UNICEF, 2007. 100 p.

    The aim of this review is to document the experience of PMTCT in Ukraine to date, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of lessons learned within the current PMTCT programme. The report is structured around the four pillars of PMTCT: primary prevention of HIV infection within the context of MTCT; prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women; prevention of transmission from HIV positive women to their child; providing care and support to HIV positive women, their infants and their family. Since the initiation of the first national PMTCT programme in Ukraine in 2001, Ukraine has made substantial progress towards prevention of HIV infection in infants. Evaluation of the first programme in 2003 by a national and international team, including WHO and UNICEF, allowed consolidation of effort and the development of the next phase of the PMTCT programme. Furthermore, the findings facilitated the development of 'The Strategic Framework for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Infants in Europe' (2004). This outlined strategies for the implementation of the prevention of HIV infection in infants at a national level, with the aim of achieving the Dublin Declaration PMTCT goals. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    USAID / Moldova antitrafficking assessment -- critical gaps in and recommendations for antitrafficking activities.

    Arnold J; Doni C

    Washington, D.C., Development Alternatives, WID Tech, 2002 Oct. [65] p. (USAID Contract No. FAO-0100-C-00-6005-00)

    The objective of this assessment is twofold: (1) to provide USAID/Western New Independent States (WNIS) with a road map of existing trafficking-prevention activities undertaken by donor agencies and bilateral, international-development and host-country-government institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Moldova; and (2) to help USAID/WNIS identify critical gaps in existing approaches in Moldova that new interventions might address. The road map and accompanying list of recommendations provide U.S. government officials in USAID/WNIS with the information and tools necessary to design specific activities at a later date. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    WHO grant helps Ukraine combat tuberculosis.

    Connections. 2006 Jan; [2] p.

    In September 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) awarded Ukraine a 2.5 million dollar grant to combat the country's growing tuberculosis epidemic, according to Mykola Polischuk, who was Minister of Health at the time the grant was awarded. This funding will provide for the purchase of high-quality medications and allow for the cost-effective treatment of 75,000 patients over three years beginning in January 2006. The new treatment program will employ the DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy-Short Course) strategy, which has been recognized as the world's best strategy for fighting TB largely due to its reliance on cheaper microbiological methods of diagnosis rather than X-rays. Patients are first identified using microscopy services then prescribed the correct dosage of anti-TB medicines for a period of six to eight months. If administered accurately, DOTS can successfully treat TB in 99 percent of cases. Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko echoed WHO's decision to increase TB funding in October when he pledged to increase health funding, restore the country's failing health system, and fight the spread of HIV and tuberculosis, according to the Associated Press. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe. Report of a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 13-15 May 1996.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. [3], 14 p. (EUR/ICP/CMDS 08 01 01)

    In response to the alarming rise in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the newly independent states, the WHO Regional Office for Europe, WHO headquarters and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS organized a meeting of experts from the most affected countries to exchange information and to identify priority actions for the control of the epidemic. The participants included 15 experts from Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The participants called for urgent action, including a careful assessment of the existing systems for STD control, reallocation of resources among the various activity areas and strong advocacy to generate awareness at the top level of government and strengthen its support for the recommended initiatives. They also urged that national coordination of programmes to promote sexual health and prevent STDs and HIV be strengthened, that statutory services be made more accessible and acceptable to patients and that efforts be made to ensure that all health workers managing patients with STDs, including those in the private sector, provide high-quality care. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Infant growth and health outcomes associated with 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Kramer MS; Guo T; Platt RW; Sevkovskaya Z; Dzikovich I

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 Aug; 78(2):291-295.

    Background: Opinions and recommendations about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been strongly divided, but few published studies have provided direct evidence on the relative risks and benefits of different breastfeeding durations in recipient infants. Objective: We examined the effects on infant growth and health of 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding. Design: We conducted an observational cohort study nested within a large randomized trial in Belarus by comparing 2862 infants exclusively breastfed for 3 mo (with continued mixed breastfeeding through = 6 mo) with 621 infants who were exclusively breastfed for = 6 mo. Regression to the mean, within-cluster correlation, and cluster- and individual-level confounding variables were accounted for by using multilevel regression analyses. Results: From 3 to 6 mo, weight gain was slightly greater in the 3-mo group [difference: 29 g/mo (95% CI: 13, 45 g/mo)], as was length gain [difference: 1.1 mm (0.5, 1.6 mm)], but the 6-mo group had a faster length gain from 9 to 12 mo [difference: 0.9 mm/mo (0.3, 1.5 mm/mo)] and a larger head circumference at 12 mo [difference: 0.19 cm (0.07, 0.31 cm)]. A significant reduction in the incidence density of gastrointestinal infection was observed during the period from 3 to 6 mo in the 6-mo group [adjusted incidence density ratio: 0.35 (0.13, 0.96)], but no significant differences in risk of respiratory infectious outcomes or atopic eczema were apparent. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo is associated with a lower risk of gastrointestinal infection and no demonstrable adverse health effects in the first year of life. (author's)
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  6. 6

    The new lepers. HIV-positive people are treated as social outcasts while the government fails to cope.

    Osokina A

    London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Aug 8. 3 p. (Belarus Reporting Service No. 28)

    More and more people in Belarus are finding themselves in her position – 50 or 60 new HIV cases are recorded every month. At the beginning of August, the number of people carrying the virus reached 5,150, and experts fear that the figure will be more than double that in 2005. More worryingly, some say the recorded figures should be multiplied by a factor of three or more since they fail to capture drug users who have not been seen by the health authorities. Although HIV and AIDS are advancing rapidly, neither the government nor society in general appear able to come to terms with it. A survey conducted jointly by the United Nations and the Centre for Sociological and Political Research in Minsk found that three quarters of the people polled thought people with HIV should not be allowed to care for their own children, and more than 40 per cent said they should not be allowed to travel around the country or choose where they want to live. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Alliance activities: What can be done?

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1995 Apr; 1(2):5.

    This brief article summarizes these Alliance activities: a collaboration of the Alliance, the World Health Organization, and the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to hold two-step conferences/training sessions for military and civilian medical officers; assessing the HIV-related causes of civil and military instability; and assisting the coalitions of civil and military authorities by helping to secure financial and other assistance for their work.
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  8. 8

    A resource book for working against trafficking in women and girls, Baltic Sea region. 3rd ed.


    Stockholm, Sweden, Kvinnoforum, 2002 Feb. 87 p.

    This third edition of the Resource Book for Working Against Trafficking in Women and Girls in the Baltic Sea Region serves as a useful tool for different actors working against trafficking in and around the area. It presents a global overview on what trafficking is about, introduces the networking projects conducted by Kvinnoforum and its partner organizations in six countries in the Baltic Sea Region, and provides contacting details and work of organizations, governmental institutions and others in the six countries.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV / AIDS surges in Eastern Europe -- Asia-Pacific next?

    Agnew B

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002; 80(1):78.

    According to the AIDS Epidemic Update released in November 2001 by the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), HIV/AIDS infection is escalating globally. The disease is spreading most quickly in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where an estimated 1 million people are now infected with the disease. Furthermore, statistics show that about 5 million people were infected with HIV in 2001 (versus 5.3 million in 2000) and an estimated 40 million (versus 36.1 million) are believed to be living with the virus worldwide. In response to this threat, prevention and aggressive harm-reduction programs are at work, according to the Director-General of WHO, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland. He cited several Asian countries, like Thailand and Cambodia, whose efforts of prevention are effectively working in reducing the incidence of HIV/AIDS. Poland and several African states have also shown exemplified actions in controlling the epidemic. Dr. Jesus Maria Garcia Calleja, a UNAIDS epidemiologist stressed the need of will and commitment from all sectors to prevent further outbreak. In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, since the spread is still in its early stages, a comprehensive response is needed to reduce risky sexual and drug-injecting behavior among young people, and to tackle the socioeconomic and other factors that promote the spread of the virus.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Strengthening immunization systems and introduction of hepatitis B vaccine in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States.

    FitzSimons D; Van Damme P; Emiroglu N; Godal T; Kane M

    Vaccine. 2002; 20:1475-9.

    On June 24-27, 2001, the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board conducted a meeting in St. Petersburg, Russia. The aim of this meeting was to review and strengthen a 1996 immunization initiative and to introduce the hepatitis B vaccine in central and eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States. This meeting was organized in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), the Children's Vaccine Program, WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). This conference has several partner agencies that augment the process of enforcing affordable and sustainable programs. This partnership has helped encourage 11 countries to apply for support for immunization services and universal hepatitis B immunization from GAVI/The Vaccine Fund. Information on how to improve hepatitis B programs was also elicited.
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  11. 11

    First shipment of vital tuberculosis drugs arrives in Moldova. Press release.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2001 Oct 15 2 p. (Press Release WHO/43)

    The WHO estimates that about 5800 people develop tuberculosis (TB) in Moldova every year. Due to a shortage of quality TB drugs, Moldova's Premier Vasile Tarlev adopted the Direct Observation Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) in June 2001. DOTS is the internationally recommended strategy for controlling and treating TB, to fight the epidemic. Through a global TB partnership initiative, the Global TB Drug Facility (GDF), TB drugs are made available for the treatment of nearly 4000 TB sufferers in Moldova. The arrival of the high-quality TB drugs in the country represents the first delivery through the Facility. The GDF, which supports DOTS expansion, has been established with the aim of increasing access to high-quality TB drugs worldwide. Through standardization of drug products, which involves a bulk buying procurement system, and a competitive bidding process, the Facility has slashed TB drug prices to just US $10. In addition to Moldova, 11 other countries have qualified for support under the GDF.
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  12. 12

    Ukraine infectious disease program planning visit, a joint mission by USAID, BASICS, PATH, and CDC, April 14-26, 1997, Kiev, Ukraine.

    Mercer D; Weeks M

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. [3], 7, [9] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This trip report concerns the joint visit during April 14-26, 1997, of consultants from USAID, BASICS, PATH, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Ukraine. The trip aimed to begin development of an assistance program for strengthening local health management information systems (HMIS) and to gain Mission support for a multi-year health information system reform program beyond 1997. The Mission suggested a program for strengthening the Ukraine's Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Oblast Sanitary and Epidemiologic Surveillance (SES) capacity to control infectious diseases. The MOH is in the process of health program and personnel reforms. SES operates at the oblast and rayon levels, which report infectious diseases to the national level. The state SES and the Center for Medical Services compile national health statistics. The new HMIS is based on BASICS HMIS reform activities in other countries of the former Soviet Union and the USAID/PATH experience with Ukraine diphtheria control data systems. The trip team met with the USAID Regional Mission, senior officials at the MOH and State SES, several national institutes involved with HMIS, a UNICEF representative, and an HMIS donor. The trip team visited one rayon in Kievskaya Oblast, and several consultants visited Zhitomyr Oblast SES. The trip team met with USAID in Kiev. Consultants met with MOH and vaccine donors, at which time it was reported that there were deficits in EPI and other vaccines for 1997. The Ukraine is facing a shortage of vaccines because the Canadian donor will no longer donate vaccines. Logistics on vaccines is difficult to obtain because supplies come directly from Russia and are not routinely reported in stock balances at the national level. The UNICEF consultant reported faulty cold storage facilities. The HMIS information flow is tedious, error-prone, and useless for planning or decision making.
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  13. 13

    Preparatory Meeting on Diphtheria Control Strategy, Berlin, December 15, 1994.

    Steinglass R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1994. [3], 7, [75] p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 NS 01 001; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    In December 1994 in Berlin, Germany, WHO and UNICEF sponsored a meeting on diphtheria control strategy for the Newly Independent States (NIS). The participants prepared a proposed strategy to be elaborated on and endorsed by ministries of health (MOHs) of the NIS and donor agencies at 2 follow-up meetings scheduled for January 1995. The NIS is experiencing a diphtheria epidemic. The epidemic is starting to stabilize only in the Ukraine. Children comprise 40% of cases. Diphtheria has become firmly established in all age groups and throughout entire countries, so past immunization strategies (i.e., 3 doses of diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine [Td] for just high risk groups) cannot curb the epidemic. Now as many people as possible must receive 1 dose of such a vaccine. Some high risk age groups should receive additional doses. A group at very high risk of diphtheria is school-aged children. Last year it was estimated that the Ukraine needed 22 million doses of Td for mass immunization, but it now needs 81 million doses of Td. UNICEF will provide 4 doses of DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus toxoid) vaccine as part of the standard primary series and 1 booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (pediatric formulation) at school entry. Manufacturers are not responding to requests for production of additional quantities of antitoxin by the spring, thereby prolonging the chronic global shortage of antitoxin. The meeting was productive in developing a technically sound strategy, but more attention is needed to produce political interest/will and to mobilize resources. In addition to WHO talking to MOHs, more media coverage and social mobilization are needed within each NIS. During the next few months, WHO and UNICEF will determine whether a pledging session of potential donors is needed. The International Federation of Red Cross is donating $2 million for diphtheria control in the Ukraine.
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