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The application of modelling to control strategies in lymphatic filariasis. Report of a consultative meeting, Geneva, 14-16 February, 1996.
[Unpublished] 1996. 23 p. (TDR/AFR/FIL/97.1)An informal meeting was held in Geneva during February 14-16, 1996, under the auspices of the Filariasis Operational Research Task Force of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Filariasis Unit of the Division of Control of Tropical Diseases (CTD) to critically review recent advances and the current status of approaches to the epidemiologic modelling of lymphatic filariasis, and to recommend further steps needed to improve the field use of epidemiologic models in the control of lymphatic filariasis in endemic countries. Participants included experts in epidemiologic modelling, clinicians, parasitologists, entomologists, epidemiologists, public health planners, and members of the WHO secretariat. Modelling is a way of organizing information so that the interrelationships of components can be readily understood, and so that data lacking for the complete understanding of a problem can be identified. Progress in modelling and optimizing models for field applications are discussed. A work plan and recommendations are also presented. Meeting participants concluded that both the EPIFIL and LYMFASIM epidemiologic modelling packages have good potential to contribute to lymphatic filariasis control efforts. Although simple models of transmission are most urgently needed by control programs, complex models of pathogenesis are also needed.
[Unpublished] 1989. , 10,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)The Turkish Ministry of Health, Primary Health Care Directorate, Expanded Program on Immunization Division (MOH/EPI), requested technical assistance in the installation of a Computerized EPI Information System (CEIS), which the Resources for Child Health (REACH) Project provided to the MOH/EPI from May 8-May 19, 1989, in Ankara, Turkey. A CEIS was installed to enable the MOH/EPI to process routine vaccination and disease surveillance data and to feed back data to the provinces on EPI vaccine coverage, tetanus toxoid vaccine coverage, and communicable disease incidence. The CEIS provides a standardized format for data entry, report generation, and graph production. It uses FoxBASE+ for the data entry and report production and LOTUS 1-2-3 to produce the graphs. All of the reports, graphs, data entry screens, menus, and prompts were translated into Turkish. Coverage data and disease incidence data for 1988 were entered while the consultant was in Turkey. It was recommended that the MOH/EPI validate the coverage data entered by comparing it with the data contained in its LOTUS 1-2-3 files. The MOH/EPI should enter at least two more years of historical data for both cases and deaths and coverage. This will permit the evaluation of trends in coverage and disease incidence and allow the comparison of intra-year coverage rates and disease incidence. The MOH/EPI should enter current data on a monthly basis and test all of the reporting and graphing capabilities of the system. All of the MDs in the MOH/EPI unit should be trained in the operation of the CEIS. Another technical, assistance visit to Turkey should be made in August 1989 to determine how the CEIS is being used, to correct any flaws in existing programs, and to provide some enhancements identified by the MOH/EPI.
ZOOM: a generic personal computer-based teaching program for public health and its application in schistosomiasis control.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1991; 69(6):699-706.In 1989, staff at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland developed teaching software that can be used on IBM-PC and IBM-compatible computers to train public health workers in schistosomiasis. They tested in several schools of public health. They then improve it by incorporating a schistosomiasis information file (stack) in ASCII file format and a routine to organize and present data. The program allows the addition of other stacks without abandoning the user interface and the instructor can change data in the stacks as needed. In fact, any text editor such as Word-Perfect can create a stack. This software teaching program (ZOOM) organizes and presents the information (Dr. Schisto). Dr. Schisto is divided into 8 chapters: introduction, epidemiology, parasitology, diagnostics, treatment, data analysis, primary health care, and global database. Users can command ZOOM to communicate in either English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese. Basic hardware requirements include MS-DOS, 8086 microprocessor, 512 Kbytes RAM, CGA or MGA screen, and 2 floppy disc drives. ZOOM can also configured itself to adapt to the hardware available. ZOOM and Dr. Schisto are public domain software and thus be copied and distributed to others. Each information stack has chapters each of which contains slides, subslides, text, graphics, and dBASE, Lotus or EpiInfo files. ZOOM has key words and an index file to access more information. It also can do user defined searches using Boolean logic. Since ZOOM can be used with any properly formatted data, it has the potential to become the standard for global information exchange and for computer assisted teaching purposes.
CONTRACEPTION. 1988 Aug; 38(2):157-63.A microcomputer software program called the Menstrual Diary System (MDS) is described which analyzes menstrual diaries by the reference period method, according to WHO guidelines. An IBM compatible microcomputer with floppy or hard disk, at least 256K of memory, and an MS-DOS 2.0 or later operating system is used. Menstrual data consist of entries labeling vaginal bleeding as absent, bleeding or spotting. There are optional parameters for the drive, path, and printer used by the system; user-defined symbols for bleeding patterns; screen characteristics; file management by date and length of data collection (maximum 380 days); and subject identifying information. A data management section permits data entry. The data analysis section follows the reference period method, allowing for within-subject analysis and between-subject analysis. Diary data entered in MDS can be transferred onto standard ASCII file to be used by other packages. Examples of output are provided.
Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.
New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.