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  1. 1

    Road-mapping a total market approach: Eastern Europe and Central Asia Workshops.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; PATH

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013 Apr. [24] p.

    To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. This report describes two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Finnish Official Development Aid for sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Saavala M

    Finnish Yearbook of Population Research. 2010; 45:143-170.

    Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP), Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Väestoliitto) engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finland's total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009), mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.
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  3. 3

    What do we know about capacity building? An overview of existing knowledge and good practice.

    Milèn A

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001 Jun. 29 p.

    The World Health Organization as an intergovernmental specialised agency has the task and challenge to support its member governments in strengthening their capacity to steer their health systems. This figures prominently in the recent World Health Report, in which stewardship is ranked as the most important of the health system functions. In the Report, stewardship is defined as a “function of a government responsible for the welfare of the population, and concerned about the trust and legitimacy with which its activities are viewed by the citizenry”. This overview on capacity building covers the recent thinking on the issue and provides information relevant to strengthening capacities also in the stewardship role of the governments. This paper is written primarily to the participants of a WHO project which aims to develop, in partnership with countries, ways to support senior policy makers and managers of health systems. Major developments have taken place in capacity building during the 1990s. Most information on the topic is recent and appears in grey literature. This overview aims to present the current knowledge on the concepts and practice in capacity building. The first part of the document discusses some major changes in the international thinking. The second part links the concepts and frameworks to the state of the art in practising capacity building. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    [From Istanbul to Jakarta] D'Istanbul a Djakarta.

    Equilibres et Populations. 2002 Jun-Jul; (78):[1] p..

    Created 2 years ago to help UNFPA realize the Cairo objectives, the Interim Working Group (IWG) has since expanded its mobilization efforts. For example, in May 2001, the group organized a conference in Istanbul attended by more than 125 officials from the UN, developing countries, NGOs, public and private donors, and technical agencies. Work undertaken at the conference led to both a declaration of intent and concrete commitments. Participants also sparked national-level initiatives, with the article citing the example of Indonesia, where in the context of economic crisis, the country can no longer satisfy the poor population's contraceptive supply demand.
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  5. 5

    Istanbul Declaration.

    International Congress on Population Education and Development (1993: Istanbul)

    In: First International Congress on Population Education and Development, Istanbul, Turkey, 14-17 April, 1993. Action Framework for Population Education on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century. Istanbul declaration, [compiled by] United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] [and] UNESCO. [New York, New York], UNFPA, 1993. 5-7.

    Participants at the International Congress on Population Education and Development, organized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the UN Populations Fund in Istanbul during April 14-17, 1993, adopted the Istanbul Declaration and approved an action framework for population education. Population is one of the world's most serious concerns, which education can help to solve. The world's population needs to be taught about important population issues. In particular, population education projects and programs need to reach to all levels of the educational system, to all types of educational institutions, and to all settings of non-formal education. Population education should be developed as an integrated component of educational curricula. Population education, environmental education, and international education all improve the quality of life and the relationships of humans with each other and nature. Congress participants call upon international and organizational support for new and ongoing population education.
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  6. 6

    Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]. European Region on Immunization Activities

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)

    Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
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  7. 7

    Price of vital TB drugs reduced by as much as 94% through WHO partnership. Press release. [Reducción de hasta el 94% en el precio de fármacos vitales contra la tuberculosis gracias a asociación con la OMS. Comunicado de prensa]

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2001 Jul 19 2 p. (Press Release WHO/35)

    Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in public institutions in the US, Europe, and Latin America have caused many deaths and raised concerns about epidemic transmission of MDR-TB. Despite the availability of high quality "second line drugs,” their high cost prevents many people, especially those who are poor, to have access to such drugs. In this perspective, the WHO, Medecins Sans Frontieres, and Harvard Medical School made collaborative efforts to reduce TB drug prices and to a system designed to promote the use of the drugs in the most effective manner. Some countries will be able to save as much as 94% of their existing spending on the drugs needed to treat MDR-TB. The WHO is also working to ensure proper use of these drugs via a multiagency collaboration known as the "Green Light Committee." The cut in drug prices coupled with ensuring rational use will help to provide treatment to patients and contribute to the rapid development of a global policy on the treatment of MDR-TB.
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  8. 8

    [The government on the issue] Le gouvernement a la question.

    EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Aug-Sep; (60):3.

    The president of the study group on demography and global population called for an intensification of the fight against maternal mortality worldwide. In general terms, the minister confirmed that reducing and preventing maternal mortality are Foreign Affairs Ministry priorities. He also noted the theme of projects to prevent risk factors, including the development of reproductive health with UNPFA, women’s promotion, child protection to prevent the genital mutilation of girls, girls’ education, microcredit, cooperation, the development of quality care, personnel training, economic access to quality care, measures against communicable diseases, safe blood transfusion, nutrition, and the implementation of systems to effectively manage supplies of essential medicines, equipment, and supplies. On all of these subjects, the minister declared himself open to the co-financing of decentralized projects in the country’s priority zones. A midwife training project is being implemented in Haiti. A government minister noted that lessons learned from the first multibilateral accord between France and UNFPA will, given its success, open the door to future collaboration and interventions. Comoros and Haiti would be interested. Otherwise, converting the debt of very poor countries into projects would present the opportunity to increase available funding for population policies.
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  9. 9

    North-South connections: a tribute to Dirk van de Kaa.

    Cliquet R

    In: The joy of demography and other disciplines. Essays in honour of Dirk van de Kaa, edited by Anton Kuijsten, Henk de Gans, Henk de Feijter. Amsterdam, Netherlands, Netherlands Graduate School of Housing and Urban Research, Demography [NethurD], 1999. 277-83. (NethurD Publication Series B)

    This article offers a tribute to Dirk van de Kaa who established the concept of "North-South Connection" in Flanders and the Netherlands. In Flanders, "North-South Connection" has two meanings. For the young people, it means a contrast between developed and developing countries and the variations in their demographic, economic and ecological dynamics. In older generations, this concept is often referred to as connecting the cultural, economic, and political ties between the Netherlands in the north and Flanders in the south. Presented into two sections, this paper explores the work of van de Kaa in both settings. The first section talks about his successes in establishing the Dutch-Flemish connections as exemplified in the joint Flemish-Dutch publication series. This co-operation gave a positive impact both in the field of publications as well as in research. Section 2 describes the global connection initiatives of van de Kaa, particularly in the context of population policy. It specifically discusses his roles during the World Population Conferences of Bucharest and Mexico.
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  10. 10

    You are the vanguard of Cairo. NGO / Youth Fora.

    Clinton HR

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):6-7.

    Everyone has a role to play in realizing the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. The concerns of young people presented at the Youth Forum will hopefully be kept at the forefront of Cairo+5 deliberations. Innumerable women around the world in every country struggle daily to care for and education their children, to gain greater control over their lives, and to contribute to the progress being made in their communities and countries. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) and youth fora of the Cairo+5 proceedings demonstrate that the discussions about global challenges and their solutions are no longer being held and decided upon solely by government officials and policy-makers behind closed doors. Rather, NGOs have finally taken their proper place in the debate, to help ordinary citizens be heard on the critical issues which affect their lives. Efforts must also continue to be made to reach out to young people, as well as fathers, sons, and husbands.
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  11. 11

    A wake-up call. NGO / Youth Fora.

    Inayatullah A

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):8.

    The client first, informed choice, and quality of care approach to reproductive health is being applied around the world, energized by individuals, communities, and organizations. There has been unprecedented support during the Cairo+5 global review process of the centrality of youth in the process, for by 2000, approximately 1 billion people aged 15-24 years will either be in or entering their reproductive years, the largest generation ever in this age cohort. These young people face considerable reproductive health risks and poor access to information and services. In addition, 25% of children are assaulted or abused, and 20% live in poverty. The Youth Forum recommendations will help to ensure that the reproductive health and social development needs of the world's youth are properly met. However, to fully implement the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, donor governments need to meet their funding commitments.
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  12. 12

    The next step. Youth Forum.

    Youth Forum, ICPD Plus 5 (1999: The Hague)

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):9-10.

    Almost 20% of the world's population is aged 15-24 years. Since young people's needs are different from those of adults, they should play a key role in population and development issues. In an attempt to ensure that young people are involved in all stages of the implementation of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, the Youth Forum was held in The Hague, Netherlands, during February 6-7, 1999, just before the Hague Forum. Bringing together 132 young people from youth and other organizations from 111 countries, the Youth Forum provided young people with the opportunity to review achievements made since the ICPD, express their views and concerns, and offer recommendations to governments, the UN system, other intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and other young people. Key themes and issues considered during the forum were education, individual development, sexual and reproductive health, violence, human rights, gender, governments and democracy, and youth participation. Young people have been sharing their experiences and innovative ideas to strengthen their ability to contribute to the implementation of the ICPD program of action at the grassroots level.
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  13. 13

    Setting the standard.

    Van Nieumenhoven J

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):12.

    The high rate of population growth is one of the major challenges for the international community and politicians in all countries of the world, with demographic studies indicating that the world population continues to grow and will double before the mid-21st century. Population growth, environmental problems, and poverty are strongly interconnected. High population growth has negative consequences for sustainable development. Without sustainable human development, the rate of population growth will not slow down. Sustained economic growth and poverty alleviation are considered the best ways of reducing the rate of population growth, while women's status must also be improved. Members of Parliament help to implement the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)'s program of action in their home countries, comprising a pressure group which also informs the public of the urgency of population and development problems.
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  14. 14

    Adopting a direction. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    Sakurai S

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):11-2.

    National security, poverty alleviation, and refugees are global issues which all urgently need to be addressed. However, no major issue will be resolved until the population problem is solved. Humankind needs to find a way to live in harmony with the earth and its natural environment. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a program of action outlining practical measures to be taken with regard to population and development. The concepts of reproductive health and women's empowerment were also adopted. The ICPD was in many ways an historic conference which set the future direction for the issues of population and development. The conference program of action must be fully implemented to ensure a healthy future for humankind and the earth. Elected officials must do their best to ensure that the ICPD program of action is successfully implemented.
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  15. 15

    Strengthening of EU policies. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    Sandbaek U

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):13-4.

    Collaborating closely with nongovernmental organizations, the author has been involved in social and human sustainable development since 1989. Since 1994, she has also been a member of the bureau of the European Parliament Working Group on Population, Sustainable Development and Reproductive Health. Established in 1991, the Working Group represents a cross-section of the European Unions' 15 member states and political groups. Membership is open to all interested members of Parliament. With 89 members, the group currently represents almost 14% of the European Parliament. The group is assisted by the UK nongovernmental organizational Marie Stopes International, which has provided the secretariat to the group since its inception. The author describes how the European parliamentary group has contributed to the implementation of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action.
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  16. 16

    A prioritized implementation plan. Malawi. The Hague Forum.

    Thomson HI

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):24.

    Malawi adopted a comprehensive national population policy in March 1994. Following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), that policy was reviewed and found to be consistent with the provisions of the conference program of action. No policy revisions were therefore needed. Despite the lack of trained personnel, weak institutional capacity, and limited funds frustrating the implementation of the national population program, great progress has been made in the area of reproductive health. Malawi believes that the implementation of the national population policy and the ICPD program of action will be facilitated through the involvement of various governmental and nongovernmental institutions in planning and implementing various population sectoral services. Both coordination and the assignment of various responsibilities are needed. More financial and human resources are needed to implement the national population policy and the ICPD program of action.
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  17. 17

    Available, accessible and affordable. Malaysia. The Hague Forum.

    Ismail PZ

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):25.

    While Malaysia already had policies for a balanced, equitable, and sustainable development before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the conference gave Malaysia the chance to pursue specific and more complex issues. Reproductive health services including family planning have been integrated and are available, accessible, and affordable within the existing health care system, both public and private. Since Malaysia's government needs help implementing Cairo's goals, regular consultations are held with advocacy groups, the private sector, and community groups on program design and implementation. Annual grants to nongovernmental organizations are made to ensure that programs and services ultimately reach the various target groups. While Malaysia has made progress implementing the ICPD program of action, it has more to accomplish. Economic conditions leading to a 20% across-the-board budget cut in July 1998 have not adversely affected the country's population and reproductive health programs.
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  18. 18

    Redefining our priorities. Nigeria. The Hague Forum.

    Ali-Gombe A

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):27.

    The recent years of Nigeria's transition to democracy and civil governance led to the imposition of international sanctions against the country. Those sanctions deprived Nigeria of much needed international support and technical assistance to development efforts. Therefore since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Nigeria has not been as successful as it would like to have been in implementing the ICPD program of action. The abrupt withdrawal of donor support adversely affected the country's National Population Program, although the impact would have been worse without the ongoing support of the UNFPA. However, despite these obstacles, some progress has been made in implementing the ICPD program of action in Nigeria, while nongovernmental organizations are being encouraged by donor agencies to develop and implement programs to improve access to reproductive health care services at all levels. The government is working to maintain an available supply of contraceptives. Social goals, women's empowerment, primary health care, HIV/AIDS, funding, and the need to lower fertility levels are discussed.
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  19. 19

    Bringing its results and benefits. Mozambique. The Hague Forum.

    Martins Z

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):26.

    In the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and given the country's high rate of population growth, Mozambique developed a national population policy to facilitate the implementation of the ICPD program of action at the national level, and to contribute to a smoother economic growth and better human development in the country. A fresh approach was used to create this population policy, although introducing a reproductive health perspective was a major challenge. The policy is already yielding some positive results, such as an increase in the level of school enrollment. Moreover, since 1994, the government has continually and gradually increased the percentage of financial resources allocated to social sectors; the percentage of expenditures upon health and education sectors increased from 14% in 1994 to 28% in 1999. The implementation of many of the country's related programs and efforts is the fruit of the partnership developed by various governmental institutions, civil society, the international community, and donors. UNFPA was a key donor for population-related programs in Mozambique.
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  20. 20

    Addressing women concerns. Philippines. The Hague Forum.

    Medalla FM

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):28.

    Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Philippine government has worked closely with nongovernmental and peoples' organizations to push reforms which promote development which is broad-based, sustainable, and focused upon human resources. These initiatives recognized the important role of population and human development, and try to achieve rapid economic growth while protecting the environment. The government worked closely with civil society to draft a medium-term development plan for 1993-98 to improve the quality of life for all Filipinos. Reproductive health will be an important component of the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for 1999-2004. However, the necessary resources must be mobilized to carry out all elements of the program of action. Since the ICPD, total funding for reproductive health and family planning reached Philippine P 1 billion, of which 58% was provided by the foreign donor community. So far, the Philippine government has been blocked by the Catholic Church from allocating more public funds for contraception. Local government units need to take a more direct and active role in implementing rural health programs in general and reproductive health programs in particular.
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  21. 21

    A reduction of abortions. Russian Federation. The Hague Forum.

    Karelova GN

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):29.

    Largely due to the country's prevailing socioeconomic conditions, the Russian Federation is experiencing complex problems developing its population policies. Since the mid-1990s, Russia's population has decreased, working-age men suffer high rates of mortality, there is below replacement-level fertility, the health of Russian citizens has deteriorated, and STDs are spreading fast. Falling life expectancy and the marked aging of the population and labor force are causing considerable concern. However, despite these challenging conditions, the Russian Federation has been working toward achieving the consensus reached at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Implementation since 1994 of Presidential Program activities has led to a 33% reduction in the number of abortions in Russia and a 20% decrease in maternal mortality caused by abortions. Some educational programs for adolescents and youth are also under way. The government of the Russian Federation considers international cooperation in population issues to be an important activity which complements domestic policies and actions. International support needs to be mobilized in support of Russian reforms related to social and population issues.
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  22. 22

    Some significant achievements. South Africa. The Hague Forum.

    Fraser-Moleketi G

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):30.

    In South Africa, 1 in every 6 people is classified as poor, of whom 95% are African. Poverty is rural-based and concentrated among female-headed households. South Africa has made some progress since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in satisfying the reproductive health needs of youth and women. The country will now continue mobilizing technical and financial resources, strengthening coordination mechanisms and monitoring systems, consolidating and harmonizing national information systems, and building capacity to implement the ICPD program of action and the population policy. Focus will be given to alleviating poverty; addressing the needs of women, the disabled, youth, children, and the elderly; encouraging men to take greater responsibility as heads of households; modifying production and consumption patterns to be environmentally sustainable; and integrating reproductive health and rights into the activities of the country's social, economic, and environmental sectors.
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  23. 23

    Demanding strategic leadership. Sudan. The Hague Forum.

    Garang GD

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):31.

    The establishment of the Sudan National Population Council in the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) showed strong political commitment to implementing the ICPD's program of action at the national level. Sudan has also participated in a number of regional and international meetings which recommended various ways of accelerating the implementation of the program of action. The successful implementation of Sudan's national population policy demands strategic leadership at various levels to ensure that the government, with the active participation of the civil society, work together to design, implement, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate population and development programs. However, the country's longstanding civil war and other manmade and natural disasters have caused ongoing population displacement and resettlement processes, impeding development efforts. Sudan's government is concentrating mainly upon ending the war and addressing its negative consequences upon population development before addressing any development plans and programs. The ICPD quantitative targets will be hard to reach in Sudan given current conditions.
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  24. 24

    Increasing its allocations for development cooperation. Sweden. The Hague Forum.

    Edstrom LO

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):32.

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women, and ICPD+5 are but markers along a more long-term path and process of cooperation and dialogue between the world's governments and civil society organizations. Some groups are involved in implementing action, while others focus upon advocacy or act as watchdogs and pathfinders. Civil society organizations need space and financial resources to work upon their issues. In some areas, the ICPD program of action has not achieved what was expected. In particular, almost all countries have considerable work to do on gender equality, the needs of young people, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and maternal mortality. These issues are discussed. More resources must be allocated to the social services in order to achieve the goals of the Cairo program of action. To that end, the government of Sweden is planning to increase its allocations for development cooperation over the next few years, moving upward from the 0.7 level adopted by the UN.
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  25. 25

    Mindful of the various constraints. Trinidad and Tobago. The Hague Forum.

    Ramsaran M

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):33.

    Recognizing the linkages between population and development, and the need for an integrated approach to development, the government of Trinidad and Tobago in 1989 reformulated the Population Council of Trinidad and Tobago with the mandate to design and implement an explicit population-influencing policy for the country. The draft population policy, developed before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), was revised following the ICPD to accommodate the recommendations of the Cairo Plan of Action. Efforts were made to sensitize government planners from sector ministries to the need to incorporate population into the planning process. Procedures are now being adopted which will enable the Population Council to review the government's medium-term plan before it is finalized to ensure that the programs of sector ministries pay enough attention to population. Population growth, teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, return migration, and population aging are among the issues discussed.
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