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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Using formal consensus methods to adapt World Health Organization Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use.

    Stephen G; Brechin S; Glasier A

    Contraception. 2008 Oct; 78(4):300-308.

    Most contraceptive users are medically fit and can use any available method. Some medical conditions are associated with theoretical safety concerns when certain contraceptives are used. Nevertheless, most contraceptive clinical trials exclude subjects with chronic medical conditions, and direct evidence on which to base sound contraceptive prescribing is limited. The World Health Organization (WHO) Medical Eligibility Criteria provide recommendations on the safe use of contraception. This document is aimed at policymakers and program managers working in less developed countries in which the risks of pregnancy usually far outweigh the risks associated with contraceptive use. The Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare used formal consensus methods to adapt the WHO document to reflect clinical practice and health care systems in the United Kingdom. This structured group consensus method adds authority, rationality and scientific credibility to the UK version, which makes best use of publishedevidence and captures collective expert knowledge. Not all clinicians will agree with the recommendations made in the UK version of the Medical Eligibility Criteria, but for the vast majority, they will be a valuable reference to guide clinical practice for women with many conditions that theoretically affect contraceptive use. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Art for AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Jun. 174 p. (UNAIDS/07.14E; JC1312E)

    The United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) commemorated its 10th anniversary in 2006. In November 2006 UNAIDS moved into its new headquarters in Geneva, a building it shares with the World Health Organization. For UNAIDS, this new space is a convening centre for increased dialogue on AIDS issues and a centre for Art for AIDS. The building is both modern and organic-with the theme of permeability. Art is the focal point in the minimalist setting. Art has played a central role in the response to AIDS. From AIDS quilts in America to memory books in Africa, from painting, multi-media to sculpture - AIDS has influenced art and the artistic world. The UNAIDS ART for AIDS collection are museum quality pieces that provoke thought and dialogue. With an initial emphasis on African art and artists, the pieces have been assembled through the generous support of artists, collectors and donors. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a new WHO guideline.

    de Bernis L

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99 Suppl 1:S117-S121.

    It is estimated that more than 2 million women are living with obstetric fistulas (OFs) worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, and yet this severe morbidity remains hidden. As a contribution to the global Campaign to End Fistula, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a manual intended as a practical working document. Its 3 main objectives are to draw attention to the urgency of the OF issue and serve as an advocacy document for prompt action; provide policy makers and health professionals with brief, factual information and principles that will guide them at the national and regional levels as they develop strategies and programs to prevent and treat OFs; and assist health care professionals as they acquire better skills and develop more effective services to care for women treated for fistula repair. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Drug resistance in tuberculosis [editorial]

    Ebrahim GJ

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2007 Jun; 53(3):147-149.

    Tuberculosis (TB) kills about 2 million adults and around 100 000 children every year. One-third of the world's population are currently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and many have active disease. In Europe TB emerged as a major disease in the latter part of the 14th century. The industrial revolution saw rapid growth of urban centres where overcrowding with poor living conditions provided ideal circumstances for the spread of the disease. Great impact was made by streptomycin and isoniazid, so that by the 1970s TB was no longer being considered a problem in the developed world. But beginning in the 1980s the number of new cases of TB in USA and across Europe rose sharply. The pattern was repeated in many countries and worldwide throughout the 1990s and into the new millennium. The incidence of TB climbed to over 9 million cases every year. In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared TB as a global emergency. During the 1990s multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, emerged as a threat to TB control. MDR-TB requires the use of second line drugs that are less effective, more toxic and costlier. In a global survey of 17 690 TB isolates during 2000-04, 20% were MDR and 2% were extremely drug resistant (XDR). XDR-TB is defined as MDR plus resistance to any fluoroquinolones and at least one of three injectable second line drugs kanamycin and amikacin, or capreomycin or both. Currently one in ten new infections is resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Reaching the targets for tuberculosis control: the impact of HIV.

    Laserson KF; Wells CD

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.

    In 1991, the 44th World Health Assembly set two key targets for global tuberculosis (TB) control to be reached by 2000: 70% case detection of acid-fast bacilli smear-positive TB patients under the DOTS strategy recommended by WHO and 85% treatment success of those detected. This paper describes how TB control was scaled up to achieve these targets; it also considers the barriers encountered in reaching the targets, with a particular focus on how HIV infection affects TB control. Strong TB control will be facilitated by scaling-up WHO-recommended TB/HIV collaborative activities and by improving coordination between HIV and TB control programmes; in particular, to ensure control of drug-resistant TB. Required activities include more HIV counselling and testing of TB patients, greater use and acceptance of isoniazid as a preventive treatment in HIV-infected individuals, screening for active TB in HIV-care settings, and provision of universal access to antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-infected individuals eligible for such treatment. Integration of TB and HIV services in all facilities (i.e. in HIV-care settings and in TB clinics), especially at the periphery, is needed to effectively treat those infected with both diseases, to prolong their survival and to maximize limited human resources. Global TB targets can be met, particularly if there is renewed attention to TB/HIV collaborative activities combined with tremendous political commitment and will. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Barriers to reaching the targets for tuberculosis control: multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Blondal K

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.

    The development and expansion of WHO's DOTS strategy was successful, with 83% of the world's population living in countries or parts of countries covered by this strategy by the end of 2004. Treatment success in the 2003 DOTS cohort of 1.7 million patients was 82% on average, close to the 85% target. Treatment success was below average in the African Region (72%), which can be partly attributed to occurrence of HIV co-infection, and in the European Region (75%), partly due to drug resistance. Drug resistance, specifically multidrug resistance and extensive drug resistance, is a serious threat to public health in all countries, especially in the Russian Federation, where the highest rates of multidrug resistance are presently accompanied by a rapid increase in HIV infection. Based on the experience of the first projects approved by the Green Light Committee, the treatment success of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lower than that of drug-susceptible cases, but nevertheless reaches 70%. The collaborative effort of different organizations, professionals and communities is needed to address the development and spread of multidrug resistance and extensive drug resistance, which combined with the epidemic of HIV infection is one of the barriers to dealing effectively with TB. This effort should be directed towards facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of TB patients, in particular by improving access to drug susceptibility testing and strengthening treatment delivery by rigorous adherence to DOTS as outlined by the Stop TB Partnership. (author's)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    The Global Drug Facility: a unique, holistic and pioneering approach to drug procurement and management.

    Matiru R; Ryan T

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.

    In January 2006, the Stop TB Partnership launched the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015, which describes the actions and resources needed to reduce tuberculosis (TB) incidence, prevalence and deaths. A fundamental aim of the Global Plan is to expand equitable access to affordable high-quality anti-tuberculous drugs and diagnostics. A principal tool developed by the Stop TB Partnership to achieve this is the Global Drug Facility (GDF). This paper demonstrates the GDF's unique, holistic and pioneering approach to drug procurement and management by analysing its key achievements. One of these has been to provide 9 million patient-treatments to 78 countries in its first 6 years of operation. The GDF recognized that the incentives provided by free or affordable anti-tuberculosis drugs are not sufficient to induce governments to improve their programmes' standards and coverage, nor does the provision of free or affordable drugs guarantee that there is broad access to, and use of, drug treatment in cases where procurement systems are weak, regulatory hurdles exist or there are unreliable distribution and storage systems. Thus, the paper also illustrates how the GDF has contributed towards making sustained improvements in the capacity of countries worldwide to properly manage their anti-TB drugs. This paper also assesses some of the limitations, shortcomings and risks associated with the model. The paper concludes by examining the GDF's key plans and strategies for the future, and the challenges associated with implementation. (author's)
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Roles of laboratories and laboratory systems in effective tuberculosis programmes.

    Ridderhof JC; van Deun A; Kam KM; Narayanan PR

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.

    Laboratories and laboratory networks are a fundamental component of tuberculosis (TB) control, providing testing for diagnosis, surveillance and treatment monitoring at every level of the health-care system. New initiatives and resources to strengthen laboratory capacity and implement rapid and new diagnostic tests for TB will require recognition that laboratories are systems that require quality standards, appropriate human resources, and attention to safety in addition to supplies and equipment. To prepare the laboratory networks for new diagnostics and expanded capacity, we need to focus efforts on strengthening quality management systems (QMS) through additional resources for external quality assessment programmes for microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular diagnostics. QMS should also promote development of accreditation programmes to ensure adherence to standards to improve both the quality and credibility of the laboratory system within TB programmes. Corresponding attention must be given to addressing human resources at every level of the laboratory, with special consideration being given to new programmes for laboratory management and leadership skills. Strengthening laboratory networks will also involve setting up partnerships between TB programmes and those seeking to control other diseases in order to pool resources and to promote advocacy for quality standards, to develop strategies to integrate laboratories' functions and to extend control programme activities to the private sector. Improving the laboratory system will assure that increased resources, in the form of supplies, equipment and facilities, will be invested in networks that are capable of providing effective testing to meet the goals of the Global Plan to Stop TB. (author's)
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  9. 9

    HIV / AIDS.

    International Food Policy Research Institute

    New and Noteworthy in Nutrition. 2002 Sep 13; (38):3-4.

    The last two issues of NNN have devoted considerable column space to HIV/AIDS. This is because the pandemic is one of the major nutritional problems the world is currently facing. There is now considerable evidence of how AIDS precipitates and exacerbates other determinants of malnutrition. As Peter Piot, UNAIDS Director, said at the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona .The only effective treatment at present is antiretrovirals. However, inadequate media attention has been given to the importance of good nutrition. Other treatments and prophylaxis especially, have been neglected. It doesn't make a headline, it is not a sexy story. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    The end of the line for child exploitation. Safeguarding the most vulnerable children.

    Beddoe C

    London, England, ECPAT UK, 2006. 55 p.

    The sexual abuse of children perpetrated by foreign nationals in tourism destinations, was first formally investigated in South East Asia in the late 1980s. One of the first organizations to expose 'child sex tourism' was the Bangkok based Ecumenical Coalition On Third World Tourism (ECTWT) which had been monitoring the impacts of tourism in Asia since 1982. ECTWT researchers investigated the growth in tourism related child prostitution in several Asian countries including Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Taiwan. While largely anecdotal, this early research found that child prostitution was reaching alarming levels and that while the highest level of demand for children in prostitution was from local men, it was increasingly also coming from foreign tourists. The research findings were the impetus for a number of Asian-based non-governmental organisations to launch the international Campaign to End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism (ECPAT) in 1990. The ECPAT international movement has grown to encompass national representatives in over 70 countries. ECPAT UK was one of the first European ECPAT partners and was established in 1994 as The Coalition Against Child Prostitution and Tourism to campaign for new laws to prosecute British nationals travelling abroad to abuse children. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Resourcing global health: a conference of the Global Network of WHO for Nursing and Midwifery Development, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2006.

    Duff E

    Midwifery. 2006 Sep; 22(3):200-203.

    With the focus of the World Health Report 2006 Working for health together firmly on the issue of human resources in health, the subject is officially placed among those at the top of the international agenda. The debates at this conference, held June 7--9 and hosted by the WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nursing & Midwifery Education, Research & Practice, based in Glasgow Caledonian University's School of Nursing, Midwifery and Community Health, were therefore highly topical and drew significant speakers from both the host country Scotland and 20-plus other nations. The conference was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN). (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    The long and winding road towards a tobacco-free world [editorial]

    Lancet. 2005 Nov 5; 366(9497):1586.

    Next week, on Nov 8, an important deadline for ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) approaches. Any country that has not ratified the convention by then will not become a full party to its governing body, which will meet for the first time at the Conference of the Parties in Geneva, Feb 6–17, next year. At that meeting parties will take decisions on technical, procedural, and financial issues relating to the implementation of the convention. The FCTC has been rightly hailed as a milestone for the promotion of public health worldwide and WHO can be proud of its achievement. So far, 94 countries have ratified the FCTC, 41 of these in 2005, with China, Rwanda, Nigeria, Cyprus, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo becoming the latest nations to do so this October. China, with the world’s largest cigarette market and with an estimated 350 million smokers, is a particularly important signatory. By ratifying the FCTC, China has taken an important and welcome step to protect its people’s health. Rapid economic changes make China’s large population especially vulnerable to a future epidemic of chronic diseases. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    The intricacy of demography and politics: the case of population projections.

    Martinot-Lagarde P

    [Unpublished] 2001. Presented at the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, IUSSP, 24th General Conference, Salvador, Brazil, August 18-24, 2001. 17 p.

    The purpose of this paper is to sketch the common lines of development of both the scientific elaboration of world population projections and the international political debate that prepared the ground for such projections and encouraged their development. A partial history of the elaboration of world population projections has already been written. International population debates from the XIX° and XX° centuries are also under scrutiny. But the link between these two developments has not been fully established. The link between projections and politics work both ways. In one direction, projections can contribute to a rationalization of government in the area of economic development, urban planning and so on. They provide societies with a partial view of their future. In the other direction, population projections cannot be undertaken without the help and support of governments and major international organizations. They rely on accurate and detailed censuses. They are costly and time consuming. At both end of the spectrum, there is a need for a global consensus not only within the scientific community and political arenas for population projections to be computed, received and considered as legitimate. More than many other instruments of demographic analysis, the history of world population projections demonstrate these linkages. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Istanbul Declaration.

    International Congress on Population Education and Development (1993: Istanbul)

    In: First International Congress on Population Education and Development, Istanbul, Turkey, 14-17 April, 1993. Action Framework for Population Education on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century. Istanbul declaration, [compiled by] United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] [and] UNESCO. [New York, New York], UNFPA, 1993. 5-7.

    Participants at the International Congress on Population Education and Development, organized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the UN Populations Fund in Istanbul during April 14-17, 1993, adopted the Istanbul Declaration and approved an action framework for population education. Population is one of the world's most serious concerns, which education can help to solve. The world's population needs to be taught about important population issues. In particular, population education projects and programs need to reach to all levels of the educational system, to all types of educational institutions, and to all settings of non-formal education. Population education should be developed as an integrated component of educational curricula. Population education, environmental education, and international education all improve the quality of life and the relationships of humans with each other and nature. Congress participants call upon international and organizational support for new and ongoing population education.
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  15. 15

    Technical advisory meeting on implications of the newly identified HIV-1 subtype O viruses for HIV diagnosis. Press release.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Information

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1994 Jun 24. 2 p. (Press Release WHO/50)

    HIV is characterized by an high level of genetic diversity. HIV types HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been identified, and HIV-1 variants have been grouped by their gag and env sequences into at least eight subtypes, subtypes A-H. Divergent HIV-1 subtypes also have recently been identified which cannot be classified in any of the existing HIV-1 subtypes and are thus designated as subtype O for "genetic outliers". Limited available sequence data from HIV-1 subtype O viruses suggest that diversity within the subtype O group may be as great as that which exists between HIV-1 subtypes A-H. The majority of virus strains classified as HIV-1 subtype O have been isolated from patients of Cameroonian origin or their sexual contacts although recent preliminary studies in Cameroon suggest that less than 10% of HIV-1 infections there are caused by subtype O strains. A few subtype O infections have also been reported in Gabon and France, but limited studies have found no evidence of the presence of HIV-1 subtype O in Belgium, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Togo, and Zaire. The ability of currently available anti-HIV assays to identify individuals infected with subtype O has not been extensively studied. An informal consultation of 22 international experts on the implications of this newly identified subtype for HIV diagnosis took place June 9-10, 1994, at World Health Organization headquarters. In general, one is more likely to fail in detecting HIV infection because of the absence of antibody in the seroconversion window phase than from infection with an highly divergent HIV subtype. The existence of these subtype O viruses is therefore likely to have little, if any, impact upon HIV diagnosis and blood safety outside of the area where they are prevalent. The expert group recommended that diagnostic tests and strategies for HIV antibody testing be urgently reevaluated in the region where subtype O virus has been found, a panel of sera be collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals to use in assessing the sensitivity of available HIV antibody assays for antibodies against HIV-1 subtype O, envelope genes of subtype O isolates be sequenced to provide information useful in the production of HIV antibody assays and the determination of the relatedness of HIV strains, expanding the global surveillance of newly recognized HIV subtypes, and developing and evaluating algorithms for the detection and further characterization of variant HIV strains.
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  16. 16

    The world tomorrow..? Annual report 1991/92.

    World Population Foundation

    Laren, Netherlands, World Population Foundation, 1992. 20 p.

    The World Population Fund is a non-profit organization created in 1987 to increase awareness of the nature, size, and complexity of rapid population growth and to support population projects in developing countries. The foundation hopes that its efforts will improve global standards of living. Projects emphasize the collection, analysis, and dissemination of population information; the formulation and implementation of population policies; maternal and child health care and family planning (FP); and improving the position of women. Collaborating regularly with the Dutch government, the UN, and other international organizations, the World Population Fund is the only organization in the netherlands which concerns itself specifically with problems of world population growth. This report outlines the consequences of world population growth; fund activities in 1991 in information, education, and training; project fundraising; family planning efforts in Burkina Faso, India, and Tanzania; and collaboration with the Consultancy Group for maternal health and FP. Fund accounts are presented. Teenage pregnancy, population pressures and environmental degradation, urbanization, and economic development are discussed. If present population growth trends continue, world population will triple within the next century to 18 billion with 90% of the growth in developing countries. Widespread poverty, malnutrition, disease, and early mortality will be the consequences of such growth. While experience shows that FP programs can help lower population growth rates, demand for FP is greater than supply in most developing countries. In fact, 300 million couples, the majority of whom live in developing countries, are being denied the universal right to freely decide the number and spacing of their children. The persistence of social and political controversy over funding family planning in developing countries, funding shortages, and inadequate policies and programs continue to result in teenage and child pregnancies, abortions, unwanted births, malnourished mothers and children, and maternal mortality. Balanced population policies and programs integrated within development plans are called for. To that end, the World Population Fund in 1992 will emphasize interactions between population growth and environment while also focusing upon the needs of and services for youth.
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  17. 17

    Review and evaluation of national action taken to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: report of a technical meeting, The Hague, 30 September - 3 October 1991.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Programme of Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning

    [Unpublished] 1991. 24 p. (WHO/MCH/NUT/91.2)

    The report of the national actions in marketing breast-milk substitutes includes a review and evaluation summarized in the accompanying annex and the results of a meeting. Participants found the evaluation helpful, that progress had been made, and that the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes must be viewed in a broad context. Lessons learned and recommendations are given for the development and implementation of national measures, as well as the training and education in the health sector, the information to the general public and mothers, monitoring and enforcement, and manufacturers and distributors of products within the scope of the Code. Successful implementation depends on a clear international perspective, on all concerned parties' involvement in development and monitoring, and a continuing commitment to a complex process. Difficulties encountered were lack of 1) political commitment, 2) integration of sectors, and 3) recognition that the Code applied to all counties; there were also questions about the scope of products included in the Code. There is no limit to age group. Partial adoption is not sufficient and has a negative impact. The Code was being ignored in countries moving toward a market economy. Health professionals were unaware of new developments in infant feeding practices. The Code assumes a compatible relationship between manufacturers and health personnel, which is not the case. Manufacturers used mass media and formal and informal educational sectors to disseminate information about their products with the approval of authorities who considered the use consistent with the Code. The expanding international telecommunications systems have proved to be a crippling challenge to some countries without the tools to know how to regulate programming. The feeding bottle is an inappropriate child care symbol for breast feeding, which is frequently found in public places. Monitoring has been uneven. Enforcement is hampered by an absence of, inadequacy in, and inability to apply sanctions. Joint health and industry provisions are weaker than the Code, and marketing strategies do not conform to the Code. Manufacturers apply the Code differently in developed and developing countries. Not enough attention has been paid to feeding or pacifier products. Retail stores sell infant formula next to other infant food products which is misleading.
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  18. 18

    WHO research activities: biennium 1984-1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Research Promotion and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1986. x, 424 p. (RPD/COM/86.)

    This compendium provides substantive, systematic coverage of all research-related activities of the World Health Organization (WHO) for 1984-1985. Coverage includes programs which do not have a special managerial framework for their research activities. The volume is structured according to the official program classification of WHO (1984-1985); its principal concern is to reflect adequately the fields of scientific investigation within individual programs and to suggest, wherever appropriate, existing or possible lines of convergence between them. Research activities within global programs described include such population-related fields of study as: (1) health manpower; (2) maternal and child health; (3) women, health, and development; and (4) family health. Also included are reports on research activities within regional programs in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South-east Asia, and the Western Pacific region. The report's final two sections are a List of Institutionally Based Research Related Activities and a Summary Budgetary Table and Graphs.
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  19. 19

    List of research projects funded since 1980, by Scientific Working Group and broad priority area.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1986. 80 p. (WHO/CDD/84.17)

    This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by the Diarrheal Diseases Control Program of the WHO is arranged by broad priority area and scientific working group. Project title, investigator, and budget allocation for each are listed. Scientific working groups which are included are: bacterial enteric infections, parasitic diarrheas, viral diarrheas, drug development and management of acute diarrheas, global/global groups, global/regional groups, and research strengthening activities. Projects are also classified according to geographic area: African region, American region, Eastern Meditterranean region, European region, Southeast Asia region, and Western Pacific region.
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  20. 20

    World malaria situation, 1983. Situation du paludisme dans le monde, 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Malaria Action Programme

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(2):193-231.

    In 1983, the number of malaria cases reported was 5.5 million, compared with 6.5 million in 1982 and 7.8 million in 1981, excluding figures from Africa. Of a total world population of 4676 million, some 1307 million (28%) live in areas where malaria never existed or from where it disappeared without specific antimalaria measures. About 753 million people (16%) live in areas where the disease has been eliminated during recent years by successful antimalarial activities. Almost 50% of the world's population live in areas where antimalaria activities are carried out. About 389 million people (8%) inhabit areas where no specific measures are undertaken to control malaria transmission and where the prevalence of infection has hardly changed. Over the years, malaria has invaded large areas of countries. This paper examines the malaria situation in the following regions of the world: Africa north of the Sahara; Africa south of the Sahara; the Americas; North America; Middle America; South America; Asia west of India; Middle South Asia; Eastern Asia and Oceania; and Europe, including Turkey and the USSR. Among the factors recognized as determining the malaria situation are technical problems that have grown in magnitude and present major obstacles and a real threat to the successful implementation of antimalaria measures. Tables provide statistics on number of malaria cases reported, 1973-1983, by region; epidemiological indicators in 1983 (examination rate, slide positivity rate, number of cases, % by p. falciparum) by country; malaria situation by large epidemiological areas, 1983 (incidence, areas under attact, freed areas, interrupted transmission areas); WHO official register of areas where eradication has been achieved; semestrial follow-up of registration of malaria eradication; and summary of semi-annual reports on vigilance. Also tabulated are malaria cases imported into malaria-free countries and areas; and areas where resistance of p. falciparum to chloroquine is reported. Epidemiological assessment is also given in map form for 1983.
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  21. 21

    List of research projects funded since 1980, by Scientific Working Group and broad priority area.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1984. 51 p.

    This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, is arranged by project title, investigator and annual budget allocations. Project titles are listed by Scientific Working Grouping (SWG) and include research on bacterial enteric infections; parasitic diarrheas; viral diarrheas; drug development and management of acute diarrheas; global and regional groups and research strengthening activities. SWG projects are furthermore divided by geographical region: African, American, Eastern Medierranean, European, Southeast Asian and Western Pacific. The priority area for research within each SWG is specified.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV / AIDS surges in Eastern Europe -- Asia-Pacific next?

    Agnew B

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002; 80(1):78.

    According to the AIDS Epidemic Update released in November 2001 by the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), HIV/AIDS infection is escalating globally. The disease is spreading most quickly in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where an estimated 1 million people are now infected with the disease. Furthermore, statistics show that about 5 million people were infected with HIV in 2001 (versus 5.3 million in 2000) and an estimated 40 million (versus 36.1 million) are believed to be living with the virus worldwide. In response to this threat, prevention and aggressive harm-reduction programs are at work, according to the Director-General of WHO, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland. He cited several Asian countries, like Thailand and Cambodia, whose efforts of prevention are effectively working in reducing the incidence of HIV/AIDS. Poland and several African states have also shown exemplified actions in controlling the epidemic. Dr. Jesus Maria Garcia Calleja, a UNAIDS epidemiologist stressed the need of will and commitment from all sectors to prevent further outbreak. In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, since the spread is still in its early stages, a comprehensive response is needed to reduce risky sexual and drug-injecting behavior among young people, and to tackle the socioeconomic and other factors that promote the spread of the virus.
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  23. 23

    [Multisectoral responses to HIV / AIDS: constraints and opportunities for technical cooperation] Reponses multisectorielles au VIH / SIDA: contraintes et opportunites pour la cooperation technique.

    Hemrich G

    Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit [GTZ], 1999 Apr. 14 p.

    According to 1998 UN AIDS Program (UNAIDS) estimations, approximately 40 million adults worldwide were living with HIV infection in 2000. Over 90% of new infections occurred in developing countries. Although Africa remains the most severely HIV/AIDS-stricken continent thus far, the annual number of new HIV infections in Asia appears to be overtaking those seen annually in Africa. The epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic will therefore be in Asia over the course of the next decade. HIV/AIDS is strongly related to development. According to the World Bank, in macroeconomic terms, HIV/AIDS exacerbates poverty and threatens the development process. The scope of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the severity of its impact, and the ineffectiveness of medical responses to the situation have prompted national, bilateral, and international organizations to adopt multisectoral responses to check the spread of the epidemic and reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS. Until now, the implementation of this multisectoral approach has been frustrated by structural, logistical, and political constraints. This paper explores the current situation, as well as the implications of and constraints to the multisectoral approach against HIV/AIDS for technical assistance programs based upon agricultural projects and rural development supported by GTZ in sub-Saharan Africa. The author proposes integrating HIV/AIDS concerns into nonmedical technical cooperation programs and identifies points of departure to operationalize the HIV/AIDS multisectoral approach at the policy and field levels.
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  24. 24

    WHO board addresses health of women, children.

    NATION'S HEALTH. 2001 Apr; 15.

    One topic discussed at the annual January session of the WHO's executive board was the general health and well-being of young children and mothers. The 32 members met in Geneva for a week to develop policy standards in various issues, including promoting a global strategy for infant and child feeding and nutrition, strengthening nursing and midwifery and making pregnancy safer. The board members adopted a resolution aimed at improving the nutrition of women of reproductive age and supporting breastfeeding. They also stressed the importance of increasing nursing and midwifery work. Other significant issues discussed included epidemic alert and response measures, health services performance assessment, HIV/AIDS, mental health, the Roll Back Malaria program, polio eradication, tobacco control, and schistosomiasis.
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  25. 25

    Equity in health in the age of globalization. Conference statement of the international roundtable: "Responses to Globalization: Rethinking Equity and Health" (1999: Geneva).

    Society for International Development; World Health Organization [WHO]; Rockefeller Foundation

    Development. 1999 Dec; 42(4):5-7.

    This article presents the meeting of the Conference Statement of the Society for International Development, WHO, and Rockefeller Foundation International Roundtable in their response to globalization associated with the growing gaps in health status. This was held at WHO headquarters on 12-14 July, 1999. The epidemiological evidence regarding the health issue indicates that globalization is more likely to reinforce, exacerbate or create inequities in health. Conference participants are confident that the potential of globalization for equity and health challenge can be overcome only through confronting the underlying political reasons for growing gaps in equity and access to health care worldwide. During the conference, participants were able to figure solutions and proposed calls for actions. It is the responsibility of the WHO to take leadership in the areas of advocacy, distribution of information, ethical and moral concerns, partnership, leadership, and future world health report. Ultimately, specific recommendations at all levels for equity in health were also gathered.
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