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London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
SOMARC III HIGHLIGHTS. 1994 Mar; (10):1-2.Morocco's Protex condom project was introduced in September, 1989, by Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC). Since September, 1993, when Protex became self-sufficient, the local distributor, Moussahama, has maintained strong sales, with 1993 fourth quarter sales 18 percent higher than they were the year before. Moussahama is purchasing the condoms directly through the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Moussahama continues to expand distribution to non-traditional outlets. Condom sales are projected to reach three million units in 1994, nearly 40 percent higher than in 1993. An important component of SOMARC's project was a media campaign designed to improve attitudes toward condom use. A recent study measuring the impact of the campaign documented that current condom use of any brand among married men has increase from 3% in 1989 to 20% in 1993; 93% of all married men interviewed were aware of Protex, and nine out of ten condom users said they use Protex most often. The Okey condom in Turkey became self-sufficient in December, 1993, attributed chiefly to SOMARC's having obtained from Eczacibasi, the Turkish distributor, a commitment to directly purchase all condoms to be sold in the social marketing project. Eczacibasi has covered all commodity as well as management and distribution costs of the product since its initial launch. During this time, USAID saved over US $700,000 which it would otherwise have spent providing condoms to the project. Sales of Okey have increased rapidly since the condom's introduction in June, 1991, and are expected to exceed seven million units 1994. Eczacibasi budgeted over US $450,000 in 1994 for advertising and promotion for the Okey brand. A recent study evaluating the impact of SOMARC's condom social marketing in Turkey has increased by a dramatic 124 percent. The success of the Okey condom has encouraged the London Rubber Co. to take a more active role in marketing condoms in Turkey.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992 Jun 22. 4 p.After reviewing 15 HIV prevention projects in 13 countries, the WHO Global Programme on AIDS has concluded that several approaches are effective in changing sexual behavior. The various projects centered around condom marketing programs, mass media campaigns, and friends and co-workers. Mass media campaigns and commercial marketing techniques in Zaire (attractively packaged condoms with appealing names) have resulted in a dramatic increase in condom sales, from <100,000->18 million between 1987-91. The government in Thailand has been able to gain the support of brothel owners and the prostitutes in 66 of 73 provinces to work toward achieving 100% condom use. For example, it penalizes brothel owners who do not comply. In Samut Sakhon, client condom use has reached almost 100%. Mass media campaigns in Switzerland have encouraged people to increase condom use from 8% to 52% between 1987-90, and condom sales have increased almost 2-fold (7.6-13.8 million between 1986-91. The community-based program in Zimbabwe uses prostitutes, actors, and musicians to tell their peers about HIV transmission and infection and encourage them to use condoms. In Tanzania, truck drivers, their assistants, and prostitutes along the trans-African Tanduma highway inform others about AIDS and condoms. In <1 year, condom use among prostitutes along the highway increased from 50% to 91%. Other successful projects include a community-based project in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico where prostitutes serve as peer educators (>85% condom use) and a mass media campaign in the Philippines (96% of youth remembered the campaign). Political will and adequate resources in these efforts will save millions of lives.
The Soviet question: as the new commonwealth rises from the ruins, will Western family planning assistance come to the rescue?
FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1992 Jan-Feb; 2(1):22-3, 25.Family planning in the old Soviet Union was administered through roughly 100 Family and Marriage Centers scattered across the hugh country. Unfortunately they only provided abortions and help for infertile couples, and not much else. The old Soviet government gave contraceptives a low priority and as a result they were only available as imports on the black market. The result is a lot of ignorance and misinformation about oral contraceptives, IUDs, and sexuality in general. The average Soviet women has 4-6 abortions in a life time. The USSR's infant mortality rate in 1991 was 23/1000. In 1988 its maternal mortality rate was 43/1000. The contraceptive prevalence rate in 1988 was 13.7%. There are some small, encouraging signs of change. The abortion rate fell 15.4% between 1975-1988 according to JOICFP. In 1989 the Soviet Family and Health Association (SFHA) was established in order to improve these horrible statistics. The biggest obstacle to the success of the SFHA is the political instability currently being experienced as the Commonwealth is being formed. The IPPF helped raise $14,000 dollars to purchase 15.5 million Malaysian condoms. UN aid is only in the form of technical assistance since the Commonwealth is considered a developed nation. This is the same problem currently facing the Eastern Block nations. The Commonwealth is really like 2 different countries in terms of its family planning needs. The states of the South and East have a population growth rate of 2.5% annually. While the states of the North and West have a population growth rate of 0.6%. Until political stability is achieved in the new Commonwealth, donor nations are going to be unwilling to offer a great deal of assistance. Ultimately the Commonwealth is going to have fund its own family planning system aided by the technical advice from the West.
FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1992 Jan-Feb; 2(1):6, 20.USAID is the world's largest distributer of condoms with over 800 million condoms distributed in 1990, the most recent year figures are available. However, this year's order is 300 million smaller because AID will no longer be supplying Bangladesh or Pakistan. This, combined with inflation has caused the price to rise 16% or from $4.51/100-$5.35/100. Bangladesh will not longer be supplied because the European Community will provide condoms as part of a new 5 year plan from the World Bank. Pakistan will no longer be supplied because US law forbids foreign aid to countries that refuse to sign the United Nations Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The UNFPA distributed 98.5 million condoms last year. The WHO Global Program on AIDS supplied 140 million in 1989 and 30 million in 1990. The International Planned Parenthood Federation distributed 15 million condoms in 1990. Unlike AID, the other organizations can buy their condoms from any manufacture that meets the new international condom standard set up with the help of the WHO. AID must buy condoms manufactured in the US in accordance with US law. AID does however get a much better price for IUDs, oral contraceptive and Norplant. As a result AID is trying to work with other organizations in an attempt to maximize the amount of contraceptives available world wide for family planning. Since other groups are not restricted by the same rules, they could provide condoms, while AID could use its price advantage to supply other methods.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 3,  p.In February 1990, a writer for the international publication Population Reports attended the WHO Interagency Consultation to Discuss Strategies for Coordinating and Improving Global Condom Supply in Geneva, Switzerland to garner the most recent facts about the international supply of condoms and their distribution to be incorporated in an upcoming issue. The WHO/Global Programme on AIDS (WHO/GPA) expanded its role recently to become a major procurer of condoms. Its traditional role remained as coordinating agency of condom strategies against AIDS. The writer recommended that the issue on condoms include a short box featuring WHO/GPA condom activities. Participants agreed that national AIDS programs should focus more on condom services. This could include formation of a condom subcommittee, involvement of a condom programming specialist in drafting medium term national plans, and incorporation of condom distributor experiences in planning. Further they emphasized the need to recognize and consider family planning program experience in supplying and distributing condoms. Participants also conceded the need to no longer differentiate between condom use for AIDS prevention and for family planning. Several agencies including WHO/GPA and USAID addressed the need for quality control including increased emphasis on logistics and distribution channels. They did acknowledge, however, that implementation of quality assurance measures in many countries would be hard and time-consuming. 1 item that received considerable discussion was a generic condom which USAID intended to purchase under its next contract. USAID also planned on switching its focus from quantity to condom distribution and quality control. UNFPA adopted the new WHO Specifications and Guidelines for Condom Procurement. IPPF considered doing so also.
[Unpublished] 1989 May. , 79 p. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.4)In February 1987, WHO established the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) to direct and coordinate global AIDS prevention, control, research, and education. GPA is under the Office of the Director with 2 administrative divisions (management, administration, and information and national program support) and 5 scientific and technical divisions (Epidemiological support and research, health promotion, social and behavioral research, biomedical research, and surveillance, forecasting and impact assessment). It coordinates worldwide AIDS surveillance and receives statistics from WHO collaborating Centres on AIDS, Member Countries ministries of health, and WHO Regional offices. From 1985- 1989, the total number of AIDS cases worldwide rose >15 times. As of March 1, 1989, 145 countries reported a total of 141,894 cases with the Americas reporting the highest number of cases (99, 752). This total is, however, an underestimate since AIDS cases are often not recognized or reported to national health authorities. GPA cosponsors international conferences and policy related meetings, such as the annual International Conference on AIDS. Further, GPA collaborates with other UN organizations and other WHO activities, e.g. UNFPA and Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme, regarding the effect of HIV infection on their programs. Some initiatives that GPA spearheaded and coordinates include protecting the global blood supply from HIV, developing a strategy for distribution of condoms and viricides in national AIDS programs, and strengthening research capability. This report also lists regional and intercountry activities, e.g. WHO joined a French organization in producing a film about AIDS in Africa.
Personal communication. 1979 Mar 23; 12.Tables show total purchases direct from manufacturers, in quantities and dollar values, of IUDs, condoms, injectables, and spermicides, out of UNFPA, WHO, Population Council, IPPF, and UNICEF Funds for individuals years from 1974 to 1978 for 40 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Th 2 types of IUDs that were mainly purchased were the Lippes Loop and the CuT200, both of which are aggregated into a single figure. Figures are given both for total value of purchases, total amounts purchased, and reimbursable procurement.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
[Unpublished] 1973 Apr. 33 p.A tentative inventory of 31 countries' efforts in commercial distribution of contraceptives is presented in outline form. Funding sources for each project are usually listed, as well as a very brief description of the project. Examples range from contraceptive distribution through a coupon system in Costa Rica to the marketing of condoms through barbershop promotion in Korea.