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  1. 1

    The intricacy of demography and politics: the case of population projections.

    Martinot-Lagarde P

    [Unpublished] 2001. Presented at the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, IUSSP, 24th General Conference, Salvador, Brazil, August 18-24, 2001. 17 p.

    The purpose of this paper is to sketch the common lines of development of both the scientific elaboration of world population projections and the international political debate that prepared the ground for such projections and encouraged their development. A partial history of the elaboration of world population projections has already been written. International population debates from the XIX° and XX° centuries are also under scrutiny. But the link between these two developments has not been fully established. The link between projections and politics work both ways. In one direction, projections can contribute to a rationalization of government in the area of economic development, urban planning and so on. They provide societies with a partial view of their future. In the other direction, population projections cannot be undertaken without the help and support of governments and major international organizations. They rely on accurate and detailed censuses. They are costly and time consuming. At both end of the spectrum, there is a need for a global consensus not only within the scientific community and political arenas for population projections to be computed, received and considered as legitimate. More than many other instruments of demographic analysis, the history of world population projections demonstrate these linkages. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Statement submitted by the European Association for Population Studies (EAPS).

    European Association for Population Studies

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 383-9.

    The European Association of Population Studies (EAPS) was founded in 1993 to disseminate information and organize workshops with affiliated individuals and institutions. The priority topics are international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation. Within each of these broad areas, workshops and conferences have taken place, and proceedings have been published. This article summarizes the nature of conferences held in each of the five topic areas. For example, joint institutional responsibility among Dutch and European groups, including EAPS, resulted in a 1991 international symposium on the demographic consequences of international migration. In 1985, a symposium was held in Belgium on one parent families. In 1989, a workshop was held on female labor market behavior and fertility. In 1990, a workshop was held on mortality and health care systems in developed countries. Methods of European mortality analysis were discussed at a 1990 international seminar in Lithuania. The impact of policies without explicit demographic goals was discussed at an international conference held in Germany in 1986. Kinship and aging research were discussed in 1988 in Hungary. A workshop was held in Germany in 1993 on pension, health care, labor market, and birth control policies. Data comparability issues in Europe were reviewed in 1991. The first European Population Conference was held in 1987 in Finland; the second was held in 1991 in France.
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  3. 3

    International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities.

    Russell SS

    Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, 1993. v, 83 p.

    As a joint effort of the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe, the aim of this report was to identify international migration research and research-related activities in major political and institutional context, general overviews, and data sources, migration is discussed in terms of demography, international policies, economic and labor market aspects, highly skilled workers, development, integration, migration networks, ethnic relations, refugees and asylum seekers. East-west migration is also treated in a political and institutional context, with general overviews and data sources cited. The development and labor markets as well as ethnicity and return migration are considered. South-north migration is examined in a broad manner, with special emphasis on migration in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The review is meant to serve as a useful resource and as a stimulus for dialogue. Basic data are missing on east-west migration and labor, migration patterns within the Middle-East, and north-south movements other than from North Africa. Basic institutional sources for data and research on international migration are available from the Council of Europe; the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the International Labor Organization; the International Organization for Migration; the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America, and Australia; and the European Community. 13 major publications are primary sources of data, of which the most extensive is OECD's SOPEMI Report. 9 sources of data pertain to demographic aspects of migration. The 1986 SOPEMI report and updates document national policies and practices of entry control in OECD member countries; the UN Population Division also published a survey of population policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities also publishes a document on noncommunity citizens. Researchers who have analyzed recent trends are identified, and research papers are cited for labor aspects of migration, highly skilled workers and migration, migration and development, integration and ethnic relations, migrant networks, refugees and asylum seekers, security, return migration, clandestine migration and ethical issues.
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  4. 4

    Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.

    Hankinson R

    New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)

    A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
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  5. 5

    [Contribution of Hungarian demographic science and Hungarian demographers to the work of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population] A magyar demografiai tudomany es a magyar demografusok hozzajarulasa a Nemzetkozi Nepessegtudomanyi Unio munkajahoz

    Horvath R

    Demografia. 1984; 27(1):51-76.

    The author describes the development of demography in Hungary from 1928 to the present, with a focus on the contribution of Hungarian demographers to the activities of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). This paper is part of an IUSSP project that deals with the history of the Union and involves the preparation of papers on such activities in several countries. (summary in ENG, RUS) (ANNOTATION)
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  6. 6

    Swedish International Development Authority.

    In: [Ford Foundation] Conference on Social Science Research on Population and Development, Ford Foundation, 1974. [New York, Ford Foundation], 1975. 251-2.

    To date the SIDA (Swedish International Development Authority) has been minimally involved in supporting social science research in the population area; however, the organization has the potential for allocating funds for this type of research in the future. SIDA is particularly interested in furthering innovative research at the micro-level, especially in the area of motivational research. SIDA would be interested in pursuing this type of research in a collaborate mode with other funding agencies. Social science projects supported by SIDA in the past included: 1) a mass communication evaluation project in Pakistan; 2) a hospital based family planning education and service program in Sri Lanka; and 3) institution building in Korea.
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  7. 7

    Family planning in five continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF, London, 1979. 68 p.

    This publication of the IPPF is designed to provide a quick reference and thumbnail sketch of available family planning, population, and related services in 123 countries worldwide. Programs are presented as mainly private sector, voluntary, public sector, IPPF, or any combination of the above distinctions. In addition, demographic data from U.N. sources are given for each country, and symbols are used to designate degree of government involvement and types of programs for quick reference. Each country received about 100-300 words in description. Of the 123 countries listed with family planning associations, 77 governments have established official programs, and some contraceptive services are provided by another 52. All 5 continents are represented.
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  8. 8

    From here to 2000: a look at the population problem.


    Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 144(1):18-24. January 1979.

    The population problem is examined in terms of population policy in the U.S. over the past 25 years, the present status of population control, the future of population control, and the debate on strategy. In 1952 the Population Council was established, and this organization has provided significant leadership in the field ever since. Another milestone was passed in 1958 when Dr. Louis Hellman, then of Kings County Hospital, did battle with the New York City Commissioner of hospitals over his right as a doctor to fit a diabetic patient receiving welfare with a diaphragm. By the mid-1960s worldwide attention was directed to the problem of rapid population growth. Since the early 1970s the World Health Organization has increased its commitment to population. Nationally, the medical community, if not indifferent, has often taken an ultra-conservative view of the delivery of contraceptive services - kinds of personnel to deliver them, responsibilities of medical practitioners for the reproductive health of patients. Much headway has been made in reducing fertility. In the 1965-1975 period there have been declines of 20% or more in the crude birthrate. Declines occurred in such traditionally high-fertility areas as Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Thailand, Tunisia, North Vietnam, and the Indian Punjab. Countries that experienced declines ranging from 15-20% included Egypt, India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Yet, in other countries, little has happened to affect fertility even though the social and economic situation continues to deteriorate for the average family. There is no question that in time the effective regulation of fertility will spread around the world; the critical question is that of time. There are encouraging signs indicating that family planning programs can and do accelerate fertility decline. It is necessary to go beyond effective family planning and a rising age at marriage if birthrates are to come within the range of mortality rates.
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  9. 9

    Report on the second inquiry among governments on population and development.

    United Nations World Population Conference (1974: Bucharest)

    Background paper prepared by the Secretary General for the World Population Conference, Bucharest, Romania, August 19-30, 1974. New York, United Nations, May 24, 1974. 105 p.

    During 1972-1973, a second inquiry among governments on population growth and development was carried out. Questionnaires were sent out in October 1972; and by the end of 1973, 80 governments had sent in replies. A report based on the replies is presented. World population growth accelerated greatly after 1950. For all the less developed regions, the rate of natural increase is expected to be at its highest level during the 1970s and then very slowly begin to ebb off. In Africa, the upward trend may continue for 2 decades before declining. In most of the countries, it is assumed that the rate of economic growth will be higher in the 1970s than it was in the 1960s. Progress has been achieved in some areas of social development, particularly in education and public health. Of the areas in which population growth was rapid during the past decades, only Asia is almost universally pursuing a policy of reducing the rate of population increase. Low rates of population growth have been achieved in most of Europe, Northern America, and Oceania. Family planning activities are spreading throughout the world. The role of a national demographic service and the need for highly-trained demographers are being recognized in most of the countries. Many of the countries acknowledged the part played by the U.N. agencies in the organization and improvement of the process of collecting demographic data. Proposals for the expansion of the U.N.'s role in organizing exchanges of experience between interested countries in certain areas are made.
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  10. 10

    Assistance for population programmes in 1972.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, OECD Development Assistance Directorate/Development Centre, January 29, 1974. 12 p. (Unpublished)

    This is a statistical report on international assistance for population programs in 1972 of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Official assistance for population programs in 1972 accounted for 2.3% of total official development assistance by DAC member countries. Table 1 shows the assistance to population programs by bilateral organizations (individual governments), multilateral organizations (e.g., UN, WHO), and private organizations for: 1) demographics: advisers, surveys, training, research, and general; 2) family planning: advisers, training, research, supplies, general; 3) biomedical research; 4) intermediate recipients, 5) administrative costs. Table 2 shows aid by type of organization to: 1) world region, 2) intermediate recipients (private, multilateral); 3) administrative costs. Table 3 represents assistance to population programs by region and type of activtity. Table 4 gives figures for aid to population programs in relation to bilateral and multilateral official development assistance by donor country. Notes and definitions for the categories and figures in the tables are annexed to the report.
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  11. 11

    Population assistance to Asia 1960-1970.

    Hankinson R

    Paper presented at the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, November 1-13, 1972. 18 p. (Unpublished)

    This condensed version of a paper, available at the Development Centre Population Programme (Document CD/P/249); analyzes the flow and use of foreign assistance for population activities, which are defined as demography, family planning, and biomedical research, in Asia between 1960-1970. The geographic area "Asia," in this paper includes the countries of the Middle East, except Egypt and North Africa, and excludes Oceania. During the 1960's population aid to Asia totaled about 135 million dollars. 102 million dollars was committed during the last 3 years. All but 2% came from Sweden and the U.S. Aid has been fairly widely and equally distributed among the Asian nations. India received the most, yet the aid per head (8 cents) was one of the lowest. Korea (29 cents) and the Philippines (27 cents) led the list, followed by Ceylon and Malaysia (17 cents), Thailand (15 cents), and Pakistan (14 cents). Indonesia received only 4 cents per head. From the donor angle, there are real differences in the purpose for which the aid is given. Some, such as the U.S. and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, support family planning almost exclusively. Others, such as the Ford Foundation and the Population Council, also aid demography and biomedical research. 2 tables show the functional distribution of foreign aid in selected family planning programs. Among the categories are training, information and education, vehicles and equipment, contraceptive supplies, research and evaluation, and operational activities. It is difficult to distinguish specific aspects of population programs on which aid is concentrated. A country-by-country survey does show the importance of providing supplies and the donor's interest in research, evaluation, and training. Most aid, however, goes to support routine operational costs. The survey also indicates that an analysis of the role of aid and the activities it supports can best be done by the recipient. A detailed breakdown of the uses by donor countries would probably be counterproductive and could even slow down the flow of aid.
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  12. 12

    [The demographic activities of the Council of Europe] Les activites demographiques du Conseil de l'Europe

    Neury J

    Forum Statisticum. 1983 Mar; (19):63-86.

    The demographic activities of the Council of Europe are described. Consideration is given to the work of the Committee of Directors for Demographic Questions, the organization of conferences and seminars, and the work of the Parliamentary Assembly. Appendixes contain a list of demographic publications issued by the Council of Europe and a summary of the conclusions of the 1982 European Demographic Conference. (ANNOTATION)
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