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Reproductive Biomedicine and Society Online. 2018 Aug; 6:45-54.While the majority of East Asian countries embraced the modern intrauterine device (IUD) during the 1960s, the sale and distribution of the IUD in Japan was not authorized until 1974. In this paper, I address why the Japanese Government took so long to permit the use of the IUD. Firstly, I examine scientific debates in Japan during the early 1950s on the efficacy of the IUD and associated health risks, to illustrate how the Government's conservative attitude was fostered by a co-constitutive relationship between health officials and leading obstetrician-gynaecologists who believed that the IUD was dangerous and likely to induce abortion. I also trace the Japanese Government's rapidly changing attitude through the 1960s, and analyse the influential interaction between national policy making and the enthusiastic response of a small number of Japanese doctors to the transnational movement to curb population growth in developing countries. I argue that the specific ways in which biomedical discourse was shaped by the sociopolitical position of doctors in relation to the Government's health administration explains the Japanese Government's resistance to use of the IUD. However, I also note that the Government's dramatic change in attitude was influenced directly by transnational reproductive politics. This paper will enhance the history of reproductive politics in post-war Japan.
Stunting on children under five years on family of beneficiary family hope program in Wonogiri district, Central Java.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Jul; 5(7):2735-2741.Background: The nutritional status of infants and toddlers is one indicator of public nutrition, and even has developed into one of the indicators of health and welfare. Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 showed that 37,2% children under five suffering from nutritional status is stunting. One of the efforts that have been made by the Indonesian government to reduce malnutrition in infants and toddlers is through a program that is integrated with the health sector namely Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Program Keluarga Harapan). The specific objectives were to identify the characteristics of families recieve Conditional Cash Transfer Program and analysis stunting children under five years in families receiving Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Baturetno subdistric, Wonogiri district. Methods: The study was conducted in the subdistrict of Baturetno, Wonogiri district and has collected a total of 112 infants of families Conditional Cash Transfer Program participants. Sampling of children under five years was done purposively. This study was conducted from July to August 2017. Results: The proportion of children who stunting quite high at 33.0% higher than the results of the Nutritional Status Monitoring in 2016 amounted to 27.5%. If stunting is associated with the age group of stunting problems occur in all age groups in the amount of 31.3% in under 23 months and 34.3% at 23 months upwards of 31.3% children under five short, as much as 25.0% children under five are overweight according to height (weight for height) is normal and thus potentially becoming obese. Conclusions: The implementation of weight monitoring should be monitored the height of children under five in the hope family program.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Sep; 5(9):3860-3864.Background: The field of medicine has changed over the years owing to the constant scientific advances and research. From a time when spontaneous vaginal delivery used to be the norm, to now, where the rates of Caesarean deliveries seemed to be increasing, obstetric care has evolved considerable. Several healthcare initiatives and schemes have been framed for the betterment of the female reproductive health in recent times. It is important to understand both medical as well socio-cultural factors that have caused this increase in the caesarean births. This study was conducted keeping in mind this trend and to find out the level of awareness regarding patterns of deliveries that factors into this trend. Methods: Cross – sectional study was done in women residing in an urban slum of Ahmedabad in February 2014. 68 consenting female were randomly selected for the study from the slum of „Madi no Kuvo . Results: Majority of females (69%) were from age group 20-30 years. With a total number of 123 deliveries counted within the 68 female interviewed 67% were normal vaginal deliveries. 63% of surveyed women had deliveries at government hospital as civil hospital is nearby localities surveyed and cost incurrence was there in about half of deliveries while 27 % deliveries occurred at private hospitals. Conclusions: Majority of women would prefer to have normal delivery whenever it is possible. Majority of people were unaware about different government schemes to help females during pregnancy.
A study to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding reproductive child health programme activity and its utilization in selected urban community in Gwalior city.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Nov; 5(11):4787-4794.Background: Reproductive and child health program is the flagship program of the department of family welfare, government of India. Female education is a strong predictor of the use of reproductive health care services but the extent and nature of relation between the two is not uniform across social setting. Hence the investigator feels very important to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding reproductive child health programme activity and its utilization in Gwalior city. Methods: The present study aimed at assessing the mother’s knowledge and utilization regarding reproductive child health programme activity in selected urban community at Gwalior city. Results: The present study depicts that the maximum mother (55%) were having good knowledge regarding reproductive child health programme activity and the mothers were having maximum knowledge regarding essential newborn care 67.5% and minimum knowledge (26.6%) regarding control of STD/RTI. Majority of mothers 45 (75%) had average utilization of the reproductive child health programme activity. There was positive correlation between knowledge and utilization of reproductive child health programme activity among mothers (r=0.83). Conclusions: In the present study, there was significant association between utilization of reproductive child health programme activity and mother’s age and parity.
The implementation of the free maternal health policy in rural Northern Ghana: synthesised results and lessons learnt.
BMC Research Notes. 2018 May 29; 11(1):341.OBJECTIVE: A free maternal health policy was implemented under Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme to promote the use of maternal health services. Under the policy, women are entitled to free services throughout pregnancy and at childbirth. A mixed methods study involving women, providers and insurance managers was carried out in the Kassena-Nankana municipality of Ghana. It explored the affordability, availability, acceptability and quality of services. In this manuscript, we present synthesised results categorised as facilitators and barriers to access as well as lessons learnt (implications). RESULTS: Reasonable waiting times, cleanliness of facilities as well as good interpersonal relationships with providers were the facilitators to access. Barriers included out of pocket payments, lack of, or inadequate supply of drugs and commodities, equipment, water, electricity and emergency transport. Four lessons (implications) were identified. Firstly, out of pocket payments persisted. Secondly, the health system was not strengthened before implementing the free maternal health policy. Thirdly, lower level facilities were poorly resourced. Finally, the lack of essential inputs and infrastructure affected quality of care and therefore, access to care. It is suggested that the Government of Ghana, the Health Insurance Scheme and other stakeholders improve the provision of resources to facilities.
The community is just a small circle: citizen participation in the free maternal and child healthcare programme of Enugu State, Nigeria.
Global Health Action. 2018; 11(1):1421002.BACKGROUND: There is a gap in knowledge about how citizen participation impacts governance of free healthcare policies for universal health coverage in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: This study provides evidence about how social accountability initiatives influenced revenue generation, pooling and fund management, purchasing and capacity of health facilities implementing the free maternal and child healthcare programme (FMCHP) in Enugu State, Nigeria. METHODS: The study adopted a descriptive, qualitative case-study design to explore how social accountability influenced implementation of the FMCHP at the state level and in two health districts (Isi-Uzo and Enugu Metropolis) in Enugu State. Data were collected from policymakers (n = 16), providers (n = 16) and health facility committee leaders (n = 12) through in-depth interviews. We also conducted focus-group discussions (n = 4) with 42 service users and document review. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: It was found that health facility committees (HFCs) have not been involved in the generation of funds, fund management and tracking of spending in FMCHP. The HFCs did not also seem to have increased transparency of benefits and payment of providers. The HFCs emerged as the dominant social accountability initiative in FMCHP but lacked power in the governance of free health services. The HFCs were constrained by weak legal framework, ineffectual FMCHP committees at the state and district levels, restricted financial information disclosure, distrustful relationships with policymakers and providers, weak patient complaint system and low use of service charter. CONCLUSION: The HFCs have not played a significant role in health financing and service provision in FMCHP. The gaps in HFCs' participation in health financing functions and service delivery need to be considered in the design and implementation of free maternal and child healthcare policies that aim to achieve universal health coverage.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2017 Oct; 33(10):985-992.Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, where the immune system totally succumbs to the virus. A large proportion of the AIDS infected belong to developing countries and AIDS prevalence is intensified by severe poverty, malnutrition, and famine; fatal illnesses with a scorn shortage of medical amenities complemented with the lack of education and development. Current Pakistani health system setting is in a dire need of improvement. Low literacy rates, high birth rates, and associated maternal mortality plus a lack of clean drinking water and appropriate sanitation system have a serious impact on general living conditions contributing to a relatively short lifespan. HIV is, therefore, becoming a growing health concern in Pakistan with a rapid rise in the reported cases. AIDS is most prevalent among injection drug users (IDUs), male/female sex workers, and unchecked deported migrant workforce. To combat this virus, the Pakistan Government has been working hard over the past few years with local bodies and international organizations in an effort to combat this menace. This review aims to discuss the risk factors for the rise of this epidemic in the country and the recommendations, efforts to be done to address this alarming issue.
Facilitators and barriers to participation of private sector health facilities in government-led schemes for maternity services in India: a qualitative study.
BMJ Open. 2017 Jun 22; 7(6):e017092.OBJECTIVE: Despite provision of accreditation of private sector health providers in government-led schemes for maternity services in India, their participation has been low. This has led to an underutilisation of their presence, resources and expertise for providing quality maternal and newborn health services. This study explores the perception of various stakeholders on expectations, benefits, barriers and facilitators to private sector participation in government-led schemes-specifically Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)-for maternity service delivery. DESIGN: Narrative-based qualitative study. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with study participants. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed using a reflexive and inductive approach to allow codes, categories and themes to emerge from within the data. SETTING: Private obstetricians, government health officials and FOGSI (Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India) members, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh, India. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen purposefully selected private obstetricians from 9 cities across states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, 11 government health officials and 2 FOGSI members. RESULTS: The major factors serving as barriers to participation of private practitioners in JSY-which emerged on thematic analysis-were low reimbursement amounts, delayed reimbursements, process of interaction with the government and administrative issues, previous experiences and trust deficit, lack of clarity on the accreditation process and patient-level barriers. On the other hand, factors which were facilitators to participation of private practitioners were ease of process, better communication, branding, motivation of increasing clientele as well as satisfaction of doing social service. CONCLUSION: Factors such as financial processes and administrative delays, mistrust between the stakeholders, ambiguity in processes, lack of transparency and lack of ease in the process of empanelment of private sector are hindering effective public-private partnerships under JSY. Simplifying and strengthening the processes, communication strategies and branding can help revitalise it. (c) Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Stakeholder perspectives regarding transfer of free maternity services to National Health Insurance Fund in Kenya: Implications for universal health coverage.
International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2018 Apr; 33(2):e648-e662.BACKGROUND: Kenya is developing strategies to finance health care through prepayment to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). Plans to transfer free maternity services (FMS) from the Ministry of Health to the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) are a step towards UHC. We examined views of health workers and women regarding the transition of FMS to NHIF to inform the process. METHODS: In-depth interviews among 14 facility-level managers and providers, 11 county-level managers, and 21 focus group discussions with women who gave birth before and after the introduction of FMS. Data were analyzed thematically. RESULTS: The transfer is a mechanism of achieving UHC, eliminating dependency on free services, and encouraging people to take responsibility of their health. However, skepticism regarding the efficiency of NHIF may limit support. Diverse and robust systems were recommended for enrollment of clients while standardization of services through accreditation and quality assurance linked to performance-based reimbursement would improve greater predictability in the payment schedule and better coverage of referrals and complications. CONCLUSION: Transitioning FMS to NHIF provides an opportunity for the Ministry of Health to sharpen its role as policymaker and develop a comprehensive health care financing strategy for the country towards achieving UHC. Copyright (c) 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lancet. HIV. 2016 May; 3(5):e197-9.Add to my documents.
Lancet. HIV. 2016 Aug; 3(8):e333.Add to my documents.
Satisfaction of Patients Attending Public HIV or AIDS Care and Treatment Centers in Kinondoni District, Tanzania.
International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 2017 Jan; 37(2):113-119.Satisfaction of care and treatment among HIV patients is one of the important elements for adherence. This study aimed to determine levels of satisfaction and associated factors among HIV-infected patients attending public care and treatment centers (CTCs) in Tanzania. The study was cross-sectional using face-to-face interviews. Satisfaction was measured using a total of 30 questions from a domain of six area of CTC service delivery. To assess independent predictors of levels of satisfaction, we used multilevel ordinal logistic regression analysis. We enrolled 434 study participants. Of these, 5% reported low satisfaction, 25% medium satisfaction, and 70% reported high satisfaction. The CTC environment was rated low by 56% of the patients. Predictors of levels of satisfaction were age of patient and health facility level. Low levels of satisfaction with CTC environment and laboratory services underscore the need for improvement of these areas.
Partnering with women collectives for delivering essential women's nutrition interventions in tribal areas of eastern India: a scoping study.
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2017 May 22; 36(1):20.BACKGROUND: We examined the feasibility of engaging women collectives in delivering a package of women's nutrition messages/services as a funded stakeholder in three tribal-dominated districts of Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States, in eastern India. These districts have high prevalence of child stunting and poor government service outreach. METHODS: Conducted between July 2014 and March 2015, an exploratory mix-methods design was adopted (review of coverage data and government reports, field interviews and focus group discussion with multiple stakeholders and intended communities) to assess coverage of women's nutrition services. A capacity assessment tool was developed to map all types of community collectives and assess their awareness, institutional and programme capacity as a funded stakeholder for delivering women's nutrition services/behaviour promotion. RESULTS: Limited targeting of pre-pregnancy period, delays in first trimester registration of pregnant women, and low micronutrient supplementation supply and awareness issues emerged as key bottlenecks in improving women's nutrition in these districts. Amongst the 18 different types of community collectives mapped, Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their federations (tier 2 and tier 3), with total membership of over 650,000, emerged as the most promising community collective due to their vast network, governance structure, bank linkage, and regular interface. Nearly 400,000 (or 20% of women) in these districts can be reached through the mapped 31,919 SHGs. SHGs with organisational readiness for receiving and managing grants for income generation and community development activities varied from 41 to 94% across study districts. Stakeholders perceived that SHGs federations managing grants from government and be engaged for nutrition promotion and service delivery and SHG weekly meetings can serve as community interface for discussing/resolving local issues impeding access to services. CONCLUSIONS: Women SHGs (with tier 2 and tier 3) can become direct grantees for strengthening coverage of women's nutrition interventions in these tribal districts/pockets, provided they are capacitated, supervised and given safe guards against exploitation and violence.
Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Free of Charge, Method Initiation, and Abortion Rates in Finland.
American Journal of Public Health. 2018 Apr; 108(4):538-543.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a public program providing long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods free of charge increases the LARC initiation rate and reduces the unintended pregnancy rate in the general population. METHODS: Since 2013, all women in Vantaa, Finland, have been entitled to 1 LARC method free of charge. With time-series analysis between 2000 and 2015, we assessed whether this public program was associated with changes in steady-state mean rates of LARC initiation and abortions. RESULTS: The initiation rate of LARCs (1/1000 women) increased 2.2-fold from 1.9 to 4.2 after the intervention (P < .001). Concomitantly, the abortion rate (1/1000 women) declined by 16% from 1.1 to 0.9 in the total sample (P < .001), by 36% from 1.3 to 0.8 among those aged 15 to 19 years (P < .001), and by 14% from 2.0 to 1.7 among those aged 20 to 24 years (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: The LARC program was associated with increased uptake of LARC methods and fewer abortions in the population. Public Health Implications. Entitling the population to LARC methods free of charge is an effective means to reduce the unmet need of contraception and the need for abortion, especially among women younger than 25 years.
Progress Toward Eliminating Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya: Review of Treatment Guideline Uptake and Pediatric Transmission at Four Government Hospitals Between 2010 and 2012.
AIDS and Behavior. 2016 Nov; 20(11):2602-2611.We analyzed prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) data from a retrospective cohort of n = 1365 HIV+ mothers who enrolled their HIV-exposed infants in early infant diagnosis services in four Kenyan government hospitals from 2010 to 2012. Less than 15 and 20 % of mother-infant pairs were provided with regimens that met WHO Option A and B/B+ guidelines, respectively. Annually, the gestational age at treatment initiation decreased, while uptake of Option B/B+ increased (all p's < 0.001). Pediatric HIV infection was halved (8.6-4.3 %), yet varied significantly by hospital. In multivariable analyses, HIV-exposed infants who received no PMTCT (AOR 4.6 [2.49, 8.62], p < 0.001), mixed foods (AOR 5.0 [2.77, 9.02], p < 0.001), and care at one of the four hospitals (AOR 3.0 [1.51, 5.92], p = 0.002) were more likely to be HIV-infected. While the administration and uptake of WHO PMTCT guidelines is improving, an expanded focus on retention and medication adherence will further reduce pediatric HIV transmission.
Current HIV / AIDS Reports. 2016 Oct; 13(5):256-62.This review traces the course of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) as a foreign aid program. It illustrates how the epidemiologic and geopolitical environments of the early 2000s influenced PEPFAR's early directions and contributed to its successes. In addition to scaling up infrastructure and care delivery platforms, PEPFAR led to large increases in the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy and reductions in mortality. These successes, in turn, have brought its principal challenges-its outsized budget, narrow focus, and problem of entitlement-into sharp relief. PEPFAR's recent evolution, then, has been in response to these challenges. This review suggests that PEPFAR's early formulation as an emergency response relieved it from a need to articulate clear goals, and that this freedom is now leading to new challenges as it struggles to identify priorities in the face of expectations to do more with a flat budget.
Health and Human Rights. 2017 Dec; 19(2):133-146.HIV prevalence in China is low in the general population but higher among certain key affected populations, including sex workers. Providing and purchasing sexual services are administrative offenses. Police engage in humiliating and repressive practices against sex workers. A study reported here based on the experience of over 500 sex workers highlights that the human rights abuses that sex workers face at the hands of the police directly undermine the country's HIV response toward sex workers. An important element of this phenomenon is the police's use of condoms as evidence of sex work, which impedes sex workers' possession and use of condoms. Whereas in some countries, sex worker collectives have helped empower sex workers to stand up to the police and safeguard their use of condoms, restrictions on civil society in China make such a strategy impossible. Removing sex work and related activities as offenses under the law in China, however politically difficult it might be, would ease this situation. Short of that, improving the coordination among and strategic harmony of public health and police roles and authorities would be useful.
Program Implementation of Option B+ at a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-Supported HIV Clinic Improves Clinical Indicators But Not Retention in Care in Mbarara, Uganda.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 2017 Aug; 31(8):335-341.2013 WHO guidelines for prevention of mother to child transmission recommend combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant women, regardless of CD4 count (Option B/B+). We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a government-operated HIV clinic in Mbarara, Uganda before and after implementation of Option B+ to assess the impact on retention in care. We limited our analysis to women not on ART at the time of their first reported pregnancy with CD4 count >350. We fit regression models to estimate relationships between calendar period (Option A vs. Option B+) and the primary outcome of interest, retention in care. One thousand and sixty-two women were included in the analysis. Women were more likely to start ART within 6 months of pregnancy in the Option B+ period (68% vs. 7%, p < 0.0001) and had significantly greater increases in CD4 count 1 year after pregnancy (+172 vs. -5 cells, p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in the proportion of women retained in care 1 year after pregnancy (73% vs. 70%, p = 0.34). In models adjusted for age, distance to clinic, marital status, and CD4 count, Option B+ was associated with a nonsignificant 30% increased odds of retention in care at 1 year [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.73, p = 0.06]. After transition to an Option B+ program, pregnant women with CD4 count >350 were more likely to initiate combination therapy; however, interventions to mitigate losses from HIV care during pregnancy are needed to improve the health of women, children, and families.
Journal of Biosocial Science. 2017 Nov; 49(S1):S4-S19.China's urban population has experienced rapid fertility decline over the past six decades. This drastic change will have a significant impact on China's demographic, social and economic future. However, the patterns and characteristics of urban China's fertility decline have not been systematically examined. This study analyses the trends and age patterns of fertility in urban China since the 1950s, and summarizes the major characteristics of reproductive behaviours into four 'lows': extremely 'low' level of fertility; 'low' proportion of two and higher parity births; 'low' mean age at birth; and 'low' level of childlessness. The paper argues that the highly homogenous reproductive behaviours found in China's now near 800 million urban population have been in part shaped by the country's unprecedented government intervention in family planning. The 'later, longer, fewer' campaign in the 1970s and the 'one-child' policy, in particular, have left clear imprints on China's reproductive norms and fertility patterns. The government-led family planning programme, however, has not been the only driving force of fertility decline. A wide range of social, economic, political and cultural changes have also affected the transition in family formation, reproductive behaviour and fertility patterns, and this has become increasingly prominent in the past two decades.
Lancet. Psychiatry. 2016 Sep; 3(9):799-800.Add to my documents.
Characteristics of private partners in Chiranjeevi Yojana, a public-private-partnership to promote institutional births in Gujarat, India - Lessons for universal health coverage.
PloS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185739.BACKGROUND: The Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) is a Public-Private-Partnership between the state and private obstetricians in Gujarat, India, since 2007. The state pays for institutional births of the most vulnerable households (below-poverty-line and tribal) in private hospitals. An innovative remuneration package has been designed to disincentivise unnecessary cesareans. This study examines characteristics of private facilities which participated in the program. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all facilities which had conducted any births between June 2012 and April 2013 in three districts. We identified 111 private and 47 public facilities. Ninety of the 111 private facilities did caesarean sections in the last three months and were eligible to participate in the CY program. Of these, 40 (44%) participated in the CY program. We conducted descriptive and bivariate analyses followed by a Poisson regression model to estimate prevalence ratios of facility characteristics that predicted participation. RESULTS: We found that facilities participating in the CY program had a significantly higher likelihood of being general facilities (PR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9), or conducting lower proportion of cesarean births (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.5) or having obstetricians new in private practice (PR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) or being less expensive (PR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0). But none of these factors retained significance in a multi variable model. CONCLUSION: Private obstetricians who participate in the CY program tend to be new to private practice, provide general services, conduct fewer caesareans and are also less expensive. This is advantageous to the PPP and widens the target beneficiary groups that can be serviced by the PPP. The state should design remuneration packages with the aim of attracting relatively new obstetricians to set up practices in more remote areas. It is possible that the CY remuneration package design is effective in keeping caesarean rates in check, and needs to be studied further.
[Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014]
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2017 Mar 06; 51(3):232-236.Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds from the prefecture and county level government finance, and median of investment funds 408 750 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) acquired the funds from other sources, and median of investment funds 228 400 Yuan. The median (P(25), P(75)) unit costs of intervention for FSW from 16 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) was 70 (23, 280) Yuan per year; DU from 14 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) was 83 (44, 200 ) Yuan per year; MSM from 16 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) was 100 (35, 280) Yuan per year; the follow-up and care for PLWH from 17 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) was 200 (45, 500) Yuan per year. Multivariate linear regression analysis results showed that the amount of PLWH in 2014 influenced on the total number of application funds of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response (b=178.11, 95% CI: 51.86-305.36) and the amount of PLWH (b=77.72, 95% CI: 16.28-139.16), and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of the province (b=36.20, 95% CI: 4.60-67.80) impacted financial investment to CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response, respectively. Conclusion: Funds application and financial investment of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were huge. Financial investment from government was main resources for CBO in 2014. The amount of financial investment funds from governments was influenced by the HIV/AIDS epidemic situation and the development level of local economic.
Improving prevention and care for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Cambodia: the sustainable action against HIV and AIDS in communities (SAHACOM).
BMC Health Services Research. 2016 Oct 21; 16(1):599.BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among key populations in Cambodia continues to rise. To address this issue, KHANA, the largest national HIV organization in the country developed and implemented the Sustainable Action against HIV and AIDS in Communities (SAHACOM) project. This study aims to determine the impacts of the SAHACOM on sexual behaviors and the uptake of HIV/STI services among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cambodia. METHODS: We compared outcome indicators at midterm (n = 352) and endline (n = 394). Surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2014 in Battambang and Siem Reap provinces. A two-stage cluster sampling method was employed to select the study sample for structured interviews. RESULTS: The midterm and endline samples were similar. The average number of sexual partners in the past three months decreased significantly from 6.2 to 4.0 (p = 0.03). The proportion of MSM who reported paying for sex with men in the past three months also decreased significantly from 19.0 % to 9.7 % (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.3-3.0). No significant change was found in condom and lubricant use in all types of relationships. Regarding STIs, 28.1 % of MSM at midterm reported having at least one STI symptom in the past three months compared to 6.1 % at endline (OR = 4.6, 95 % CI = 2.9-7.4); out of them, 14.1 % of MSM at midterm sought treatment compared to 20.7 % at endline (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.1-6.9). The proportion of MSM who reported using illicit drugs in the past three months also decreased significantly from 12.2 % to 5.1 % (OR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.4-4.2). However, the proportion of MSM who reported having been tested for HIV in the past six months decreased significantly from 94.1 % to 77.1 % (OR = 2.9, 95 % CI = 1.8-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study indicate that the SAHACOM was effective in improving sexual behaviors and related health outcomes among MSM under the project. However, it could not increase condom use and HIV testing rates among this key population. Tailored intervention programs are needed to improve condom use and HIV testing among MSM in Cambodia.
Gender, Work and Organization. 2017; 24(5):472-486.Despite numerous governmental attempts to improve women's employment and equality in Pakistan, statistics suggest that these effortxs have not been entirely fruitful. Steps taken by the government are usually in response to pressure from international donors and rights groups. However, there seem to be important contextual and sociocultural differences at play when it comes to how gender equality is to be achieved in organizational practice. Such differences, as well as an apparent lack of genuine commitment at the policy level, may explain why there remains a gap between the policy and praxis of gender equality in Pakistan. Informed by structural and relational perspectives of gender, this article draws on in-depth qualitative interviews with female employees to explore the multilevel issues related to gender equality at the macro-national, meso-organizational and micro-individual levels. In particular, it highlights such issues as societal norms of female modesty and gender segregation (macro), sexual harassment, career-related challenges and income gap (meso), and family status and agency (micro). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2017 Mar 01; 95(3):227-232.PROBLEM: Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems. APPROACH: In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal's polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Japanese encephalitis and rubella cases were added to the surveillance system in 2004. Staff from the programme aided the development and implementation of government immunization policies, helped launch vaccination campaigns, and trained government staff in reporting practices and vaccine management. LOCAL SETTING: Nepal eliminated indigenous polio in 2000, and controlled outbreaks caused by polio importations between 2005 and 2010. RELEVANT CHANGES: In 2014, the surveillance activities had expanded to 299 sites, with active surveillance for measles, rubella and neonatal tetanus, including weekly visits from 15 surveillance medical officers. Sentinel surveillance for Japanese encephalitis consisted of 132 sites. Since 2002, staff from the eradication programme have helped to introduce six new vaccines and helped to secure funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Staff have also assisted in responding to other health events in the country. LESSON LEARNT: By expanding the activities of its polio eradication programme, Nepal has improved its surveillance and immunization systems and increased vaccination coverage of other vaccine-preventable diseases. Continued donor support, a close collaboration with the Expanded Programme on Immunization, and the retention of the polio eradication programme's skilled workforce were important for this expansion.