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Danish Medical Bulletin. 2007 May; 54:150-152.In general, children and adolescents in the WHO European Region today have better nutrition, health and development than ever before. There are striking inequalities in health status across the 52 countries in the Region, however, with over ten-fold differences in infant and child mortality rates. Inequalities are also growing within countries, and several health threats are emerging. Against this background, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has developed a European strategy for child and adolescent health and development. The purpose of the Strategy, together with a tool kit for implementation, is to assist member states in formulating their own policies and programmes. (author's)
KRANKENPFLEGE JOURNAL. 1992 May; 30(5):204-6.The author relates her experience in Benin during a 3 and 1/2 year tenure as a nurse under the aegis of the German Development Agency. In Malanville, she was responsible for starting the operating room, caring for hygiene, sterility, and the related training of domestic staff. A septic and aseptic operating room was set up along with a storage room for instruments, a sterilization room, and a changing room. For the operating and surgical station, the following personnel were available: 2 nurses with 3 years of training, 1 nurse with 2 years of training, and 3 orderlies without training. A nurse with 3 years of training was assigned to the author to carry on the project after her departure. The standard of operating care was very low. It took a month to teach the staff what was not sterile. There was a even problem with putting on sterile gloves which required an exercise in patience. There were an average of 5 relatives per patient taking care of the patient and cooking. The undernutrition center for infants had 6 beds with 2 German nurses who administered Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), diphtheria, polio, and tetanus vaccinations. Their activity was strengthened by nutrition counselling and plans for underweight and malnourished children. Abrupt weaning that resulted in harmful diarrhea and vomiting was prevalent. Clinical signs of marasmus and kwashiorkor were frequent. In the middle of 1990, AIDS educators informed students of the public school as well as registered prostitutes about condom use. In the hospital, there were about 900 births per year, and women were asked to follow recommendations for prenatal care, especially to achieve anemia prevention by getting iron tablets. They were urged to deliver in the clinic, not at home assisted by untrained midwives. Oxytocin and syntometrin were available as was a hand-driven, vacuum evacuation pump. This experience made a lasting impression on the author who has resolved to go to another developing country to train traditional birth attendants in midwifery.
Infant and young child nutrition, including the nutritional value and safety of products specifically intended for infant and young child feeding and the status of compliance with and implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: report by the Director-General.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, March 1983. 39 p.This report to the Health Assembly is presented in 3 parts: Part I--a summary of the present global nutritional situation with particular reference to infants and young children--is based on an initial reading of the results of national surveillance and monitoring activities in over 50 countries. Part II has been prepared in accordance with resolution WHA34.23 which requested the Director-General to report to the Assembly on steps taken to assess the changes that occur with time and under various climatic conditions in the quality, nutritional value and safety of products specifically intended for infant and young child feeding. Part III, in accordance with resolution WHA34.22, summarizes information provided by Member States on action being taken to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. It should be read in conjunction with section VI of the Director-General's progress report which informed the 35th World Health Assembly of action taken by WHO and its Member States in the field of infant and young child feeding. In light of the information on the implementation of the Code contained in these 2 reports, and in the absence of any suggestions from Member States for change, the Director-General considers that it would be premature, at this time, to propose any revision of the text of the Code, either its form or content. The Health Assembly's attention will be drawn, in future biennial progress reports on infant and young child feeding, to any development which may have a bearing on the International Code, in accordance with its Article 11.7 and resolution WHA33.32.