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Connections. 2006 Feb;  p.Nearly 5 million people worldwide were infected with HIV in 2005, marking the largest jump in new cases since the disease was first recognized in 1981, according to the AIDS Epidemic Update 2005 released by UNAIDS last December in conjunction with World AIDS Day. The virus claimed the lives of 3.1 million people in 2005, with more than half a million of these deaths occurring among children. Although sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia continue to remain the hardest hit areas, the report clearly indicates that the virus is continuing to spread at alarming rates within Eurasia, bringing the region to the brink of a full-blown epidemic. The number of people living with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia reached 1.6 million in 2005, a 20-fold increase from 2003. Even more striking, AIDS claimed the lives of 62,000 people there last year-nearly double the mortality rate attributed to the virus 2003. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, . , 33 p.A United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) mission to Albania in 1989 attempted to identify the country's priority population issues and goals. Albania, a socialist country, has made many accomplishments, including an administrative structure that extends down to the village level, no foreign debt, universal literacy, a low death rate (5.4/1000), and involvement of women in development. At the same time, the country has the highest birth rate in Europe (25.5/1000), a high incidence of illegal abortion, lack of access to modern methods of contraception, and inadequate technology in areas such as medical equipment and data collection. Albania's population policy is aimed at maintaining the birth rate at its current level, reducing morality, and lowering the abortion rate by 50% by 1995. Goals for the health sector include increasing life expectancy, reducing infant and maternal mortality, improving the quality of health services, and decreasing the gap between the standard of living in rural and urban areas. Family planning is not allowed except for health reasons. Depending on trends in the total fertility rate, Albania's population in the year 2025 could be as low as 4.6 million or as high as 5.4 million. Albania has expressed an interest in collaborating with UN agencies in technical cooperation projects. The UNFPA mission recommended that support should be provided for the creation of a population database and analysis system for the Government's 1991-95 development plan. Also recommended was support to the Enver Hoxha University's program of strengthening the teaching of population dynamics and demographic research. Other recommendations included activities to strengthen maternal care/child spacing activities, IEC projects, and to raise the status of women.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 175-6.10 years after the Bucharest Conference, which adopted the World Plan of Action, there is a second World Population Conference to be held in Mexico. The Conference will deal with considering progress since the Bucharest Conference and new population problems which need to be addressed, with respect to the diversity of the governments and cultures represented in Mexico. The Conference is faced with the prospect of deciding in which manner each country should deal with their population problems in the future. However factors such as inflation, growing debts, and unemployment should not be viewed as secondary to population variables. Factors such as bloc policies and arms races are other reasons for the depletion of funds which could be better used for economic and social development. The country of Yugoslavia is affected by these factors, as well. The government believes that peaceful development, globally, might lead to faster social and economic development in lesser developed countries which experience excessive poverty and population growth. Increase diversity in population problems is of great concern to the Yugoslavian government. However, support of United Nations programs, humanitarian aid from developed countries, and the increasing implementation of the World Plan of Action by various countries encourages the Yugoslavian people. However, it is up to each country to develop and implement its own population policy. Factors such as maternal and infant mortality; status of women; rights of each family to decide the size and spacing of their families; and the well-being of the family should be taken into account.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 50-1.The world rate population growth has decreased slightly over the past decade. However, global development differs from country to country. In some countries, population growth has been replaced by population decline. This particular phenomena is being experienced in developed nations. On the other hand, the developing world is experiencing an alarming population increase, which compromises economic and social development. However, a problem common to both developed and developing countries is an increase in the population of the elderly. It is something that each nation must eventually address in the future. In dealing with present population problems, global cooperation is needed. Bi-lateral and multi-lateral assistance should be emphasized, in addition to programmes implemented by non-governmental organizations. All national programs should take into account the individual rights of all- those who wish to receive family planning services and those who do not. At the center of each population policy should be the improvement of the status of women. The Danish government offers assistance to those countries looking to implement programs which will deal with this particular problem. The government of Denmark looks forward to the World Population Conference to be held in Mexico. It recognizes the importance of reviewing and assessing progress since the Bucharest Conference in 1974.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 132.The government of Portugal, which has undergone various political transformations, has committed itself to improving the socioeconomic conditions of its country. Population problems, however diverse and numerous, still have an effect on the political, social and economic structure of various world societies. It is of utmost importance that population problems be attacked on a global scale, bearing in mind each nation's sovereign right to deal with their problems, individually. Of special attention to each nation and Portugal, in particular, is the status of women, and internal and external migration. The government of Portugal supports the establishment of an organization that protects the rights of emigrants. It is the hope of the government of Portugal that these problems are addressed at the 1984, World Population Conference.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 116.The government of the Netherlands feels that is the duty and concern of all nations to provide favorable social and economic conditions. The 1984 International Conference on Population in Mexico provides the chance for nations to meet and discuss present day population phenomena. The government of the Netherlands, recognizing the basic rights of couples and individuals concerning birth control, supports a non- intervention policy. However, the Dutch government does give its support to in-depth studies on population control and program implementation in developing countries. The United Nations supports and assists governments implementing population programmes. Central to the U.N. population and development efforts is improving the status of women. However, many member states of the United Nations support the freedom of choice concerning family planning.
[Introduction to the Second Latin American Seminar on the Migrant Woman] Introduccion al Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano sobre la Mujer Migrante.
In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 7-12.Social Service International (SSI) is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization which aids individuals who require assistance because of voluntary or forced expatriation or who require help for other social problems of an international character. Each national office is completely autonomous in its country and can adapt its programs to local needs. The General Secretariat in Geneva strives to assure that high quality services are maintained in each country. SSI has 17 national offices as well as volunteer correspondents in over 100 countries. SSI assists an average of 150,000 refugees and migrants in over 160 countries each year. In recent years Latin America has seen a massive increase in international migration because of political and economic problems. The consequences for families have been disastrous, but no adequate infrastructure has yet been developed to assist migrants and their families or to take preventive measures. Programs for training specialized personnel such as social workers and psychologists are also lacking. Private social agencies to aid recently arrived migrants have existed for many years in countries with histories of significant immigration, but they have tended to be limited to persons of a single nationality or religion and to have few specialized professional workers. SSI's 2nd major objective is to study the conditions and consequences of migration for individuals and families. Latin American women live in patriarchal societies whose norms still marginalize them or limit their participation. Women who migrate face discrimination in employment and education in addition to their other problems. The conclusions and recommendations of the seminar on migrant women are intended to improve understanding of the situation of such women at the regional and local level and to alert governmental and nongovernmental international organizations of the need for programs to improve the circumstances of migrant women.
[World population at a turning point? Results of the International Conference on Population, Mexico, August 14-16, 1984] De wereldbevolking op een keerpunt? Resultaten van de Internationale Bevolkingsconferentie, Mexico, 6-14 augustus 1984.
Brussels, Belgium, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS], 1985. viii, 274 p. (CBGS Monografie No. 1985/3)The aim of this report is to summarize the results of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, and to review the findings of working groups and regional meetings held in preparation for the conference. Chapters are included on developments in the decade since the 1974 World Population Conference, world population trends, fertility and the family, population distribution and migration, mortality and morbidity, population and the environment, results of five regional U.N. conferences, the proceedings and results of the Mexico City conference, and activities involving Belgium.
In: Demographic trends in the European region: health and social implications, edited by Alan D. Lopez and Robert L. Cliquet. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1984. 5-67. (WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 17; Project RMI/79/P05)This chapter presents an overview of recent demographic trends in Europe and discusses the implications of these trends for health and social services. The discussion is based on reports received from 15 of the 33 Member States of the European Region of the World Health Organization. The components of demographic change analyzed included population growth and structure, family formation, fertility, mortality, and population movement. Increases in the number and proportion of the elderly were noted and the traditional excess of births over deaths is expected to change in future years. Population aging is expected to continue to be a principal concern for the social services sector. The increasing emphasis on caring for rather than attempting to cure chronic illnesses among the aged suggests a need for more nursing homes and home-help services. Anticipation of future morbidity and mortality patterns implies a need to focus on specific risk groups, e.g. migrants, adult males, and those from lower socioeconomic groupings. With regard to fertility, adolescent sexual activity and the low use levels of contraception among teenagers comprise areas where greater service provision is necessary. In addition, there is a need for more vocational training for women, improved child care facilities, and full-time employment opportunities better suited to the needs of workers with dependent children. As a result of smaller families, increased divorce rates, the discrepancy between male and female survival, and greater regional mobility, markedly higher numbers of single individuals can be expected. Rapidly evolving changes in family formation, social norms, and underlying demographic trends will continue to alter European societies in the years ahead. The interrelationships between health and demographic phenomenon must continue to be probed to form a basis for future health and social planning.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Europe Region, 1984 Jun. 122 p.Reflections, speculations, and partial evaluations of work already undertaken in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Europe Region concerning migrants and planned parenthood are presented. This project, initiated by the Federal Republic of Germany Planned Parenthood Association (PPA), PRO FAMILIA, stemmed from the practical experiences and problems of 1 family planning association in the Europe region. The original substantive framework, consisting of data collection and correspondence, plenary meetings, and subworking group meetings on specific areas of interest, was not altered. Throughout the project, as the work was accomplished, the emphasis shifted to different aspects to migrant work. The 1st questionnaire was intended to provide a sociodemographic profile of the participating countries, a show European migratory movements, and ascertain the ethnicity of the target groups in the different countries. The 2nd questionnaire was related specifically to PPA and/or other family planning center's data and activities and attempted to explore PPA attitudes toward migrant clients, when special facilities for migrants were provided, and whether PPAs felt there was a particular need for such services. The report provides a sociodemographic background of migration in Europe. In addition it includes information from donor countries and recipient countries, examining family planning services in the Federal Republic of Germany and the UK. It also covers training; information, education, and communication; adolescence and 2nd generation migrants; and migrant work. It is necessary to be particularly aware of political sensitivities in treating immigrant fertility regulation. Ideally, the aim is to provide an integrated service for migrants and natives both, catering to individual needs. Until this is feasible, the goal must be to work toward an integrated service, recognizing the needs and providing special services where possible if this is judged tobe the best approach to catering to those needs. Migrant needs must be discovered rather than assumed. Better use should be made of the available printed material, which should be utilized to complement oral information where possible. Experience has shown that family planning personnel working with migrants need additional training. The main components of this training should include self-awareness, insight, and knowledge.
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1984. 160 p.This expanded voters' guide to important foreign policy issues facing the US is intended to provide voters, information they need to take part in the national foreign policy debate and reach their own informed conclusions. The approach is nonpartisan and impartial and the style is telegraphic. Each of the 18 topics includes a list of significant questions, a presentation of essential background, an outline of policy choices and the pros and cons of each, and a brief bibliography. The book covers 5 major themes: leadership, national security, economic and social issues, critical regions, and the UN. The chapters cover: 1) president, congress, and foreign policy; 2) the arms race and arms control; 3) defense budget and major weapons systems; 4) nuclear proliferation; 5) jobs and international trade; 6) oil and energy; 7) the international debt crisis; 8) immigration and refugees; 9) Soviet Union; 10) the Atlantic alliance; 11) Lebanon, the Arabs, and Israel; 12) the Iran-Iraq war; 13) Central America; 14) Japan; 15) China and Taiwan; 16) South Africa and Namibia; 17) Third World: population, food, and development; and 18) the US and the UN.
Population trends and issues, statement made at the Meeting of the Netherlands Association of Demographers, The Hague, Netherlands, 14 September, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 7 p. (Speech Series No. 97)If world population is to stabilize by the end of the next century, it will be necessary to strengthen and sustain the downward trend in fertility already begun in most developing countries. Whatever reductions have been achieved in the rate of population growth are the result of fertility declines accompanied by moderate reduction in mortality. Added to the challenge of high birth, mortality and growth rates in some parts of the developing world, a number of issues of equal importance have emerged since the United Nations World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974. There are, for example, issues relating to aging, international and local migration, including urbanization, and the interrelationships between population, resources, the environment and development. Most of these problems have national as well as international dimensions. The Government of the Netherlands has taken important steps to alleviate some of these problems. For example, it considers that social and economic policy should constantly take in requirements resulting from changes in the age structure of the population. The Government has been a major donor to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) since its inception and has contributed nearly US$105 million in 14 years.
REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 1983 May-Jun; 5(3):452-9.This summary of the worldwide impact of measles discusses epidemiology, reported incidence, clinical severity, community attitudes toward measles, and the impact of immunization programs on measles. Measles, 1 of the most ubiquitous and persistent of human viruses, occurs regularly everywhere in the world except in very remote and isolated areas. Strains of measles virus from different counties are indistinguishable, and serum antibodies from diverse population have identical specificity. Yet, the epidemic pattern, average age at infection, and mortality vary considerably from 1 area to another and provide a contrasting picture between the developing and the developed countries. In the populous areas of the world, measles causes epidemics every 2-5 years, but in the rapidly expanding urban conglomerations in the developing world, the continuous immigration from the rural population provides a constant influx of susceptible individuals and, in turn, a sustained occurrence of measles and unclear epidemic curves. In the economically advanced nations, measles epidemics are closely tied to the school year, building up to a peak in the late spring and ceasing abruptly after the summer recess begins. Maternal antibody usually confers protection against measles to infants during the 1st few months of life. The total number of cases of measles reported to WHO for 1980 is 2.9 million. Considering that in the developing world alone almost 100 million infants are born yearly, that less than 20% of them are immunized against measles, and that various studies indicate that almost all nonimmunized children get measles, less than 3 million cases of measles in 1980 is a gross underestimate. There was adecrease in the global number of reported cases of measles during the 1979-80 period due primarily to the reduction in the number of cases in the African continent and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. It is premature to conclude that such a reported decline is real and that it reflects the beginning of a longterm trend. The contrast between the developed and the developing worlds is most marked in relation to the severity and outcome of measles. Case fatality rates of more than 20% have been reported from West Africa. It has been estimated that 900,000 deaths occur yearly in the developing world because of measles, but data available to WHO indicate that the global case fatality rate in the developing world approaches 2% (in contrast to 2/10,000 cases in the US), and the actal mortality may be greater than 1.5 million deaths per year. The advent of WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization has brought about an awareness of the measles problem. Whenever and wherever measles vaccine has been used effectively on a large scale, a marked reduction in the number of cases has been recorded.