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  1. 1

    IDU. Injecting Drug User Intervention Impact Model. Version 2.0, May 2000. A tool to estimate the impact of HIV prevention activities focused on injecting drug users.

    Vickerman P; Watts C

    London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2000 May. 53 p.

    IDU 2.0 is one of five simulation models within HIVTools. IDU 2.0 can be used, within a particular setting, to estimate the impact on HIV transmission of prevention activities focusing on the injecting drug users (IDU's). It can also be used to explore the likely impact of different policy options. The program simulates the transmission of HIV between injecting drug users, and the transmission of HIV and STDs between IDU's and their sexual partners, both in the presence and absence of an intervention. The extent to which an intervention may avert HIV infection is estimated using a range of context specific inputs. This includes epidemiological information describing the prevalence of HIV infection among the IDU's and their non-IDU sexual partners at the start of the intervention, and the probabilities of HIV and STD infection. Behavioural inputs are used to describe the patterns of needle sharing, sexual behaviour and condom use among the IDU's reached and not reached by the intervention. Demographic and intervention specific inputs are used to estimate the size of the total IDU population, the proportion of males and females in the IDU population, and the proportion of each reached by the intervention. These are then used to project the overall patterns of needle sharing, sexual behaviour and condom use among IDU's with and without the intervention. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    School. School Intervention Impact Model. Version 2.0, December 1999. A tool to estimate the impact of HIV prevention activities focused on youth in school.

    Watts C; Vickerman P; Chibisa J; Mertens T

    London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1999 Dec. 48 p.

    A collaborative research project between the UNAIDS and the Health Economics and Financing Programme at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine has been working since 1994 to develop methodologies to determine the costs and likely impact of five HIV prevention strategies - the strengthening of blood transfusion services, condom social marketing projects, school education, the strengthening of sexually transmitted infections (STI) treatment services, and interventions working with sex workers and their clients. 'HIV Tools: a cost-effectiveness toolkit for HIV prevention' is currently being developed. HIV tools consists of: 1) a set of five simulation models that estimate the impact on HIV and STD transmission of different HIV prevention activities; and 2) guidelines for costing different HIV prevention activities. HIV Tools aims to be a flexible and easy to use product, designed for policy makers, programme managers and AIDS Service Organisations working to address HIV and ST1 transmission. It can be used to estimate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of different HIV prevention strategies in different settings. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    IAEN guest editorial: Is AIDS rewriting the rules?

    Levine R

    [Geneva, Switzerland], International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN], 2003 Apr 17. 4 p.

    Of all the profound changes wrought by the AIDS pandemic, one of the most interesting has been the revolution in thinking about the responsibilities of rich countries toward poor ones. This is easiest to see by looking at the dispute between traditional international health economists and the AIDS advocacy community – a dispute that is quietly played out in academic journals and e-mail exchanges, and loudly reflected in such bold statements as President Bush’s commitment in the State of the Union Address to seek funding for a $15 billion Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. For many years, a large share of health economists working in the field of international health focused in a somewhat single- minded fashion on the following problem: How can limited dollars be allocated to obtain the greatest impact on health in developing countries? Primarily using the tools of cost-effectiveness analysis, combined with epidemiologic data about the leading causes of death and disease in developing countries, recommendations flowed forth from development agencies. With the World Bank leading the charge, Ministries of Health in poor countries were advised to concentrate domestic and external funding on preventive and basic curative services – an “essential package of health services.” They were told to move funding away from high-cost curative, hospital-based services that benefit few to low-cost public health measures that benefit many – and that have the potential to prevent or control many of the leading causes of death in developing countries. Thus, basic childhood vaccinations, prenatal care, TB treatment, home treatment of diarrheal disease to prevent dehydration all were promoted as “best buys,” and eagerly funded by donor agencies. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.

    Hankinson R

    New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)

    A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
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  5. 5

    Unmet needs in family planning.

    Howell C; Varky G

    International Funds for Family Planning, Background Paper No.3, June 1, 1973 30 p. (Mimeo)

    The range and scale of the international funds available to the family planning movement and the purposes to which they are put are explained in this report as part of a survey of unmet needs in family planning. In 1965, the IPPF received a large donation from the Swedish government which started a new era of government and private foundation money for international assistance in population control. 61% of the $124 million available for family planning in 1971 was spent on family planning field activities. 24% of it was used for biomedical research and demographic studies, mostly in developing countries. Most of the money given to these developing countries was given to a few large national programs. Little money was allocated to the assessment of the requirements for an adequate global family planning program.
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  6. 6

    Mobile units in family planning.

    Munroe GS; Jones GW

    Reports on Population/Family Planning No. 10, October 1971. p. 1-32

    Mobile units in family planning in Tunisia, the United Arab Republic, Honduras, Turkey, South Korea, and Pakistan are discussed. In November 1967, the Population Council distributed questionnaires to agencies responsible for mobile family planning activities in the 6 countries where the mobile units usually operated as part of either the national family planning program or through the ministry of health. Most of the analysis in this report is based on the replies to the questionnaires. In Tunisia, the mobile units offered family planning services in many areas where no other facilities of this nature were available. All the units offered IUDs. In addition, 3 units offered oral contraceptives, 6 offered conventional contraceptives such as condoms and foam tablets, and 1 offered sterilization. In the United Arab Republic, the mobile unit program of Ain Shams University, Cairo, secured more acceptors per month than the median number of acceptors obtained by the Tunisian program and 3 times as many acceptors per day as that program. In 1966, family planning in Honduras was incorporated into the organization of the Rural Mobile Health Program. The mobile units continued to emphasize medical care and only incidentally engaged in family planning activities. In terms of performance, number of IUD acceptors was very small largely because of the small time spent in recruiting acceptors. In South Korea, the Ministry of Health was responsible for the mobile unit program. In 1966, the average team in the Korean program secured more first acceptors of all methods and of IUDs in a month than the median of acceptors obtained by teams in the other programs under study. In Turkey, the program brought family planning to rural and urban areas. The main weakness of the program was lack of adequate follow-up care. In Pakistan, the district family planning boards, the West Pakistan Research and Evaluation Center, and the Family Planning Associations of Lahore and Dacca all use mobile units. Throughout the survey of mobile units, the International Planned Parenthood Federation found that 1 of the principal shortcomings of mobile unit programs was provision of adequate follow-up care.
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