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Environment International. 2012 Oct 15; 47:17-22.There is an assumption that pyrethroid pesticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. However, some recent works have shown their bioaccumulation in human breast milk collected in areas where pyrethroids have been widely used for agriculture or malaria control. In this work, thirteen pyrethroids have been studied in human breast milk samples coming from areas without pyrethroid use for malaria control, such as Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The concentrations of pyrethroids ranged from 1.45 to 24.2 ng g- 1 lw. Cypermethrin, -cyhalothrin, permethrin and esfenvalerate/fenvalerate were present in all the studied samples. The composition of pyrethroid mixture depended on the country of origin of the samples, bifenthrin being the most abundant in Brazilian samples, -cyhalothrin in Colombian and permethrin in Spanish ones. When the pyrethroid concentrations were confronted against the number of gestations, an exponential decay was observed. Moreover, a time trend study was carried out in Brazil, where additional archived pool samples were analyzed, corresponding to years when pyrethroids were applied for dengue epidemic control. In these cases, total pyrethroid levels reached up to 128 ng g- 1 lw, and concentrations decreased when massive use was not allowed. Finally, daily intake estimation of nursing infants was calculated in each country and compared to acceptable WHO levels. The estimated daily intakes for nursing infants were always below the acceptable daily intake levels, nevertheless in certain samples the detected concentrations were very close to the maximum acceptable levels.
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNICEF, 2007. 100 p.The aim of this review is to document the experience of PMTCT in Ukraine to date, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of lessons learned within the current PMTCT programme. The report is structured around the four pillars of PMTCT: primary prevention of HIV infection within the context of MTCT; prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women; prevention of transmission from HIV positive women to their child; providing care and support to HIV positive women, their infants and their family. Since the initiation of the first national PMTCT programme in Ukraine in 2001, Ukraine has made substantial progress towards prevention of HIV infection in infants. Evaluation of the first programme in 2003 by a national and international team, including WHO and UNICEF, allowed consolidation of effort and the development of the next phase of the PMTCT programme. Furthermore, the findings facilitated the development of 'The Strategic Framework for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Infants in Europe' (2004). This outlined strategies for the implementation of the prevention of HIV infection in infants at a national level, with the aim of achieving the Dublin Declaration PMTCT goals. (excerpt)
USAID / Moldova antitrafficking assessment -- critical gaps in and recommendations for antitrafficking activities.
Washington, D.C., Development Alternatives, WID Tech, 2002 Oct.  p. (USAID Contract No. FAO-0100-C-00-6005-00)The objective of this assessment is twofold: (1) to provide USAID/Western New Independent States (WNIS) with a road map of existing trafficking-prevention activities undertaken by donor agencies and bilateral, international-development and host-country-government institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Moldova; and (2) to help USAID/WNIS identify critical gaps in existing approaches in Moldova that new interventions might address. The road map and accompanying list of recommendations provide U.S. government officials in USAID/WNIS with the information and tools necessary to design specific activities at a later date. (excerpt)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy, September 28 - October 1, 2006: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Oct 18. 26 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ACI-323)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority ofwhom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which allowed RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. RPM Plus Senior Program Associate, Edgar Barillas, traveled to Sondalo from September 28 to October 1 to facilitate the TB pharmaceutical management session at the WHO course for TB Consultants in Sondalo, Italy. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy. Trip report: May 17-20, 2006.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 May 29. 33 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-499; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO-Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority of whom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which will allow RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1954; 10:627-690.This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-diseases-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. (author's)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2006 Jul 1; 333(7557):8.Hundreds of thousands of women in developing countries suffer the devastating injury during child bearing of obstetric fistula. But the agency behind a global campaign to eradicate the condition says it is simple to prevent and easy to treat. The global campaign, led by the international development agency the United Nations Population Fund, has launched a month long advertising drive in the United Kingdom to raise awareness of a condition that is believed to affect between 50 000 and 100 000 women each year. Obstetric fistula is usually caused by several days of obstructed labour without prompt medical intervention and leaves the woman with agonising, long term pain, chronic incontinence, and--in most cases--a stillborn baby. (excerpt)
Food and nutrition security in poverty alleviation: concepts, strategies, and experiences at the German Agency for Technical Cooperation.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 11 Suppl:S341-S347.Poverty alleviation and food and nutrition security remain one of the priority areas of development policies for the German government. Poverty exists when individuals or groups are not able to satisfy their basic needs adequately. Poverty consists of at least three dimensions: (i) the availability of essential resources for basic needs; (ii) financial and other means of poor individuals and groups; and (iii) the physical, intellectual, social, and cultural status and position of poor individuals and groups. Following this model, the severity of poverty is the collective gap between the availability of the essential resources (i) and the individual ability to meet basic needs (ii) + (iii). Basic needs are not covered if individuals or groups are not able to develop themselves physically, intellectually, and/or socially according to their genetic potentials. As a result, growth retardation of children (‘stunting’), who are biologically and socially the most vulnerable individuals of the society, is a valid cultural independent indicator for poverty. One form of poverty is food and nutrition insecurity. Food security is achieved if adequate food (quantity, quality, safety, sociocultural acceptability) is available and accessible for and satisfactorily utilized by all individuals at all times to live a healthy and happy life. Food and nutrition programmes have four dimensions: (i) categorical; (ii) socio-organizational; (iii) managerial; and (iv) situationrelated dimensions. As shown in three examples of Indonesian–German programmes, despite the complexity of poverty and food and nutrition security, with adequate targeting of the most vulnerable population, adequate identification of problems for a proper selection of interventions and frequent evaluation, reduction of poverty and food insecurity can be achieved. (author's)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) -- 2nd Meeting on Tuberculosis: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Oct. 15 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)RPM Plus has been substantially involved in TB activities in the E&E region both at the country and regional level since 1998, providing technical leadership to StopTB partners and technical assistance to countries in streamlining TB drug management systems as part of overall WHO DOTS strategy. In recognition of the RPM Plus role as a leader in pharmaceutical management, RPM Plus Program Manager for TB Andrey Zagorskiy was elected a member of the WHO/Euro Technical Advisory Group (TAG), with the first meeting in 2004 in Sinaia, Romania. In 2005, RPM Plus continued to provide technical leadership in pharmaceutical management for TB to WHO/Euro TAG, and participated in the second meeting in September 2005, in Copenhagen, Denmark. (author's)
Connections. 2006 Jan;  p.In September 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) awarded Ukraine a 2.5 million dollar grant to combat the country's growing tuberculosis epidemic, according to Mykola Polischuk, who was Minister of Health at the time the grant was awarded. This funding will provide for the purchase of high-quality medications and allow for the cost-effective treatment of 75,000 patients over three years beginning in January 2006. The new treatment program will employ the DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy-Short Course) strategy, which has been recognized as the world's best strategy for fighting TB largely due to its reliance on cheaper microbiological methods of diagnosis rather than X-rays. Patients are first identified using microscopy services then prescribed the correct dosage of anti-TB medicines for a period of six to eight months. If administered accurately, DOTS can successfully treat TB in 99 percent of cases. Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko echoed WHO's decision to increase TB funding in October when he pledged to increase health funding, restore the country's failing health system, and fight the spread of HIV and tuberculosis, according to the Associated Press. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2005 May; 5:263.The fight to control tuberculosis has made major headway in recent years but more needs to be done to close the implementation gap in case detection and expand treatment in high burden countries, says the WHO’s Global Tuberculosis Control Report 2005. The main residual problem in the implementation strategy for tuberculosis control is “to improve case detection, now about 45% worldwide, which is quite a long way still from the 70% target for 2005”, says Christopher Dye, WHO coordinator for tuberculosis monitoring and evaluation. By contrast, treatment has a high success rate—on average, 82% in 2002, a fraction below the 85% target for 2005. “By implementing the DOTS strategy, we can force down the burden of tuberculosis in line with what is required for the millennium [development] goals [MDG]”, said Dye. The MDG target is to reverse the trend of tuberculosis and to halve the tuberculosis prevalence and death rates by 2015. (excerpt)
Report of the expert meeting: “3 by 5”, What Are the Implications? Organized by the Royal Tropical Institute, Aids Fonds and Share-Net, 16 September 2004, Amsterdam.
Amsterdam, Netherlands, KIT, 2004. 27 p.In 2003, the WHO started an initiative to expand access to HIV treatment. “3 by 5” is the name of the global target of providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to three million people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited countries by the end of 2005. It is a step towards the goal of providing universal access to treatment for all who need it. The WHO’s framework for emergency scaling up of anti-retroviral therapy contains 14 key strategic elements. These elements fall into five categories – the pillars of the “3 by 5” campaign: i) global leadership, strong partnership and advocacy; ii) urgent, sustained country support; iii) simplified, standardized tools for delivering antiretroviral therapy; iv) effective, reliable supply of medicines and diagnostics; and v) rapid identification and application of new knowledge and successes. The strategy also aims to develop guidelines for ensuring the quality of anti-retroviral drugs and to build country-level capacity for delivery and utilization of simple diagnostics for monitoring patient adherence to treatment as well as drug resistance. In the first six months of this strategy, progress was made towards the goal of increasing access to treatment. But much remains to be done, and urgently, if the world is to meet its target of providing treatment to three million people by the end of 2005. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2002. 28 p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/02.23)Although the past 15 years have seen a decline in child mortality due to pneumonia, it remains a very important cause of death in developing countries. In Africa in particular, pneumonia and malaria are by far the most important causes of death for children under 5. The overall aim of this meeting was to help to define practical community approaches which could deliver a rapid reduction in this preventable mortality. WHO has developed and supported the use of case management of pneumonia through the ARI Programme and later as a part of IMCI. The main focus for these initiatives has been the health facility, although much of the demonstration of the efficacy of the clinical interventions was carried out at community level, using community health workers. IMCI uses the same clinical methodology. Although IMCI stresses the promotion of care-seeking by families with sick children, in general, the clinical management of such children is offered at the first level health facility. The importance of providing care without delay for children with malaria has led to the development and introduction, so far on a small scale, of interventions based in the community, either through a community health worker or directly by families, who are provided with packs of antimalarials. These two diseases in childhood, pneumonia and malaria, have major overlaps in terms of clinical presentation, the requirements for their effective management and the feasibility of providing standardised care in the community. Technically sound and operationally manageable community interventions that tackled both conditions would offer a most valuable tool for use in the reduction in child mortality in developing countries. (excerpt)
Epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe. Report of a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 13-15 May 1996.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. , 14 p. (EUR/ICP/CMDS 08 01 01)In response to the alarming rise in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the newly independent states, the WHO Regional Office for Europe, WHO headquarters and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS organized a meeting of experts from the most affected countries to exchange information and to identify priority actions for the control of the epidemic. The participants included 15 experts from Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The participants called for urgent action, including a careful assessment of the existing systems for STD control, reallocation of resources among the various activity areas and strong advocacy to generate awareness at the top level of government and strengthen its support for the recommended initiatives. They also urged that national coordination of programmes to promote sexual health and prevent STDs and HIV be strengthened, that statutory services be made more accessible and acceptable to patients and that efforts be made to ensure that all health workers managing patients with STDs, including those in the private sector, provide high-quality care. (author's)
The safety and feasibility of female condom reuse: report of a WHO consultation, 28-29 January 2002, Geneva.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002. , 15 p.According to the recommendations of the first consultation, this second meeting (January 2002) was planned to review the resulting data and to develop further guidance on the safety of reuse of the female condom. The specific objectives and anticipated outcomes of this second consultation were to: Review the results and evaluate the implications of the recently completed microbiology and structural integrity experiments and the human use study; Develop a protocol or set of instructions for disinfecting and cleaning used female condoms safely; Outline future research areas and related issues for programme managers to consider when determining the balance of risks and benefits of female condom reuse in various contexts and settings. (excerpt)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 Aug; 78(2):291-295.Background: Opinions and recommendations about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been strongly divided, but few published studies have provided direct evidence on the relative risks and benefits of different breastfeeding durations in recipient infants. Objective: We examined the effects on infant growth and health of 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding. Design: We conducted an observational cohort study nested within a large randomized trial in Belarus by comparing 2862 infants exclusively breastfed for 3 mo (with continued mixed breastfeeding through = 6 mo) with 621 infants who were exclusively breastfed for = 6 mo. Regression to the mean, within-cluster correlation, and cluster- and individual-level confounding variables were accounted for by using multilevel regression analyses. Results: From 3 to 6 mo, weight gain was slightly greater in the 3-mo group [difference: 29 g/mo (95% CI: 13, 45 g/mo)], as was length gain [difference: 1.1 mm (0.5, 1.6 mm)], but the 6-mo group had a faster length gain from 9 to 12 mo [difference: 0.9 mm/mo (0.3, 1.5 mm/mo)] and a larger head circumference at 12 mo [difference: 0.19 cm (0.07, 0.31 cm)]. A significant reduction in the incidence density of gastrointestinal infection was observed during the period from 3 to 6 mo in the 6-mo group [adjusted incidence density ratio: 0.35 (0.13, 0.96)], but no significant differences in risk of respiratory infectious outcomes or atopic eczema were apparent. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo is associated with a lower risk of gastrointestinal infection and no demonstrable adverse health effects in the first year of life. (author's)
The new lepers. HIV-positive people are treated as social outcasts while the government fails to cope.
London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Aug 8. 3 p. (Belarus Reporting Service No. 28)More and more people in Belarus are finding themselves in her position – 50 or 60 new HIV cases are recorded every month. At the beginning of August, the number of people carrying the virus reached 5,150, and experts fear that the figure will be more than double that in 2005. More worryingly, some say the recorded figures should be multiplied by a factor of three or more since they fail to capture drug users who have not been seen by the health authorities. Although HIV and AIDS are advancing rapidly, neither the government nor society in general appear able to come to terms with it. A survey conducted jointly by the United Nations and the Centre for Sociological and Political Research in Minsk found that three quarters of the people polled thought people with HIV should not be allowed to care for their own children, and more than 40 per cent said they should not be allowed to travel around the country or choose where they want to live. (excerpt)
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1995 Apr; 1(2):5.This brief article summarizes these Alliance activities: a collaboration of the Alliance, the World Health Organization, and the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to hold two-step conferences/training sessions for military and civilian medical officers; assessing the HIV-related causes of civil and military instability; and assisting the coalitions of civil and military authorities by helping to secure financial and other assistance for their work.
Importation and circulation of poliovirus in Bulgaria in 2001. [Importation et circulation du poliovirus en Bulgarie en 2001]
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jul; 81(7):476-481.Objective: To characterize the circumstances in which poliomyelitis occurred among three children in Bulgaria during 2001 and to describe the public health response. Methods: Bulgarian authorities investigated the three cases of polio and their contacts, conducted faecal and serological screening of children from high-risk groups, implemented enhanced surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis, and conducted supplemental immunization activities. Findings: The three cases of polio studied had not been vaccinated and lived in socioeconomically deprived areas of two cities. Four Roma children from the Bourgas district had antibody titres to serotype 1 poliovirus only, and wild type 1 virus was isolated from the faeces of two asymptomatic Roma children in the Bourgas and Sofia districts. Poliovirus isolates were related genetically and represented a single evolutionary lineage; genomic sequences were less than 90% identical to poliovirus strains isolated previously in Europe, but 98.3% similar to a strain isolated in India in 2000. No cases or wild virus isolates were found after supplemental immunization activities were launched in May 2001. Conclusions: In Bulgaria, an imported poliovirus was able to circulate for two to five months among minority populations. Surveillance data strongly suggest that wild poliovirus circulation ceased shortly after supplemental immunization activities with oral poliovirus vaccine were conducted. (author's)
Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
[Unpublished] 1986. 80 p. (WHO/CDD/84.17)This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by the Diarrheal Diseases Control Program of the WHO is arranged by broad priority area and scientific working group. Project title, investigator, and budget allocation for each are listed. Scientific working groups which are included are: bacterial enteric infections, parasitic diarrheas, viral diarrheas, drug development and management of acute diarrheas, global/global groups, global/regional groups, and research strengthening activities. Projects are also classified according to geographic area: African region, American region, Eastern Meditterranean region, European region, Southeast Asia region, and Western Pacific region.
[Unpublished] 1984. 51 p.This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, is arranged by project title, investigator and annual budget allocations. Project titles are listed by Scientific Working Grouping (SWG) and include research on bacterial enteric infections; parasitic diarrheas; viral diarrheas; drug development and management of acute diarrheas; global and regional groups and research strengthening activities. SWG projects are furthermore divided by geographical region: African, American, Eastern Medierranean, European, Southeast Asian and Western Pacific. The priority area for research within each SWG is specified.
Stockholm, Sweden, Kvinnoforum, 2002 Feb. 87 p.This third edition of the Resource Book for Working Against Trafficking in Women and Girls in the Baltic Sea Region serves as a useful tool for different actors working against trafficking in and around the area. It presents a global overview on what trafficking is about, introduces the networking projects conducted by Kvinnoforum and its partner organizations in six countries in the Baltic Sea Region, and provides contacting details and work of organizations, governmental institutions and others in the six countries.
Lancet. 2002 Jun 29; 359(9325):2255.At the meeting of the European Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (RCC), the WHO declared that the poliovirus has been eradicated in Europe. The 51 countries in the European region have been free of indigenous wild poliomyelitis for more than 3 years. The eradication of polio was confirmed by the independent RCC panel of experts, who have been studying surveillance data and evidence from national certification committees since 1996. However, the WHO stressed that until global eradication has been achieved parents must have their children vaccinated even though the risk of polio is lower. While in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria/Niger, the intensity of polio transmission is still high. Hence, for 2002, it is the goal of the WHO to stop wild polio transmission in all countries.