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International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):411-418.The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. How have gender inequality and discrimination against women affected the course of the HIV epidemic? This paper outlines the biological, social and cultural determinants that put women and adolescent girls at greater risk of HIV infection than men. Violence against women or the threat of violence often increases women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women’s empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic. (author's)
A dose escalation study of docetaxel and oxaliplatin combination in patients with metastatic breast and non-small cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Research. 2003 Jan-Feb; 23(1B):785-791.Objectives: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of docetaxel in combination with oxaliplatin (L-OHP) as first-line treatment of patients with advanced breast (ABC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: Fifty-two patients (26 with NSCLC and 26 with ABC), who had not received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, were enrolled. The patients' median age was 64 years, and 42 (71%) had a performance status (WHO) 0-1. Docetaxel was given as a 1-hour infusion after standard premedication on day 1 and L-OHP as a 2 to 6-hour infusion on day 2 every 3 weeks. Doses were escalated at increments of 10mg/m2. Results: The DLT1 was reached at the doses of docetaxel 75mg/m2 and L-OHP 80mg/m2. The addition of rhG-CSF permitted further dose escalation (DLT2: docetaxel 90mg/m2 and L-OHP 130mg/m2). The dose-limiting events were grade 4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, grades 3 or 4 diarrhea and grade 3 fatigue. Out of 239 delivered cycles, grades 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 22 (9%) cycles with 5 (2%) neutropenic febrile episodes. There was one septic death. Grades 3 or 4 fatigue was observed in seven (13%) patients and grades 3-4 diarrhea in five (10%). Out of 42 patients evaluable for response, seven (27%) patients with ABC and five (19%) patients with NSCLC experienced a partial response. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and oxaliplatin is a feasible and well-tolerated regimen. The recommended doses for future phase II studies are 75mg/m2 for docetaxel on day 1 and 70mg/m2 for L-OHP on day 2 without rhG-CSF support and 85mg/m2 and 130mg/m2, respectively, with rhG-CSF support. (author's)
Women and Environments International. 2003 Spring; (58-59):6-8.There are two main lessons that can be learned from the Bosnian experience. First, it is absolutely vital that a gender analysis from the very outset is placed at the heart of peacekeeping operations or postwar reconstruction. It should be main-streamed so that everyone, not just women, not just gender focal points, but everyone thinks about the gender realities of the war and of peace. Second, local women's NGOs must be consulted, befriended, made partners with the international community and have equal rights in the process. (excerpt)
The World Health Organization guidelines for air quality. Part 2: Air-quality management and the role of the guidelines. [Recomendaciones sobre calidad del aire de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Parte 2: Manejo de la calidad de aire y papel de las recomendaciones]
EM. The Urban Environment. 2000 Aug; 23-27.In Part 1 of this article (July 2000, pp 29-34), the revised and updated guidelines for air pollutants were presented. It was emphasized that the guideline values and exposure-response relationships should be considered in the framework of air-quality management. Air-quality management is important for several reasons, which become particularly clear if one is looking at the estimated global burden of disease caused by air pollution. Recent estimates of mortality and morbidity caused by indoor and ambient air pollutions are reproduced in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 illustrates the daily mortality for urban ambient air exposure, urban indoor air exposure, and rural indoor air exposure as potentially caused by particulate matter in eight regions: Established Market Economies (EME); Eastern Europe (EE); China; India; SoutheastAsia/Western Pacific (SEAWP); Eastern Mediterranean (EM); Latin America (LA); and SubSaharan Africa (SSA). On a global scale, air-pollution-related mortality accounts for 4% to 8% of the total death rate of 52.2 million annually. Figure 2 estimates the number of people with respiratory diseases potentially caused, or exacerbated by, exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM). Accordingly, between 20% and 30% of 760 million cases of respiratory diseases recorded annually may be affected by suspended particulate matter. These estimates, when viewed along with the existing information on the health effects of air pollution, lead to the conclusion that controlling sources of ambient and indoor air pollution is necessary to avoid a significant increase in the burden of disease it can cause. This issue is addressed in the World Health Organization 19996 Guidelines for Air Quality (hereafter referred to as Guidelines). In Part 2 of this article, we describe the main statements in the Guidelines with respect to ambient and indoor air management. (excerpt)