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  1. 1

    Statement: Poland.


    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.

    The statement of the Polish delegation to the 32nd session of the UN Commission on Population and Development in New York on March 22-24, 1999, is presented. The delegation states that rapid demographic changes have been taking place in Poland in the 1990s. They are running parallel to a socioeconomic transformation that has brought about growth in the gross domestic product (GDP), a drop in the level of inflation, and an increase in the share of services in the GDP accompanied by a fall in the share of industrial and agricultural production. The unemployment rate has been showing a declining tendency. However, a considerable stratification in the standard of living of Polish society has to be noted. In anticipation of a 50% increase in the size of the post-working-age population during the years 1995-2020, the government introduced reform of the old-age pension system on January 1, 1999. The Polish government has also adopted actions aimed at increasing the population through the promotion of activities in its pro-family policy that will indirectly influence the level of fertility. The delegation has presented two documents at the session--The Concept of Implementation in Poland of the Program of Activity of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo and The Demographic Situation in Poland in Annual Reports.
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  2. 2

    Statement of Hungary.

    Vukovich G

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [3] p.

    In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the delegate from Hungary commented that the complexity of the demographic problems we face will require an unprecedented effort of international cooperation. While international goals must be set, it is also necessary to consider the role of the family in various societies and to avoid coercing people into adopting fertility behavior which is alien to their culture. As the countries of eastern Europe begin to build democratic societies, a strong decrease in fertility has occurred, but unfavorable mortality patterns have persisted. In Hungary, decreasing mortality and achieving a simple reproduction level are the most important goals in the government's demographic strategy. Thus, the intended population policy must respect individual and familial freedom and strengthen the family, improve the economic situation of families with children, and increase the value attached to health. The demographic situation in Europe and in the whole developed world is essentially connected to the demographic situation in developing countries. For example, the interests of less developed countries will only be served if the developed countries reduce their own socioeconomic difficulties associated with demographic aging. Otherwise, the resources developed countries devote to developing countries may become scarce. The ideal situation is to promote a stable population which is balanced in its age structure.
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  3. 3

    Population and development. Background paper for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo 5-13 September 1994.

    Blegved L; Pedersen VS; Rasmussen N; Silberschmidt M; Vilby K

    Copenhagen, Denmark, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Danida, 1994. [4], 63 p.

    This report identifies and discusses the central issues, problems, and contradictions in the population debate in order to provide background information for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and a basis for the development of Denmark's population policy. The introduction describes the 2 basic contradicting indicators of the unprecedented global annual growth rate of 93 million people and the equally unprecedented rapid decline in the total fertility rate in developing countries (from 6 in 1950 to 3.6 today). The next section deals with the links between population and development, including the risk of demographic traps and production and consumption traps. 6 major trends in population and sustainability are explored in terms of regional and national differences. Contradictions and myths in the population/development debate are then discussed. The third section of the report presents the demographic context including a short overview of population theories, the most recent global demographic projections, and the most important fertility determinants (infant and child mortality, the status of women, and the quality of services). Section 4 provides a discussion of the different approaches and rationales for the establishment of global and various national population policies and family planning (FP) programs. The final section is concerned with the transition from FP to sexual and reproductive health and rights. This discussion covers the role of vertical FP programs, integrated maternal-child health and FP services, and the transition to more comprehensive reproductive health services. Sexual and reproductive health is then considered within the gender framework and from a human rights perspective. Charts with data on population projections, the prevalence of contraceptive use in developing countries, and the total fertility rate since 1960 are appended.
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  4. 4

    Child survival and the demographic "trap".

    Kalish S

    POPULATION TODAY. 1992 Feb; 20(2):8-9.

    A debate within the UK public health community has centered around the feasibility of campaigns to improve child survival rates in Africa in the absence of equally aggressive efforts to increase family planning acceptance. The central spokesperson in this debate, Maurice King of the University of Leeds, has argued that population growth in sub-Saharan countries is undermining the carrying capacity of available resources and threatening ecological collapse. These countries are not exhibiting the characteristic demographic transition pattern, in which declining death rates eventually create conditions conducive to lower birth rates. Instead, they have fallen into a "demographic trap " in which population increases are outstripping growth in food production. To remedy this situation, King advocates the introduction of the concept of sustainability of the ecological foundations of health into the World Health Organizations's official definition of health. Richard Jolly of UNICEF has countered King's articles with the insistence that UNICEF has long supported child survival within the broader context of family planning provision and advocacy of birth spacing.
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  5. 5

    [Populations on the planet] Populations sur la planete.

    Levy ML

    Population et Societes. 1991 Dec; (263):1-3.

    This work contrasts 2 world population atlases published in 1991, 1 the work of a demographer and the other of a geographer. Both works synthesize the concepts of demography as it is currently practiced. The work by the geography, Daniel Noin, (Atlas of World Population) has a more detailed bibliography and glossary and concentrates on the contemporary population situation. The other work (The Population of the World. From Antiquity to 2050), by Jean-Claude Chesnais, takes a historic approach. The 2 works are complementary and neither raises ecological alarms. They stress different issues in their conclusions, Chesnais asking whether the nations of Europe can compensate for their loss of demographic and economic power by regrouping into an entity large enough to maintain influence, Noin identifying fertility decline in the poor countries as the major current demographic challenge. Both authors use the same analytical instrument and rely on UN statistics. The UN, since its origin, has been the site of a confrontation between 2 schools of demographic thought, the American which is preoccupied with rapid population growth in the poor countries, and the French, which stresses fertility decline and demographic aging in the developed countries. The analytical instrument in both cases is the theory of demographic transition, on which both authors have already written. The 2 authors classify the countries differently, 1 identifying 5 stages of transition and the other 3 stages and 8 types of countries. Agreement on the basic phenomenon of the transition is accompanied by some difference of interpretation.
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  6. 6

    [The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.

    Schmid J

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.

    This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
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  7. 7

    Population growth and development concerns.

    Cabello O

    In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 17-26.

    Although demographic statistics are grossly inadequate, a fairly convincing panorama of the population situation and trends has been prepared by demographers based on fragmentary information, coupled with assumptions and tested against collateral information. Population study reveals a 1st stage early in the recent historic perspective during which fertility and mortality rates were very high and the corresponding rates of natural growth were low. The 2nd stage of the transition begins with a decline in the death rates while fertility rates remained at high levels, and even increases, population growth accelerates during this period. This stage is characterized by rapid urbanization provoked by displacement of population from rural areas to urban centers. Fertility rates begin to decrease at a later period, in some cases more than 20 years after the decline of death rates--tending to level off with death rates at low levels. In this stage, population growth is near zero and has in some cases decreased. The entire transition may take at least 50 years. The key question is how to determine the crucial character of the interactions between population and the critical problems of our society: poverty; underdevelopment; gaps of income between and within countries; food; and environment. In 3 symposia at Cairo, Honolulu, and Stockholm, it was concluded that there were 3 schools of thought. 1 considered rapid population growth as a major cause of structural rigidities of the less developed economies, and therefore reduction of population growth as a 1st priority for improvement of living standards. Another, putting its faith in technological innovation, considered that the way to development was by socioeconomic changes rather than demographic paths of action. The 3rd considered the demograpic approach as one of many leading to the attainment of economic and social progress. The consensus was that there are limits to the growth of population both in the short-term and in the long-term. A World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Rumania in 1974 addressed the issues of recent population trends; relations between population change and economic and social development; relations between population, resources, and environment; and population, family, and well being.
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