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  1. 1
    091893
    Peer Reviewed

    Childhood blindness: a new form for recording causes of visual loss in children.

    Gilbert C; Foster A; Negrel AD; Thylefors B

    BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1993; 71(5):485-9.

    In London, the International Centre for Eye Health (ICEH), a WHO Collaborating Centre for Blindness Prevention, and WHO have developed a standardized protocol for reporting causes of blindness in children, primarily those in schools for the blind and those attending hospital clinics. There is a section for blind children identified during population-based prevalence surveys. A set of coding instructions and a database for analysis accompany the WHO/PBL Eye Examination Record for Children with Blindness and Low Vision. ICEH and WHO hope the new form will identify preventable and treatable causes of childhood blindness. It will also serve as a mechanism to monitor changing patterns of childhood blindness over time in response to changes in health care services, specific interventions, and socioeconomic development. Further, it will allow eye doctors to assess the requirements of individual children for medical and/or surgical treatment optical correction, and low vision services. Finally, it will give educators the opportunity to assess the educational needs of blind children. The contents of the form include census, personal details, visual assessment, general assessment, previous eye surgery, eye examination (site of abnormality leading to blindness and etiology of blindness), refraction/low vision aid assessment, action needed, prognosis for vision, education, full diagnosis, and names of the examiners. Both ICEH in London, and WHO in Geneva will maintain a centralized data blank. Local ophthalmologists with an interest in pediatric ophthalmology and those assigned to develop the form tested the form while examining about 1600 children in schools for the blind in 4 continents. Ophthalmologists can examine and complete the form on 5-8 children/hour in schools for the blind.
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  2. 2
    267312

    Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.

    Hankinson R

    New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)

    A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
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