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Ownership of mobile phones and willingness to receive childhood immunisation reminder messages among caregivers of infants in Ondo State, south-western Nigeria.
South African Journal of Child Health. 2018 Jun; 12(3):111-116.Background. The timely completion of the childhood immunisation schedule for children under the age of 1 year by caregivers is key to reducing the high morbidity and mortality of vaccine-preventable diseases among infants globally. Objective. To determine the ownership of mobile phones among caregivers of children under the age of 1 year, their knowledge about immunisation service delivery and willingness to receive childhood immunisation schedule reminder messages in Ondo State, south-western Nigeria. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional study using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires was conducted with 615 caregivers of infants, who brought their children to clinics conducting immunisation in 24 health facilities in rural, semi-urban and urban settlements in Ondo State in December 2014. Results. The mean (standard deviation, SD) age of respondents was 28.49 (6.01) years, 76.7% were Yoruba, 91.4% were married and living with their spouses and 4.2% were single. Mobile phone ownership was 74.5% among rural-based respondents, and 95.8% among urban-based. Forty-six percent of the respondents had good knowledge of immunisation, vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination schedules, while 27.5% had poor knowledge. The majority of the respondents (99.7%) were willing to receive childhood immunisation reminder messages on their mobile phones. About 50% of the respondents preferred to receive reminder messages at any time, rather than specific times. The most preferred language for reminders was English (54.5%). Residing in an urban area and having post-secondary education were predictors of mobile phone ownership. Conclusion. The high mobile phone ownership level, and the willingness of caregivers of infants in this study area to receive immunisation schedule reminder messages, is encouraging, and should be optimised to improve routine immunisation uptake. However, caregivers of infants in rural areas need to be provided with mobile phone support, and trained in their usage in order to benefit from such an intervention in childhood immunisation.
South African Journal of Child Health. 2018 Jun; 12(2):44-47.Background. Globally, child health services are a priority, but are most acutely felt in underdeveloped and developing countries. Most of the children who live in such countries die from a disease or combination of diseases that could easily have been prevented through immunisations, or treated at a primary healthcare level. Undernutrition contributes to over a third of these deaths. Preventive measures are important to proactively prevent such disease and mortality burdens. Well-baby visits are for babies who come to the clinic for preventive and promotive health, and who are not sick. One of the goals in the National Core Standards is to reduce waiting time in health establishments. However, it is imperative that all necessary assessments are conducted during a well-baby visit. The Road to Health booklet (RtHB) contains the baby’s health record, and is issued to all caregivers, usually on discharge post-delivery. It also contains lists of appropriate assessments that should be performed during each well-baby visit according to age, including immunisations and health promotion messages for caregivers. In South Africa, infant morbidity and mortality rates are decreasing very slowly, requiring effective use of the RtHB to address important applied and research problems. Objective. To investigate how ‘well babies’ were monitored in primary healthcare facilities. Methods. A descriptive quantitative cross-sectional survey design was used for retrospective review of 300 babies’ RtHBs, using a checklist developed directly from the assessment page of this booklet. The clinical microsystem model was used to guide the study. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Results. Babies were shown to have been immunised in 100% of records, while discussion of side-effects and the management thereof were only recorded in 9.7% (n=20) charts. Records indicated that 98.7% (n=296) of babies were weighed, but only 71% (n=213) of weights were ‘plotted’ and 56.3% (n=169) classified according to the integrated management of childhood illnesses norms. Conclusion. Based on the findings, this research was able to make a contribution to the body of knowledge about baby monitoring practices in primary healthcare settings.
Assessment of mother's perception and children's routine vaccination coverage in District Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Rawal Medical Journal. 2018 Oct-Dec; 43(4):757-760.Objective: To access the routine vaccination coverage of children age 6-23 months and to evaluate mothers' knowledge and perception about the child vaccination. Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan from March 20 to April 15, 2015. The sample size comprised of 492 respondents. The data were collected from four randomly selected Tehsils in the district Faisalabad. Interview schedule was employed with a questionnaire using 30 household cluster for Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). The mothers who had a child with age 6 to 23 month were interviewed and assessment was based on both mother's recall and EPI cards. Results: It was found that 81. 7% mothers had EPI cards of their children. The BCG and Pentavalent 3rd dose coverage was found in 90.6% and 85%, respectively. The coverage of 2"d dose of measles was found only 64.3%. 79.67% children were immunized up to date and 9.35% were found unvaccinated. Education of mothers (P>0.000), education of fathers (p>0.000) and income of household (p>0.01) were significantly associated with age appropriate child vaccination coverage Conclusion: We found that almost one child out of ten is still unvaccinated in the study area. The 64 percent of 2"d dose of the measles coverage exposed the discontinuity and gaps in adoption of the child vaccination among higher age group children.
A call for the introduction of gender-neutral HPV vaccination to national immunisation programmes in Africa.
Lancet. Global Health. 2018 Nov 30;Add to my documents.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2018 Dec; 96(12):834-842.Objective: To determine the cost of Zimbabwe’s human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination demonstration project. Methods: The government of Zimbabwe conducted the project from 2014-2015, delivering two doses of HPV vaccine to 10-year-old girls in two districts. School delivery was the primary vaccination strategy, with health facilities and outreach as secondary strategies. A retrospective cost analysis was conducted from the provider perspective. Financial costs (government expenditure) and economic costs (financial plus the value of existing or donated resources including vaccines) were calculated by activity, per dose and per fully immunized girl. Results: The project delivered 11 599 vaccine doses, resulting in 5724 fully immunized girls (5540 at schools, 168 at health facilities and 16 at outreach points). The financial cost for service delivery per fully immunized girl was United States dollars (US$) 5.34 in schools, US$ 34.90 at health facilities and US$ 288.63 at outreach; the economic costs were US$ 17.39, US$ 41.25 and US$ 635.84, respectively. The mean financial cost per dose was US$ 19.76 and per fully immunized girl was US$ 40.03 (economic costs were US$ 45.00 and US$ 91.19, respectively). The largest number of doses delivered (5788) occurred during the second vaccination round (the second group’s first dose concurrently delivered with the first group’s second dose), resulting in the lowest financial and economic service delivery costs per dose: US$ 1.97 and US$ 6.79, respectively. Conclusion: The mean service delivery cost was lower in schools (primary strategy) and when more girls were vaccinated in each round, demonstrating scale efficiency.
A study of vaccination delay among under-five attendees at an immunisation clinic in a rural area of Goa.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Apr; 5(4):1628-1633.Background: Vaccination has effectively shown to reduce mortality and morbidity due to vaccine-preventable diseases. However, these diseases are still responsible for majority of childhood deaths worldwide especially in the developing countries. It should be realized that with hesitance or delaying vaccinations, the period that the child at risk increases. Hence, the following study was conducted. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 251 under-five immunization clinic attendees at an immunization clinic conducted at the Rural Health and Training Centre in Goa for a period of two months. Parents of the under-five children were interviewed and vaccination dates were obtained from health cards and vaccination delay was assessed. Results: Out of the total 251 study participants, 43.4% were males and 56.6% were females; 36.7% belonged to <2 years of age whereas 63.3% belonged to >2 years of age group. The education of the mothers and fathers of under five children, upto secondary education was 50.6% and 55.4% respectively and 31.5% of the study participants belonged to high socio-economic status. It was observed that 31% of the study participants (n=78) had a vaccination delay whereas 69% (n=173) of them were vaccinated on time. The reasons for delay in vaccination included unawareness, forgetfulness, sickness and migration. A statistically significant association was found between age, working status, socio-economic status and vaccination delay (p<0.05). Conclusions: Strategies must be evolved to educate the parents in the study area to have greater awareness regarding the immunization programmes.
A study to assess the effectiveness of short training session on immunization knowledge of mothers attending immunization clinic.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 May; 5(5):2144-2150.Background: Parents knowledge about immunization is India’s primary tool against the menace of child not immunized completely. The parents especially mothers should have basic knowledge of immunization in under five children. Methods: The study evaluates knowledge and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 250 infants who attended Immunization clinic of Madhav dispensary J.A. Hospital, Gwalior Madhya Pradesh by simple random sampling method under the PSBH project completed by MBBS Final Part I students. Results: Brief structured interview with transient training and structured questionnaire techniques were used to collect responses from the mothers. In total 59.32% mothers were aware about the immunization aspects and only 45.8% were about the mandatory vaccines had been rendering adequate knowledge and they were not much reflective of the same when being questioned on the knowledge parameter. The study revealed that out of 250 mothers, 40% were in the age group of 21-25 years. After immunization based brief transient training given to mothers, their knowledge about immunization aspects and individual vaccines under five children was significantly improved from pre test assessment mean score 118.1±59.3 to post test assessment 224.1±89.6 respectively. Conclusions: There are several loopholes in the mother’s knowledge regarding immunization. Many of them had no knowledge about compulsory vaccines. Despite inadequate knowledge and attitude of mothers towards infant immunization, the majority of mothers had good change (42.4%) and 32.3% due to seeking of information about practice of infant immunization and individual vaccine. From this point of view, it is possible to conclude that mothers’ immunization practice was not really based on their knowledge and attitude regarding immunization of infants. Maternal education and socio economic status were significantly associated with good knowledge.
An observational study to assess obstetric services trends among pregnant women registered at a health centre of Chandigarh city.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Dec; 5(12):5290-5294.Background: Maternal and child healthcare services are very important for the health outcomes of the mother and that of the child by ensuring that both maternal and child deaths are prevented. Present study has been planned to study the trend of utilization of antenatal care services among women registered at field practice area of Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh. Methods: Secondary data of pregnant women registered at field practice area of Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh has been collected from records of respective health set up. Data has been analyzed to find out trend of different ANC service indicators like year of registration, season of registration, TT immunization, Parity, his risk behavior of pregnancy, JSY registration, MTP (medical termination of pregnancy), hemoglobin level etc. Results: Out of all registration trend of registration of new pregnancy was almost similar during all four years (2013-2017). Although after careful analysis of data it more in rainy season (10.1%) in year 2013-14 whereas summer season reported more new pregnancies (10.4%) in the year 2016-17. out of total doses received of TT 1st dose among all reported pregnant women majority of doses (11.9%) received in summer season of year 2016-17 followed by 9.2% in rainy season of year 2013-14. Number of registration of pregnant women was almost equal among all years of registration. Conclusions: It provides future direction to conduct more such studies to find out trend considering some public health related correlates. Simultaneously it also urges researchers to find out reasons of such trends in a bid to make results more applicable.
The Need for Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in the National Immunization Program of More Than 100 Countries around the World.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 2018 Jan; 39(1):124-125.Add to my documents.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Dec; 5(12):5133-5138.Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in developing countries including India. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix is the most common risk factor for cervical cancer. HPV infection is widespread and occurs soon after becoming sexually active. Lack of hygiene and multiple sexual partners increases the risk of chronic HPV infection. HPV vaccine offers protection against cervical cancer. However the knowledge about HPV and vaccine is very limited among the general public. Knowledge among doctors is essential to provide timely advice to the target population. This study aims to measure the awareness among female medical students in a medical college in Kerala. Methods: 1st to 4th year female medical students of Amrita School of Medicine were administered an anonymous, validated self-administered pretested questionnaire. Only students who had volunteered and given consent were included in the study. 165 students participated in the study. Results: The overall knowledge about cervical cancer its causation and prevention was good only in about 40%. However 83% had a positive attitude towards HPV vaccine and were willing to take the vaccine. Only 6% had been vaccinated against HPV. Conclusions: There is a need to emphasize the aetiology and preventive measures of cervical cancer in the curriculum of MBBS students. In-depth knowledge among future doctors is essential for dissemination of knowledge to general public and timely preventive intervention.
Measles vaccination coverage among children aged (12-23) months in Marawi locality - Northern state, Sudan - 1026.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Jun; 5(6):2195-2198.Background: Worldwide measles remains the fifth cause of mortality among children under 5 years. Immunization coverage is the proportion of individuals in the target population who are vaccinated. It is a key measure of immunization system performance. Coverage for measles in Eastern Mediterranean region in 2015 for MCV1 was 85%, and MCV2 was 61%. Methods: A total sample size of 462 mothers was determined according to WHO guidelines regarding coverage survey in (February - July 2016). Data were collected using a prepared and pretested questionnaire, reviewing cards of children, and interview with EPI personnel. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, p=0.05 was considered significant. Results: The majority of the children (96.1%) were vaccinated against MCV1, and (77.4%) were vaccinated against MCV2. Small group of mothers (5.7%) had a negative attitude towards immunization. Most mothers (94.3%) were satisfied with measles immunization services. More than half of mothers (55.7%) wait for <15 minutes to immunize their children. Most of the mothers (62.3%) went to the immunization centers by public transports. The main factors affecting vaccination coverage were: weakness of incentives, lack of means of transport for staff, poor working environment like: shortage of water, furniture and technological materials. Conclusions: The coverage with MCV1 was reaching the WHO elimination standards while the coverage of MCV2 was not; due to many factors that affected the vaccination coverage. The study recommends health education covering all aspects of immunization, improvement of the working environment, and availing outreach centers.
Knowledge and practice of polio vaccination among mothers of infants attending community health centre of northern Kerala.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Jul; 5(7):2911-2915.Background: Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by polio virus which invades the nervous system causing irreversible total paralysis. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and practice of mothers regarding polio vaccination. Methods: It s a descriptive type of study conducted in mothers of Infants who had attended Community health centre of Kannur district during a study period of 2 weeks (June 1 to June 14, 2017). Written consent was obtained from the mothers. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire with 3 sections -demographic details, knowledge and practice. Data was analyzed and the results are expressed in terms of frequency and percentage. Results: A total of 220 women were studied. Out of 220 mothers, 93.6% had satisfactory knowledge and 90.45% mothers had their child immunized up to age according to National Immunization Schedule. All of them were taking their children to government hospital for vaccination and their main source of knowledge were health workers. Conclusions: In the present study, majority of the mothers had attended immunization class and had satisfactory knowledge. In order to achieve 100% vaccination coverage, we have to emphasize more on awareness campaigns.
Lancet. 2018 May 12; 391(10133):1886.Add to my documents.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Jul; 5(7):2807-2813.Background: Antenatal care is the essential health care extended to pregnant women. Complete antenatal health care includes four antenatal visits, 2 TT injections, and consumption of 100 Iron and Folic acid tablets. In Telangana state the proportion of mothers received full ante natal care in rural area is only 37.3%. Hence, the present study conducted with an objective to assess the factors associated with utilization of antenatal care services among rural women in Telangana state. Methods: The study is a community based cross sectional study. It was conducted in villages of Moinabad Mandal of Telangana state. Sample size was calculated to 373.Out of 26 villages 20 villages were chosen randomly and from each village 20 houses were selected by stratified random method. Married women delivered at least one child during last five years were included. Pretested questionnaire was administered. The data were tabulated in MS Excel and analyzed by SPSS. Results: Among 373 participants, 89.3% mothers registered during 1st trimester, 92.8% confirmed their pregnancy in the Government sector, 81.3% mothers had four or more antenatal visits, nearly 87.7% mothers received two doses of TT and 77.2% had taken more than 100 Iron tablets. The factors identified to be having statistically significant (p< 0.05) association with better utilization of antenatal care were age at child birth >25 years, education10th class and above, Working mothers, first child birth, Socioeconomic class I- IV and early registration. On application of simple logistic regression predictors were found to be age, education, occupation, birth order, SES and early registration. Conclusions: Awareness should be made by the ASHA workers, ANMs and Anganwadi workers through better education and motivation of the target groups such as young mothers, homemakers, low socio-economic status groups and late registered mothers for better utilization.
The association between women’s empowerment and uptake of child health services: a demographic and health survey-based synthesis.
Rockville, Maryland, ICF, DHS Program, 2018 Jun. 34 p. (DHS Working Papers No. 139)Globally 1.5 million children die from illnesses that could be prevented through vaccination. Since 2010 there has been stagnation in global coverage of child vaccination, despite many public health efforts. Women, who are caregivers for sick children in most societies, may not have the capacity to make decisions such as seeking health care. This study examines the association between mothers’ empowerment and uptake of child vaccination and diarrhea treatment, through a secondary analysis of data from the 2016 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. The results show that only 22% of mothers had high levels of decision-making, while 12% had full ownership of assets. For uptake of child health services, 76% of children age 12-23 months received basic vaccinations, and 42% of children under age 5 were treated for diarrhea. The unadjusted analysis showed a significant association between mother’s empowerment and child vaccination. However, no statistically significant association was found between mother’s empowerment and child health outcomes, after controlling for other sociodemographic factors. The regression analysis showed some statistically significant predictors of child health outcomes, however. Predictors that favored completion of basic vaccines included being in the middle wealth quintile compared with the poorest wealth quintile, having visited a health facility in the past 12 months, and having health insurance. Mothers who visited a health facility in the past 12 months had 50% higher odds of receiving treatment for diarrhea for their children under age 5 compared with mothers who did not visit a facility. Internet use by the mother also favored receiving treatment for children’s diarrhea. Universal health insurance may improve child health outcomes. Advising mothers on websites to access child health messages, particularly where the household heads are 15-24 years old, may improve uptake of health messages.
Determinants of awareness regarding immunization among parents of children residing in an urban slum of a metro city.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Sep; 5(9):4037-4042.Background: Many families lack accurate information and knowledge about need for immunization, the need for subsequent dose(s), and the importance of completing the entire immunization schedule. Considering this fact present study was undertaken to identify the factors influencing knowledge of parents regarding immunization. Methods: It’s a cross sectional study conducted for a period of one year in an urban slum area of Malad, Mumbai. Children aged 12-24 months in the study area were included and their parents interviewed using semi structured questionnaire which was validated with the help of a pilot study. Results: Ninety seven percent respondents had heard about immunization. Only 2.8% of them were not aware about immunization. Total 30.5% of respondents could correctly identify the purpose of immunization i.e. protection of child from disease. Almost 65.2% of them did not know vaccines given under national immunization program. Fever (72.3%) was commonest side effect reported by respondents followed by swelling (38.3%). Reasons for lack of knowledge were ignorance about immunization (31.0%), followed by enough information was not received from health providers (24.1%). Conclusions: Knowledge regarding immunisation is very poor among the residents of urban slums of Mumbai. IEC material regarding immunization should be displayed in waiting areas of immunization clinic and several strategic places in the community. There is a need for additional training or capacity building of health workers to improve their attitudes towards clients, and to strengthen their ability to counsel regarding immunization.
Utilization of maternal and child health services among migratory/slum dwellers in Udupi municipality area, Karnataka, India.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Sep; 5(9):3835-3841.Background: Irrespective of the tremendous efforts made by Government of India the utilization of MCH services continues to be very low among women belonging to lower socio economic status particularly among slum and migratory population. This significantly upsets country’s declining trend of maternal and infant mortality rate. Therefore a study was undertaken to assess the utilization of maternal and child health services among migratory/slum dwellers in a municipality area. Methods: A community based cross- sectional study was conducted for a period of one month among two hundred eligible women of the study population. Results: Study targeted 1200 households in 16 localities and we obtained information from 200 eligible mothers. Amongst them 74% availed antenatal services from government facilities and only 67% were registered in the first trimester. All mothers received antenatal services. Mother and child protection card was not received by 8.5% of women. 86.1% of them had institutional delivery. 13.9% of mothers delivered at home and 10% of the deliveries were unattended or assisted by friends and relatives. JSY benefits were not availed by 55% of the women.41.5% babies delivered had low birth weight. 14.7% of the children were either partially immunized or not immunized at all. Amongst women belonging to target couple 68% were not using any form of contraception. Conclusions: Utilization of Maternal and Child Health services among the migratory and slum dwellers living in the Municipality area is not satisfactory.
Study to assess the knowledge and health seeking behaviour of mothers of under 5 children in the catchment area of G.M.C., Bhopal.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Oct; 5(10):4456-4460.Background: Under 5 mortality rate is considered as the best indicator of social development and well being. Low U5MR indicates better social development as children are most vulnerable during the first 5 years. Almost 1/3rd die of infectious cause, nearly all of which are preventable. Methods: A cross- sectional interventional study was done on 105 mothers with children under the age group of 5 years. Knowledge and practice about diarrhoea, pneumonia and immunization was assessed first followed by and educational intervention which was later followed by post intervention interview of the same mothers after a gap of 1 month. The increment in the knowledge was then assessed. Results: 41.9% belonged to the age group of 20-25 years. 94.11% of the mothers knew what diarrhoea is and only 47.61% could tell minimum 3 signs of dehydration. 32.38% could tell the specific signs of pneumonia. 90.47% mothers knew that immunisation prevents children from diseases. The overall knowledge scores improved significantly (p<0.0001) after a gap one month. Conclusions: The knowledge appeared to improve significantly after an education intervention. The immunization coverage was found to be adequate.
A study on evaluation of utilization of antenatal care services in a rural area of North Kerala, India.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Oct; 5(10):4415-4418.Background: Antenatal care is the care of the woman during her pregnancy. The primary aim of antenatal care is to achieve at the end of a pregnancy a healthy mother and a healthy baby National Health Mission mainly aims at reduction in maternal, neonatal, infant mortality and increasing institutional deliveries. This study was conducted to evaluate the antenatal care services utilization in a rural area of North Kerala among the women who delivered in the past six months. The objective of the study was to evaluate the antenatal care services utilization among the women who delivered in the past six months in a rural area of North Kerala. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Kannur Medical College, Kannur among women who delivered in the past 6 months by using convenient sampling method. A total of 150 mothers were interviewed using pre-validated, semi structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the participants was 27.2±3.4 years. About 98% (147) mothers had at least four ANC visits, all mothers had two doses or one booster dose of TT injections and 90% (135) consumed minimum hundred IFA tablets during pregnancy. Around 96% (144) of the mothers have received the full antenatal care during pregnancy. Conclusions: Our study showed that, the full antenatal care services utilization by the mothers is better compared to National and State averages. But there is slightly increased level of delivery by caesarean which is a matter of concern.
A study on the immunisation status and the factors responsible for incomplete immunization amongst children of age group 0-12 months coming to a tertiary care hospital (IGIMS).
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Oct; 5(10):4331-4334.Background: Vaccines are safe, simple and one of the most cost-effective way to save and improve the lives of children. The World Health Organization launched the Global Programme of Immunization in 1974 and Government of India launched the same in India on 1st January, 1978, with a view to provide protection to the children against disease and to reduce infant mortality rate. Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in the immunization clinic of a tertiary care hospital (IGIMS) of Patna district. The study unit were children of age group 0 to 12 months attending the immunisation clinic of IGIMS Patna. The study was conducted from January 2017 to December 2017, for a period of 12 months. Results: About 40% of children were fully immunized, about 73.3% were having immunization card. Conclusions: Immunizations is one of the biggest public health achievements of the last century, saving millions of lives and preventing illness and lifelong disability in millions more. Many childhood diseases which is now preventable by vaccines often resulted in hospitalization, death or lifelong consequences only a few decades ago. Without immunizations, serious outbreaks of many of the diseases we are now protected from can reoccur. There is a need to create awareness regarding the importance of vaccination, as well as the consequences of partial immunization, parents views must also be taken into consideration when the programme is planned, especially those with a lower educational level.
Knowledge and practices regarding antenatal care among mothers of infants in an urban area of Amritsar, Punjab.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Oct; 5(10):4263-4267.Background: Worldwide, approximately 830 women died every single day due to complications during pregnancy or childbirth in 2015. Most maternal deaths are preventable as the necessary medical interventions are well known. So the present study was conducted to find the knowledge and practices regarding antenatal care among the mothers of infants. Methods: The mothers having less than one year child according to the annual report of year 2017 were included in the study. A pre-designed questionnaire, which was pre tested was used to collect the information. Out of 332 mothers 327 were willing to participate in the study. House to house survey was done to collect the information. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 20.0. Results: Regarding the knowledge about the antenatal care 22.0% mothers had poor knowledge while 45.6% and 32.4% had average and good knowledge respectively. Age and education status of the mother had significant relation with the knowledge regarding ANC (p=0.00). 96% of mothers started ANC in first trimester. 79.5% of mothers had regular ANC visits during pregnancy. Regarding post natal visits 86.5% of the mothers visited for the same. Conclusions: Considerable gaps were found in the knowledge and practices regarding ANC. Health care workers play an important role in motivating the woman and her family to utilize the ANC services. The health workers should be trained adequately about the available ANC services. Community IEC activities should be increased to create awareness about the ANC services which are available free of cost in our country.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Nov; 5(11):4845-4848.Background: Immunization has greatly reduced the burden of infectious diseases. Immunization prevents illness, disability and death from vaccine-preventable diseases including diphtheria, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, polio, rotavirus diarrhea, rubella and tetanus. Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timelines is a key health policy objective in many developing countries. Parent’s knowledge and their attitudes towards Immunization are likely to influence uptake. Methods: This is a descriptive study using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire pertaining to knowledge, attitudes of parents regarding immunization. The questionnaire was given to parents whose children were being immunized at a health center within a one month period. Results: About 90% of parents have the positive attitude towards immunization and 73% of parents have good knowledge about Immunization. Conclusions: Diseases like pneumonia, measles, pertussis that can be prevented by vaccination continue to be major contributors. Knowledge and attitudes of parents and socio cultural factor can influence the immunization status of the children.
Risk factors associated with childhood tuberculosis: a case control study in endemic tuberculosis area.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Nov; 5(11):4702-4706.Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in childreen is still considered as important public health problems in various countries, including Indonesia. Risk factors related to childhood tuberculosis is crucial to identify in order to conduct prevention effort effectively. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of environmental health in house, contact history and nutritional status toward childhood tuberculosis. Methods: This research is an analytical observational study using case-control design, with 35 samples of the case and 35 samples of the control. Several variables such as house environment, contact history and nutritional status were obtained by questionnaire and observation in house of respondents. Data analysis was conducted using Logistic Regression test to determine correlation between independent and dependent variables. Results: This research highlighted that contact history and nutritional status were correlated with childhood tuberculosis. While house environment variables such as lighting level, floor type, house occupancy density were not related to the incidence of tuberculosis in children. Conclusions: Contact history and nutritional status were the factors which determined childhood tuberculosis in Banyumas. It is important for parents to maintain good nutritional status of their children and to avoid them from contact with tuberculosis patients.
Journal of Health and Environmental Studies. 2018 Mar; 2(1):21-29.This study examined the important determinants and utilisation of maternal and child health (MCH) cares services. The determinants were maternal age, educational background and residential location in the utilization of available MCH care services comprising of blood test, urine analyses, routine immunisation, personal hygiene and exercise during antenatal visits in pregnancy and postnatal visits after birth. It was recommended among others that women should be enlighten on care of pregnancy and safety measures that ensures safe delivery.
Journal of Global Oncology. 2018 Sep; (4):1-4.Add to my documents.