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  1. 1
    028741
    Peer Reviewed

    Effects of hormonal contraceptives on milk volume and infant growth.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Task Force on Oral Contraceptives

    Contraception. 1984 Dec; 30(6):505-22.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a randomized comparative trail of th effects of hormonal contrception on milk volume and infant growth. The 341 study participants, drawn from 3 obstetric centers in Hungary and Thailand, were 20-35 years of age with 2-4 live births and previous successful experience with breastfeeding. Subjects who chose oral contraception (OC) were randomly allocated to a combined preparation containing 150 mcg levonorgestrel and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (N=86) or to a progestin-only minipill containing 75 mcg dl-norgestrel (N=8). 59 Thai women receiving 150 mg depot medroxyprogesterone (DPMA) intramuscularly every 3 months were also studied. An additional 111 women who were using nonhormonal methods of contraception or no contraception served as controls. Milk volume was determined by breast pump expression. No significant differences in average milk volume were noted between treatment groups at the 6 week baseline visit. However, between the 6th and 24th weeks, average milk volume in the combined OC group declined by 41.9%, which was significantly greater than the declines of 12.0% noted in the progestin-only group, 6.1% among DMPA users, and 16.7% among controls. The lower expressed milk volume among combined OC users did not impair infant growth. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of average infant body weight or rate or weight gain. Users of combined OCs may have compensated for their decreased milk volume by providing more extensive supplementary feeding or more prolonged suckling episodes. These results suggest that the estrogen content of combined OCs adversely affects the capacity of the breast to produce milk; thus, family planning programs should make nonestrogen-containing methods available to breastfeeding mothers. Although no effects on infant growth were noted in this study, the possibility of such efects cannot be excluded in populations where infant growth largely depends on the adequacy of unsupplemente d lactation.
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  2. 2
    055647

    Supporting breastfeeding: what governments and health workers can do. European experiences.

    Helsing E

    In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988]. [21] p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    In 1986 the European Regional World Health Organization (WHO) Office convened a meeting of health workers' organizations to develop a strategy for implementing breastfeeding promotion. The elements in this strategy are outlined along with the reasons why some countries have seen increases in breastfeeding and a discussion of the possible ways international organizations can help. The "International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes" constitutes the clearest mandate for an "action program" in the field of breastfeeding. It provides a framework for action and for the formulation of a breastfeeding promotion strategy. Further, the "Code" identifies the obligations of both governments and health workers. According to the Resolution recommending the "Code," one of the obligations of governments is to report regularly to WHO on the progress in 5 areas of infant nutrition: encouragement and support of breastfeeding; promotion and support of appropriate weaning practices; strengthening of education, training, and information; promotion of health and social status of women in relation to infant and young child feeding; and appropriate marketing and distribution of breast milk substitutes. The WHO member states in the European Region have taken their reporting obligation seriously; 71 reports from 29 of the 32 members states have been received. The picture that emerges is one of large diversity with regard to breastfeeding both among and within countries. The European Strategy outlines 7 priority areas for action: the basic attitude of health workers; maternity ward routines; the formation of breastfeeding mothers' support groups; ways to support employed mothers who want to breastfeed; research in breastfeeding; commercial pressure on health workers; and the need for advocacy of breastfeeding. The promotion of breastfeeding is the cumulative effect of activities from several different disciplines that becomes evident in the statistics as an increase in breastfeeding. Factors that contribute to an increase in breastfeeding, based on the Scandinavian experience, are outlined. In regard to establishing a breastfeeding policy, the various activities that can encourage and support breastfeeding fall into 3 categories: making breast milk available to the baby by influencing the material conditions of breastfeeding; increasing knowledge either about human milk or about lactation management as well as about changing attitudes and behavior; and assuring the quality of the milk itself. Ideally, an organization with an advisory and to some degree an executive, decision-making function coordinates these activities.
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  3. 3
    055466

    National improvements: reasons and prospects in Sweden.

    Hofvander Y

    In: Programmes to promote breastfeeding, edited by Derrick B. Jelliffe and E.F. Patrice Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. 86-93.

    The Nursing Mothers' Association was formed in Sweden in the early 1970s, and the group worked to gain access to mass media to influence attitudes through articles and interviews in which they demanded support and encouragement for breastfeeding. A large number of research reports also emerged in the 1970s, demonstrating the benefits and superiority of breastfeeding and breast milk. Further, the active support from international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF was of considerable value as was the controversy leading to the formulation of the Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, which helped to focus the interest of the mass media on the issue. Sweden's Board of Health and Welfare appointed an expert group to propose a plan of action, and the group edited a comprehensive textbook on breastfeeding and breast milk to be used as a national guide. The Nursing Mothers' Association developed to a national organization with representatives visiting maternity units and offering to provide advice by telephone after the mother's discharge. 10 years after the rediscovery of breastfeeding there are several hundred thousand mothers with considerable breastfeeding experience. On a limited scale, Sweden has returned to earlier days when young women learned from older and more knowledgeable women. A wealth of personal experience has been gathered and is being conveyed to others in an informal person-to-person manner. Sweden's baby-food industry has adjusted well to the new situation and has accepted a considerable reduction in sales of breast milk substitutes and has complied with the Code. The dramatic increase in breastfeeding in almost all industrialized nations, including Sweden, suggests a strong movement and that breastfeeding is here to stay.
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  4. 4
    055465

    Return to breastfeeding in the United Kingdom: reasons, implementation, and prospects.

    Darke S

    In: Programmes to promote breastfeeding, edited by Derrick B. Jelliffe and E.F. Patrice Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. 94-100.

    The Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) in the UK established a Working Party of practicing pediatricians, midwives, and health visitors in June 1973 for the purpose of reviewing the then present-day practice in infant feeding. Published in 1974, the Report added an influential and important stimulus to the return to breastfeeding in the UK. The Report acknowledged to manufacturers that due to new technology the composition of artificial milk feeds more closely resembled that of human milk but stressed that the hazards to health for babies were largely due to the dissimilarities between even modified cows' milk feeds and human milk. There also were many different infant milk products on the market, resulting in a problem of choice for the mother and her professional advisors. Due to the fact that instructions for making up a feed varied from product to product, it was understandable that mistakes were made. The Working Party was convinced that an adequate volume of breast milk meant satisfactory growth and development and recommended that all mothers be encouraged to breastfeed. Further, recommendations for the encouragement of breastfeeding covered many aspects of education. The mass media were recognized as an important educational resource which could emphasize the advantages of breastfeeding. Another group of recommendations referred to artificial milk feeds; all such feeds were to approximate in composition as nearly as possible to human milk. Other recommendations advised against the introduction of solid foods before about 4 months of age and against the addition of sugar and salt to solid foods in the infant's diet. The remaining recommendations covered further research into the principles and practice of infant feeding, a review of legislation concerning the composition of artificial infant milk foods, and the collection of national statistics about infant feeding practice. In regard to implementation, recommendations about education are being put into effect slowly and steadily. The government has endorsed fully the aim and principles of a World Health Organization Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes, which was adopted in May 1981 by an overwhelming majority at the World Health Assembly. The Code emphasizes the importance of breastfeeding. As attitudes and prejudices die hard, continued education of those in the caring professions and the public is necessary.
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  5. 5
    040246

    The ethical, political and medical consequences of the new reproductive technologies.

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE: REGIONAL INFORMATION BULLETIN. 1986 Autumn; 15(2):3-13.

    This paper, prepared for European planned parenthood associations, reviews the range of political and ethical reactions to new reproductive technologies. Planned parenthood federations are committed to ensure that women and human living material are protected both from unethical scientific manipulation and exploitation for profit and that candidates for infertility treatment are given appropriate counseling. Within these limits, research into the causes and treatment of infertility has been encouraged. On the other hand, so-called pro-life forces challenge research in this area on the grounds that the sanctity of human life may be violated. A more recent development has been the emergence of feminist opposition to reproductive research on the grounds that it threatens to lead to the expropriation of women as childbearers. The potential removal of reproduction from people is viewed as a further devaluation of women's status and concern is voiced that pre-embryo screening may take the form of benign eugenics. Feminists further argue that in vitro fertilization services are disproportionately available to white, middle-class women. Finally, it is feared that the incorporation of sex preselection into the population programs of Third World countries will become possible as a logical extension of current importation to developing countries of chemical contraceptives (eg Depo-Provera) regarded as unsuitable for use in the US. In the face of such arguments, both from pro-life and feminist forces, planned parenthood federations are urged to be clear about potential uses and abuses of the new reproductive technologies.
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  6. 6
    038364

    IPPF involvement in the International Youth Year: a progress report.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [London, England], IPPF, 1986 Jan 31. 5, 13 p.

    This report provides a brief description of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) involvement in and contributions to International Youth Year (IYY). IYY reinforced an IPPF priority program area for the 1980s--meeting the needs of young people--and all member family planning associations were encouraged to establish links with IYY national coordinating committees. IPPF was also instrumental in the formation of a nongovernmental Working Group on Family Life Education comprised of representatives from a range of organizations involved in youth work and is preparing a resource book on family life education for these groups. The guidelines for action for IYY, prepared by a United Nations Advisory Committee in which IPPF was a major participant, urge governments to promote culturally appropriate family life education, encourage young people and their organizations to be active in the implementation of population programs, promote social policies to strengthen the family, encourage community education to counteract adolescent pregnancy, and ensure that family life and sex education are available to young people. Where necessary, family planning information and services can be made available to adolescents within a country's sociocultural context. There is a need to sustain the global interst in youth concerns generated by IYY and to translate into action the recommendations and resolutions on youth that were developed. It is essential that such action consider factors such as the promotion and protection of the rights and responsibilities of young people, sensitivity to local traditions, identification and mobilization of local resources, interagency cooperation, and involvement of young people in decision making. The document concludes with progress reports from 30 countries on family planning association activities in support of IYY.
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  7. 7
    033658

    Targets for health for all. Targets in support of the European regional strategy for health for all.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office of Europe, 1985. x, 201 p.

    This book sets out the fundamental requirements for people to be healthy, to define the improvements in health that can be realized by the year 2000 for the peoples of the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), and to propose action to secure those improvements. Its purposes are as follows: propose improvements in the health of the people in order to achieve health for all by the year 2000; indicate where action is called for, the extent of the collective effort required, and the lines along which it should be directed; provide a tool for countries and the Region to Monitor progress toward the goal and revise their course of action if necessary. The targets proposed are intended to indicate the improvements that could be expected if all the will, knowledge, resources, and technology already available were pooled in the pursuit of a common goal. The target levels set are based on historical trends in the fields concerned, their expected future evolution, and the knowledge available on the probable effects of intervention. These levels are intended to inspire and motivate Member States when they are determining their own priorities, targets, and capabilities and thus the degree to which they can contribute to reaching the regional targets. The base year for all the targets in 1980. The year 2000 is the completion data retained for all targets related to health improvements. Targets related to lifestyles, the environment and care respectively have 1990 or 1995 as their date of completion unless specific problems justify the allocation of a later year. Targets embodying measures to bring about the changes in research and health development support should be reached before 1990. The aim is to give people a positive sense of health so that they can make full use of their physical, mental, and emotional capacities. A well informed, well motivated, and actively participating community is a key element to the attainment of the common goal. The focus of the health care system should be on primary health care -- meeting the basic health needs of each community through services provided as close as possible to where people live and work, readily accessible and acceptable to all, and based on full community participation. Health problems transcend national frontiers.
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  8. 8
    025603

    Alternative approaches to meeting basic health needs in developing countries: a joint UNICEF/WHO study.

    Djukanovic V; Mach EP

    Geneva, World Health Organization, 1975. 116 p.

    Based on the failure of conventional health services and approaches to make any appreciable impact on the health problems of developing populations, this study examined successful or promising systems of delivery of primary health care to identify the key factors in their success and the effect of some of these factors in the development of primary health care within various political, economic, and administrative frameworks. In the selection of new approaches for detailed study, emphasis was placed on actual programs that are potentially applicable in different sociopolitical settings and on programs explicitly recognizing the influence of other social and economic sectors such as agriculture and education on health. Information was gathered from a wide range of sources; including members, meeting reports, and publications of international organizations and agencies, gathered country representatives, and field staff. The 1st section, world poverty and health, focuses on the underprivileged, the glaring contrasts in health, and the obstacles to be overcome--problems of broad choices and approaches, resources, general structure of health services, and technical weasknesses. The main purpose of the case studies described in the 2nd part was to single out, describe, and discuss their most interesting characteristics. The cases comprised 2 major categories: programs adopted nationally in China, Cuba, Tanzania, and, to a certain extent, Venezuela, and schemes covering limited areas in Bangladesh, India, Niger, and Yugoslavia. Successful national programs are characterized by a strong political will that has transformed a practicable methodology into a national endeavor. In all countries where this has happened, health has been given a high priority in the government's general development program. Enterprise and leadership are also found in the 2nd group of more limited schemes. Valuable lessons, both technical and operational, can be derived from this type of effort. In all cases, the leading role of a dedicated individual can be clearly identified. There is also evidence that community leaders and organizations have given considerable support to these projects. External aid has played a part and apparently been well used. Every effort should be made to determine the driving forces behind promising progams and help harness them to national plans.
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