Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 43 Results

  1. 1
    101392

    Country statement submitted by the government of Malta.

    Malta

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 235-9.

    Population is expected to increase at a rate of 0.5% annually in Malta. Population aging will continue as a result of increased life expectancy and declining fertility. In 1989, the birth rate was 15.1/1000. Excess population in Malta has found release through migration, and only 22% returned during the period 1946-74. Migration and emigration were balanced between 1974 and 1987. Since then, an increase in emigration has added to population aging. In 1990, the population pyramid indicated an unstable population. 24.3% are aged 30-44 years, 30.7% aged under 20 years, and 14.7% aged over 60 years. People aged 20-60 years comprised the largest population group (54.6%). By 2020, the elderly will comprise 23.3% of total population. Expenditures on services and social security for the elderly have increased since 1987 in accordance with government policy on increased social spending. The second phase of the demographic transition began after 1942 with a decline in infant mortality. The third phase began in the mid-1950s with a stabilization of the crude mortality rate and a decline in the birth rate. Responsible parenthood was encouraged in 1956 and thereafter, because of government concerns about future economic and social conditions and population density. The largest drop in the crude birth rate (33-16.3) occurred between 1950 and 1970. The final transition occurred after 1970 and was characterized by low birth and death rates.
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2
    101410

    Statement submitted by the European Association for Population Studies (EAPS).

    European Association for Population Studies

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 383-9.

    The European Association of Population Studies (EAPS) was founded in 1993 to disseminate information and organize workshops with affiliated individuals and institutions. The priority topics are international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation. Within each of these broad areas, workshops and conferences have taken place, and proceedings have been published. This article summarizes the nature of conferences held in each of the five topic areas. For example, joint institutional responsibility among Dutch and European groups, including EAPS, resulted in a 1991 international symposium on the demographic consequences of international migration. In 1985, a symposium was held in Belgium on one parent families. In 1989, a workshop was held on female labor market behavior and fertility. In 1990, a workshop was held on mortality and health care systems in developed countries. Methods of European mortality analysis were discussed at a 1990 international seminar in Lithuania. The impact of policies without explicit demographic goals was discussed at an international conference held in Germany in 1986. Kinship and aging research were discussed in 1988 in Hungary. A workshop was held in Germany in 1993 on pension, health care, labor market, and birth control policies. Data comparability issues in Europe were reviewed in 1991. The first European Population Conference was held in 1987 in Finland; the second was held in 1991 in France.
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3
    101400

    Country statement submitted by the government of Slovakia.

    Slovakia

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 311-6.

    The population of Slovakia was 5,268,935 in 1991, of which 25.3% were aged under 14 years, 59.9% aged 15-59 years, and 14.8% aged 60 years and older (retirement). Demographic changes include population aging and urbanization. Marriage is declining, and 4% of the population is divorced. The time span for first marriages has narrowed to 18-22 years for women and 21-25 years for men. The number of premarital pregnancies has risen. Marriages among pregnant women have doubled (44% of all marriages). Single-parent families with children account for 10.4% of all households, of which 80% are headed by women. Between 1955 and 1990, the population increased by 41%, the birth rate declined by 43.2%, and the death rate increased by 17%. The aging of the population is expected to be more intense after 2005. Slovakia is aware of UN conventions and protocols on migration and expects migrants to stay only temporarily. Humanitarian centers and private homes are used for housing refugees. Illegal immigration involves primarily Turkish citizens of Kurdish origins. Life expectancy is 67 years for men and 75 years for women. Mortality is high among the working age population. Mortality distributed by age is as follows: 53.6% among persons 70 years and older, 22.3% among persons aged 60-69 years, 21.8% among people aged 15-60 years, and 1.8% for those aged under one year.
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4
    129910

    European Population Conference. Proceedings. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland. Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe; Council of Europe; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. 429 p.

    This volume contains country statements and statements by international and nongovernmental organizations for the 1993 European Population Conference that was jointly organized by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECC), the Council of Europe (CE), and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The conference aimed to review, examine, and analyze key population-related issues in the region's countries, to evaluate the implementation of population-related policies, and to prepare a set of recommendations on key population-related issues and policies. The five conference priorities were international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation in the field of population. Conference attendants included representatives from European countries, Argentina, Australia, Egypt, the Holy See, Japan, New Zealand, UN agencies, and 61 nongovernmental organizations. European countries and the world face the challenges of population growth, population impact on the environment, unsustainable modes of production and consumption, and human survival. Countries are inextricably linked, and international cooperation and solidarity are necessary. Developing countries, with the highest rates of population growth, are faced with generating adequate levels of sustainable economic and social development and with devoting sufficient resources to enable demographic transition. Europe's challenges include international migration and continuation of support in development and population programs for countries undergoing political and economic transition. Old national and ethnic rivalries have surfaced and now facilitate armed conflicts and serious political crises. Changes have occurred in fertility, the status of women, and the family. AIDS and drug abuse are causes for concern. This volume identifies 15 recommendations.
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5
    101391

    Country statement submitted by the government of Lithuania.

    Lithuania

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 227-33.

    Assessment of the demographic situation in Lithuania is difficult because of interactive changes in economic and social conditions, policy, and demographic structure. The net reproduction rate until the 1990s was near one. After the 1990s, fertility declined and emigration increased. The population declined to 3,751,000 in 1993. There is an increase in the aging of population; in 1992, the proportion over 60 years of age was 16.5%. Fertility decline contributed the most to population aging, and the substantial immigration prior to 1990 slowed the aging process, whereas mortality had little impact. Net immigration prior to 1990, which was primarily within the republics of the former USSR, was about 7-9000 annually. Immigration was 21,900 in 1988 and 6,200 in 1992. Net emigration was -21,500 in 1992. Jewish emigration was high, partly because of receiving country policies. In 1990, family policy was formulated to broaden financial support for families with children. Since 1991, the health of the population has deteriorated. In 1991, the number of disabled among the working age population increased 30%. Life expectancy was 70.5 in 1992; with female life expectancy about 11 years higher. 55.3% of all mortality is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Health care policy is being formulated according to WHO health principles and with an emphasis on life styles, environment, and primary health care issues. Short- and long-term policy measures will be in accordance with principles of equity and human justice. Programs will be monitored and evaluated.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6
    101405

    Country statement submitted by the government of Ukraine.

    Ukraine

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 355-8.

    The population of the Ukraine in 1993 was 52.2 million. The basic tenets of a population policy have been under consideration since independence in 1991. Development of a population policy is considered integral to social and economic policy, and the policy will be concerned with the rights of individuals and married couples in determining and planning family size. In 1991, deaths exceeded births. Population has been at or below replacement level for a number of years. The proportion of men aged over 65 years and women aged over 55 years has increased to 21.7% of total population, and in six regions the proportion has been over 25%. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences, including air and soil contamination, are preeminent concerns. A Ukrainian national register monitors the health of the victims of Chernobyl. In 1991, an environmental protection act was passed to protect the health of expectant mothers and children. A migration service is planned for regulating migration and dealing with the repatriation of deported population groups. Financial difficulties have hampered greater involvement in international efforts. In fact, financial and technical assistance would be welcomed in the effort to adopt a national system of statistics in accordance with internationally accepted accounting and statistical practices.
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7
    101402

    Country statement submitted by the government of Sweden.

    Sweden

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 325-30.

    Population growth in Sweden has been unregulated. The total fertility rate of 2.1 is at replacement level and satisfactory. The aging of the population is expected to occur around 2010. Immigration in 1991 was 44,000 persons, with 18% from other Nordic countries, 61% claiming relatives in Sweden, and 35% claiming refugee status. During 1992, 60,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia requested asylum. The large numbers of asylum-seekers has resulted in a policy shift that restricts entrants to those fulfilling the UN definitions. The immigration policy has been in effect since 1968 and was formulated without any connection to population policy. Sweden has ratified UN conventions on migrant workers and has been part of the free Nordic labor market, which allows freedom of labor migration between Scandinavian countries. 85% of Swedish mothers have worked outside the home. Family policy is supportive of the dual roles of working and child care. There is a parental insurance system which compensates for lost income for both parents while caring for a newborn child at home. Day care facilities meet demand, and there is financial support for families with children, particularly single-parent families. Consensual unions are common. Contraceptives and family planning services are readily available. Life expectancy is 74.8 years for males and 80.4 years for females. Health inequalities linked to socioeconomic groups have been addressed by the 1992 establishment of a National Institute of Public Health. Sweden has played a dominant role in international development since the 1960s. 7.0% ($165-170 million) of Sweden's total foreign aid program was directed to population issues in 1992. Strategies focus on human rights, socioeconomic factors, and unbalanced development. Many countries in Africa have received support. Women are viewed as key to development and population issues for health, ethical, social, and human rights reasons. Sweden is also concerned about the relationship between environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, and population issues.
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8
    101395

    Country statement submitted by the government of Poland.

    Poland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 261-71.

    Economic changes in Poland have restricted social welfare development and services. Population has been below replacement level since 1989, and life expectancy has declined with a relatively high infant mortality. There is considerable emigration of the young and skilled, and 2.5 million were unemployed in 1992. There will be an increase in the population aged 45-64 years and among pensioners. Although there is no formal population policy, the government has aimed to reach replacement level fertility, to improve the quality of life, to balance the distribution of the population, and to formulate better international agreements on economic migration into and out of Poland. There is public concern about uncontrolled immigration from countries of the former Soviet Union, since Poland is a transit stop for refugees on their way to Germany or Scandinavia. Preferential treatment is been given to Polish migrants in the former Soviet Union. Illegal foreign labor has increased, and crime is a problem. There are plans for policy reform and for the establishment of an Immigration Office. Marriage is declining, and cohabitation is increasing. The birth rate declined from 19.7/1000 in 1983 to 14.3 in 1991. 8% of total births were to juveniles, 6% were born out of wedlock, and 8% were low birth weight. Contraception is available through pharmacies; sterilization is not performed, and abortion regulations are under debate. Unfavorable lifestyles and health behaviors contribute to a poor health situation and an increase in male mortality in all age groups. Circulatory system diseases are a primary cause of death, followed by cancers, injuries, and poisoning. Infant mortality was 15.0/1000 live births in 1991, mostly due to perinatal complications (50%) and developmental defects (27%). Hepatitis B infection is high in Poland, with 30 cases/1000; tuberculosis is declining, but was still high at 42.3/100,000 in 1990 and accounted for 40% of all infectious disease mortality. HIV infections numbered 1996 cases by 1991. Life expectancy is 66.1 years for males and 75.3 years for females. The Polish health strategy conforms to WHO directives and emphasizes general health promotion and at-risk populations. Poland is particularly concerned about population problems in the Eastern and Central European region and in countries of the former Soviet Republic.
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9
    101387

    Country statement submitted by the government of Ireland.

    Ireland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 195-7.

    Ireland's government considers that population size, growth, and structure are reflected in policies to secure a reasonable standard of living and to guarantee rights in the case of unemployment, disability, sickness, or old age. In 1992, legislation established family planning services through health services. Guidelines have been issued on sex and family life education. The Health Department has a comprehensive health promotion program for improving health status, for targeting specific groups and illnesses, and encouraging healthier life styles. Maternity benefits to those with insurable employment are available for 70% of wages, and tax benefits are available to low-income earners. Ireland supports the full and equal participation of women in the development process and agrees with the European Community's guidelines on family planning programs. A first-time contribution to the UN Population Fund was made in 1993, and further contributions are under consideration.
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10
    101386

    Country statement submitted by the government of Hungary.

    Hungary

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 187-93.

    Hungary has both below replacement fertility and high mortality. There has been a deterioration in the stability of families, with a high divorce rate. Population policy is aimed toward reducing the population decline and providing a more favorable age structure. The objective is to reduce mortality, increase fertility, and strengthen material and social conditions of families. Due to resource limitations, the government will rely on the moral renewal of society. An Office of Refugee Affairs was established in 1989. In 1991, there were 75,000 refugees or displaced persons, including ethnic Hungarians. Many new arrivals are from the former Yugoslavia. Marriage and remarriage have declined since the mid-1970s. There is postponement of marriage and first and second births. 87% of children are born to married women. Family policy, since 1992, provides for free prenatal care and pregnancy allowances, at the same time regulating abortion. Social allowances are given to families with children for child raising. Male mortality is particularly high among those aged 30-59 years. High mortality was attributed to life style risk factors and mental hygiene, level of health care, and the role of environmental factors. Hungary is very interested in international cooperation within the European Community and gives support to population activities.
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11
    101383

    Country statement submitted by the government of Germany.

    Germany

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 163-70.

    Total population in Germany was 80.2 million in 1993, and population is below replacement level. The age structure of the population reflects labor shortages and increased aging. Demographic changes will impact on production, income and wealth distribution, and social services. Recent tax changes have provided for compensation for home-based nursing care. Out-migration from the German Democratic Republic (GDR) occurred throughout its existence; the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) absorbed 12 million Germans before the Berlin Wall was built and experienced foreign immigration until 1973 and after 1980. In 1991 and 1992, 700,000 asylum seekers were received. Demographic pressure and economic disparity account for the foreign migration. Since 1990, Germany has been engaged in efforts to stem the flight from home countries and is promoting voluntary return of destitute refugees and asylum seekers. The integration of legal foreigners would be facilitated by limiting migration from non-EC countries. Unemployment is high and there is no demand for foreign labor. In 1989, total fertility was 1.4 in the FRG and 1.6 in the GDR. Due to social changes, there has been a decline in marriages of 50% between 1990 and 1991, a decline in divorces of 70%, and a decline in births of 40%. Since 1972, the European pattern of increased one person households, single parent families, and consensual unions has appeared. Households of married couples with children decreased. Family policy supports child care under the age of 3, and over the age of 3 in educational institutions. Life expectancy was 72.5 years for men and 79.0 years for women in the FRG. In the GDR, life expectancy was 70.1 years for boys and 76.4 years for girls. Infant mortality was low for both territories at 7.5 and 7.6 per 1000 live births. Prevention of chronic diseases with early diagnosis and treatment, emphasis on nutrition, and information dissemination on AIDS are public health measures in effect. Germany has contributed to development cooperation with developing countries with a focus on population policy. Development efforts have supported a linked approach of provision of family planning and improvement in social and economic conditions with protection of the environment. Voluntary family planning and choice of a wide variety of methods is the backbone of efforts to provide services with respect for human dignity and cultural and religious traditions. Slowing population growth throughout the world is viewed as a means of coping with environmental problems and providing a future for generations to come. Germany has provided support to, among others, Bangladesh, Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, and the Caribbean countries.
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12
    101381

    Country statement submitted by the government of the Republic of Estonia.

    Estonia

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 141-6.

    Total population in Estonia is about 1.6 million, of whom 26% are foreign-born, 61.5% are ethnic Estonians, and the remaining are non-Estonians. The sociocultural heterogeneity has been used politically as a measure of ethnic inequalities. Total fertility declined to 1.7 in 1991, the year of independence. The life expectancy is 66.2 years for males and 75.0 for females. The new government will be challenged to building a new social security system for the aged under poor economic conditions. There will be voluntary resettlement of immigrants from the Soviet period; if reunification of families occurs, immigration will increase. Immigration had declined between 1990 and 1993, but illegal immigration increased. Marriage, sexual, and reproductive patterns are similar to Scandinavian models. Cohabitation accounts for 60% of first unions. Abortions exceed the number of live births. Family planning is limited and abortion is used for fertility regulation. Current problems are a sufficient supply of adequate housing and longterm social security. Mortality patterns are similar to European patterns, with the exception of the high levels of accidental and violent deaths, which constitute 16.4% of all male deaths and 5.0% of all female deaths. Cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality is high. The draft Health Protection Act aims to improve life style, reduce environmental pollution, and prevent disease. Prior to World War II, data collection and analysis was very detailed and efforts will be made to improve data systems. Limited funding has prevented more rapid processing and implementation of data collection.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13
    101380

    Country statement submitted by the government of Finland.

    Finland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 147-52.

    In the 20 years following World War II, Finland's population growth declined markedly. Recent increases confirm fertility at 1.79 for 1991, which is higher than it has been since 1970. Fertility is expected to increase until 2010. The country is very homogenous: the largest minority are Swedes, who comprised 6% of the population in 1991, and Lappish people. There are integrated labor markets between Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark. Migrants with Finnish origins from the former Soviet Union have increased. Refugees numbered 6000 in 1993. Finnish family policy strives to secure close and firm human relationships for children and family members, to improve economic conditions for families, and to secure the preconditions for balanced population development. Family type does not determine the nature of family support. Parental leave amounts to 263 week days and is 66% of annual income. Child home care for children under 3 years of age and municipal day care are provided. Men's life expectancy was 71.4 years in 1991; women's was 79.3 years. Infant mortality was low at 6/1000 in 1991. Cardiovascular diseases are a primary cause of death; declines have occurred in this disease group since 1970. Accidents and suicide are very high in Finland compared to other Nordic countries. Lower social classes have a higher mortality rate. Future emphasis will be on outpatient treatment, promotion of health prevention, and a balance between health care and illness treatment. Finland's position is that rapid population growth is related to poverty and slow socioeconomic development. Increased levels of education and gender equality are viewed as necessary for poverty alleviation. Improvements in basic health care also contribute to social development and thus slower growth. International funding has increased and was 85 million in 1991. Development and population related aid will be reduced in 1993 to 0.4% of the gross national product.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14
    101378

    Country statement submitted by the government of the Czech Republic.

    Czech Republic

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 123-32.

    Since the Czech Republic was newly created in January 1993 there has not been any attempt to stipulate desirable population levels. Population policy has been discussed, but the concern, if any, is for the aging of the population. Migration has been primarily from Slovakia; the numbers have declined since the 1950s to about 1000 from Slovakia and about 3000 from the rest of the world. The estimated illegal immigration is around 5000/year. There were an estimated 90,000 illegal immigrants in the Czech Republic in 1993. The German policy to return illegal emigrants to the nearest safe country from which the emigrants came could make the Czech Republic a dumping ground. The typical pattern is marriage, and out of wedlock births stood at 9.8% in 1991, mostly to single women. The divorce rate has increased to 40.8/100 new marriages in 1991; the highest rates were among women aged 20-29 years and men aged 25-35 years. The typical age at marriage is 19 years. Fertility is not likely to exceed 2 children/woman. The abortion rate is very high and almost equal to the birth rate (92.0/100 births). There is limited contraceptive awareness and usage. Legislation is being drafted with some restrictions on abortion and withdrawal of free abortions. The life expectancy is 67-68 years for men and 76 years for women. Decree no. 273 provides for government promotion of healthy life styles through prevention and primary health care. Regular health examinations are required for all children. The goals in 1993 were to implement intergovernmental health agreements and to draw laws on public health protection, chemical substances, health services, provision of health care, mandatory employment injury insurance, abortion, and legal protection of health resorts. International cooperation in development was considered beneficial.
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15
    101372

    Country statement submitted by the government of Austria.

    Austria

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 61-6.

    About 7% of the total population of 7.9 million in Austria are international migrants, mostly from the former Yugoslavia and Turkey. Austria has also received displaced persons and illegal immigrants. OECD has recommended that Austria and other European countries contribute at least 1% of public development aid to population related projects. Austria has been increasing its contributions to reach this recommendation as one means of responding to migration pressure. A comprehensive foreigner and immigration policy has been devised which distinguishes between refugees and asylum seekers and displaced persons and other immigrants. Legal settlement is dependent on the socioeconomic capacity of Austria. Austria has also been active internationally in conferences and agreements. Migratory gains between 1981 and 1991 have contributed to a population growth of 3.2%. Smaller birth rates have contributed to an increased older population aged over 60 years (20.3% in 1991; 6.8% aged 75 years and older). In 1987, the total fertility rate was 1.43 children and the net reproduction rate was 0.68. Family policy has redistributed income to favor low-income families and granted generous maternity leave. The general policy direction is for further increased education about contraception and expansion of services for young people. Free condom distribution is currently being piloted in schools. Life expectancy has been increasing and in 1991 was 72.6 years for males and 79.2 years for females, mostly due to reduced mortality among the aged.
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16
    101178

    European Population Conference recommendations, March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe; Council of Europe; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. iii, 31 p.

    An UN International Conference on Population and Development is scheduled to take place September 1994 in Cairo, Egypt. As part of preparations for the conference taking place around the world, the UN Economic Commission for Europe, the Council of Europe, and the UN Population Fund jointly convened the European Population Conference March 23-26, 1993, in Geneva, Switzerland, to discuss international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, selected consequences of population growth and the age structure, and international cooperation in the field of population. Participants also aimed to review, examine, and analyze key population-related issues in Europe and North America; to evaluate the implementation of population-related policies in countries of the region; and to prepare a set of recommendations addressing key population-related issues and policies. 74 recommendations emerging from the conference are presented as a reference source to government ministries and agencies, international and regional organizations and institutions, as well as national organizations and individual scholars interested in population issues and policies.
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17
    074860

    World population projections, 1989-90 edition: short-and long-term estimates.

    Bulatao RA; Bos E; Stephens PW; Vu MT

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. lxxiii, 421 p.

    The World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department regularly publishes a set of world population projections based on its data files. This 1989-90 report has projections for the world and for regions, income groups of countries, and 187 countries. World Bank staff made projections to the point where populations reach stability. In almost all cases, they made only 1 projection. Projection tables for 1985-2030 exist for each country's population. Each country also has tables on birth rate, death rate, net migration, natural increase, population growth, total fertility rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and dependency ratio. The report shows that from 1985-90 population growth was 1.74%, and projected 1990 world population size was 5.3 billion. By 2025, 84.1% of the world's population will be living in developing countries. 58% of the population now lives in Asia. The population of Africa is growing faster than that of Asia, however, (3 vs. 1.9%). By 2000, the population of Africa will be second only to that of Asia, yet in 1989-1990, it is behind that of Asia, Europe and the USSR, and the Americas. The current dependency ratio (67) is expected to decline to 53 by 2025. The highest current dependency ratio belongs to Kenya (120). In developed countries with aging populations, the dependency ratio will rise from 50-58. China will most likely to continue to be the most populous country for about 200 years. India will continue to contribute more to population growth than any other country in the world. Yet the Federal Republic of Germany loses 100,000 people yearly. Total fertility rates are the greatest in Rwanda, the Yemen Arab Republic, Kenya, Malawi, and the Ivory Coast (all >7.2). Afghanistan and 3 western African countries have the shortest life expectancies (about 40 years). These trends illustrate the need to alter population growth.
    Add to my documents.
  18. 18
    071962

    Norway.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 222-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Norway's 1985 population of 4,142,000 is projected to grow to 4,261,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 20.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 21.1% were over the age of 60. 16.9% and 27.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.8 to -0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.7 to 12.2, while,e infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 11.4. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.0 years. Urban population will increase from 72.8% in 1985 to 79.9% overall by the year 2025. All of these levels and trends are considered acceptable by the government. Norway does not have an explicit population policy. A population committee was, however, created in 1981 to consider population and development, especially in the face of ongoing demographic aging. The government works to provide health for the population, maintain the level of immigration, and improve women's status. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.
  19. 19
    071957

    Netherlands.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 202-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Netherlands' 1985 population of 14,500,000 is projected to grow to 14,691,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 16.5% were over the age of 60. 15.1% and 30.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.8 to -2.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.7 to 13.0, while infant mortality will decline from 8.3 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.6 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 10.4. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 72.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.2 years. Urban population will increase from 88.4% in 1985 to 89.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high immigration and low emigration are not. The Netherlands has an explicit population policy. Fertility should be 15-30% below replacement level over several years in order to stop population growth, the level of immigration should be restricted, and a stationary population should ultimately be smaller than that presently realized. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.
  20. 20
    071947

    Malta.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Malta's 1985 population of 383,000 is projected to grow to 459,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.9% of the population was ages 0-14 years, while 13.8% were over the age of 60. 19.5% and 23.7% are projected to be in these prospective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.3 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase fROm 71.7 to 76.9 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.1 to 11.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.9 to 6.6. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 2.0 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 17.4 to 13.0. Urban population will increase from 85.3% in 1985 to 92.4% overall by the year 2025. All levels and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. In turn, Malta does not have an explicit population policy. Despite the lack of governmental intervention to influence the birth rate, the government recognizes the need keep rates low. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.
  21. 21
    071890

    Germany, Federal Republic of.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 14-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The Federal Republic of Germany's 1985 population of 60,877,000 is projected to shrink to 53,490,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 15.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.0% were over the age of 60. 16.0% and 31.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from -0.2 to -0.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.7 to 77.33 years, the crude death rate will increase from 12.3 to 15.4, while infant mortality will decline from 10.6 to 5.5. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.4 to 2.0, with a corresponding increase in the crude birth rate from 10.1 to 11.1. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 77.9, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.6 years. Urban population will increase from 85.5% in 1985 to 88.6% overall by they year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. The Republic does not have an explicit population policy. A pro-natalist program launched, however, in 1984 to encourage an additional 200,000 births/year. The government hopes to realize steady population growth, improve the situation of families, provide for individuals' health, and improve spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.
  22. 22
    071889

    German Democratic Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 10-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The German Democratic Republic's 1985 population of 16,766,000 is projected to grow to 17,570,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 18.1% were over the age of 60. 19.0% and 25.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to 0.11 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.1 to 77.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.1 to 12.5, while infant mortality will decline from 11.1 to 5.4. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.4 to 12.6. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage from 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 77.0% in 1985 to 84.0% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. The Republic has an explicit population policy. The government encourages families to have at least 2 or 3 children to effect population replacement. Promoting the family and maternal-child care, supporting large families and newly-wed couples, lowering mortality, and reducing differentials in living and working conditions are stressed. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.
  23. 23
    071886

    France.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    France's 1985 population of 54,621,000 is projected to grow to 58,431,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 21.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.7% were over the age of 60. 17.8% and 25.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to 0.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.5 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.2 to 11.8, while infant mortality will decline from 9.2 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.5 to 12.1. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 79.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 73.4% in 1985 to 77.3% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. France has an explicit population policy. Concerned over the low growth rate of the native-born population, policy aims to increase fertility an population growth by improving the socioeconomic status of families, lowering the mortality rate, and restricting most types of immigration. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.
  24. 24
    071885

    Finland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Finland's 1985 population of 4,891,000 is projected to grow to 4,994,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.2% were over the age of 60. 16.5% and 28.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to -2.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.9 to 13.3, while infant mortality will decline from 6.2 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 10.9. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 80.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.6 years. Urban population will increase from 64.0% in 1985 to 83.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Comparatively high morbidity and mortality among males, however, is of concern. Causes for such excess mortality include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents, and suicide. Finland does not have an explicit population policy. Attention is presently directed toward morbidity and mortality, promoting and supporting the family, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.
  25. 25
    071852

    Bulgaria.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 82-5. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Bulgaria's 1985 population of 9.071,000 is projected to grow to 10,070,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 22.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.33% were over the age of 60. 20.0% and 22.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 4.7 to 1.9 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.6 to 76.8 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.0 to 11.6, while infant mortality will decline from 17.6 to 7.2. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.2 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.7 to 13.5. The 1976 contraceptive prevalence rate was 76.0, while the 19890 female mean age at 1st marriage was 221.6 years. Urban population will increase from 66.5% in 1985 to 83.4% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while too low population growth and fertility are not. Bulgaria has an explicit population policy. Demographic policy aims to maintain moderate and stable population growth, provide for individual health, increase job opportunities, and improve living conditions and spatial distribution. Higher fertility and subsequent population growth are encouraged. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discusses, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
    Add to my documents.

Pages