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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Medicaid Family Planning Expansions: The Effect of State Plan Amendments on Postpartum Contraceptive Use.

    Redd SK; Hall KS

    Journal of Women's Health. 2018 Nov 28;

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of state Medicaid family planning (FP) programs transitioning from a Section 1115 waiver to a State Plan Amendment (SPA) on reproductive health outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System on 75,082 women who had a live birth between 2007 and 2013 and were living in one of nine states. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis to quantify the effect of the transition on postpartum contraceptive (PPC) use and unintended births (UBs). RESULTS: Over 80% of the sample reported using PPC; half reported an UB. The odds of PPC use among women who were living in a study state and gave birth after the transition were 1.14 times that of women who were living in a comparison state and/or gave birth before the transition (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that women living in states that transitioned from a waiver to SPA experienced an increased likelihood of PPC compared with those living in comparison states.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Enabling reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health interventions: Time trends and driving factors of health expenditure in the successful story of Peru.

    Huicho L; Huayanay-Espinoza CA; Hernandez P; Nino de Guzman J; Rivera-Ch M

    PloS One. 2018; 13(10):e0206455.

    We compared expenditure trends for reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health (RMNCH) with trends in RMNCH service coverage in Peru. We used National Health Accounts data to report on total health expenditure by source; the Countdown database for trends in external funding to RMNCH, and Ministry of Finance data for trends in domestic funding to RMNCH. We undertook over 170 interviews and group discussions to explore factors explaining expenditure trends. We describe trends in total health expenditure and RMNCH expenditure in constant 2012 US$ between 1995 and 2012. We estimated expenditure to coverage ratios. There was a substantial increase in domestic health expenditure over the period. However, domestic health expenditure as share of total government spending and GDP remained stable. Out-of-pocket health spending (OOPS) as a share of total health expenditure remained above 35%, and increased in real terms. Expenditure on reproductive health per woman of reproductive age varied from US$ 1.0 in 2002 to US$ 6.3 in 2012. Expenditure on maternal and neonatal health per pregnant woman increased from US$ 34 in 2000 to US$ 512 in 2012, and per capita expenditure on under-five children increased from US$ 5.6 in 2000 to US$ 148.6 in 2012. Increased expenditure on RMNCH reflects a greater political support for RMNCH, along with greater emphasis on social assistance, family planning, and health reforms targeting poor areas, and a recent emphasis on antipoverty and crosscutting equitable policies and programmes focused on nutrition and maternal and neonatal mortality. Increasing domestic RMNCH expenditure likely enabled Peru to achieve substantial health gains. Peru can provide useful lessons to other countries struggling to achieve sustained gains in RMNCH by relying on their own health financing.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    A New World Health Era.

    Pablos-Mendez A; Raviglione MC

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Mar 21; 6(1):8-16.

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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Walking the Medicaid Policy Tightrope Between Long-Acting Reversible Contraception and Lactation.

    Bennett CJ; Mannel R

    Journal of Human Lactation. 2018 Aug; 34(3):433-437.

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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of Health Insurance Among Clients Seeking Contraceptive Services at Title X-Funded Facilities in 2016.

    Kavanaugh ML; Zolna MR; Burke KL

    Perspectives On Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2018 Sep; 50(3):101-109.

    CONTEXT: As federal initiatives aim to fundamentally alter or dismantle the Affordable Care Act (ACA), evidence regarding the use of insurance among clients obtaining contraceptive care at Title X-funded facilities under ACA guidelines is essential to understanding what is at stake. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 2,911 clients seeking contraceptive care at 43 Title X-funded sites in 2016 completed a survey assessing their characteristics and insurance coverage and use. Chi-square tests for independence with adjustments for the sampling design were conducted to determine differences in insurance coverage and use across demographic characteristics and facility types. RESULTS: Most clients (71%) had some form of public or private health insurance, and most of these (83%) planned to use it to pay for their services. Foreign-born clients were less likely than U.S.-born clients to have coverage (46% vs. 75%) and to use it (78% vs. 85%). Clients with private insurance were less likely than those with public insurance to plan to use their insurance (75% vs. 91%). More than one-quarter of clients not planning to use existing insurance for services indicated that the reason was that someone might find out. CONCLUSION: Coverage gaps persist among individuals seeking contraceptive care within the Title X network, despite evidence indicating increases in health insurance coverage among this population since implementation of the ACA. Future research should explore the impact of altering or eliminating the ACA both on the Title X provider network and on the individuals who rely on it. (c) 2018 The Authors. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Guttmacher Institute.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Continuation of long-acting reversible contraceptives among Medicaid patients.

    Romano MJ; Toye P; Patchen L

    Contraception. 2018 Apr 24;

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare continuation and complication rates of subdermal etonogestrel implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs) using Medicaid insurance claims. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study using insurance claims data for 15- to 44-year-old subjects receiving implants or IUDs from 2012 to 2015 in a Medicaid managed care organization in Washington, DC, and Maryland. We performed a planned Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) continuation, defined as the absence of a claim for LARC removal, during periods of continuous insurance plan enrollment. RESULTS: Three thousand one hundred three subjects received 1335 implants and 1970 IUDs, with implants more common than IUDs among subjects 15-19 years old (rate ratio=2.42), and implants less common than IUDs for subjects 20-44 years old (rate ratio=0.54). Implants had higher continuation rates at 1 year than IUDs (81.0% vs. 76.7%, p=.01). The difference was larger among subjects 25 to 44 years old (84.1% vs. 79.3%, p=.03) compared with subjects 15 to 19 years old (89.5% vs. 86.8%, p=.09) and subjects 20 to 24 years old (75.7% vs. 73.2%, p=.44). Claims for potential complications were similarly uncommon for both implants and IUDs (8.09% vs. 6.95%, p=.65), as were claims for pregnancies prior to LARC removal (0.82% vs. 0.86%, p=.86). CONCLUSION: Among a sample of 15- to 44-year-old Medicaid recipients, both implants and IUDs had high continuation rates and low complication rates; however, implants were slightly more likely than IUDs to remain in use 1 year after insertion. IMPLICATIONS: Among 15- to 44-year-old Medicaid recipients, both etonogestrel implants and IUDs have high continuation rates and low complication rates at 1-year postinsertion; however, implants are slightly more likely than IUDs to remain in use at 1 year. Copyright (c) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Contraceptive information on pregnancy resource center websites: a statewide content analysis.

    Swartzendruber A; Steiner RJ; Newton-Levinson A

    Contraception. 2018 Apr 24;

    OBJECTIVE: Most pregnancy resource centers (PRCs) in the US are affiliated with national organizations that have policies against promoting or providing contraceptives, yet many provide information about contraception on their websites. In 2016, the state of Georgia passed a new law to publicly fund PRCs. This study sought to describe the contraceptive information on Georgia PRC websites. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically identified all accessible Georgia PRC websites April-June 2016. We downloaded entire websites and used defined protocols to code and thematically analyze content about contraceptives. RESULTS: Of the 64 websites reviewed, 20 (31%) presented information about contraceptives. Most of the content was dedicated to emergency contraception. Emphasis on risks and side effects was the most prominent theme. However, no site presented information about the frequency or prevalence of risks and side effects. Sites also emphasized contraceptive failure and minimized effectiveness. We found a high degree of inaccurate and misleading information about contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS: Georgia PRC websites presented skewed information that may undermine confidence in the safety and efficacy of contraceptive methods and discourage use. Public funding for PRCs, an increasing national trend, should be rigorously examined. Increased regulation is urgently needed to ensure that online information about contraceptives presented by publicly funded centers is unbiased, complete and accurate. IMPLICATIONS: We examined contraceptive information on Georgia PRC websites and found sites minimize benefits and emphasize barriers to use. They contain high levels of medically inaccurate and misleading information that may undermine public health goals. Public funding for PRCs should be rigorously examined; increased regulation is urgently needed. Copyright (c) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of Highly Effective Reversible Contraception in Title X Clinics: Variation by Selected State Characteristics.

    Hale N; Khoury A; Smith M

    Women's Health Issues. 2018 Jul - Aug; 28(4):289-296.

    BACKGROUND: The use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants has demonstrated high effectiveness in preventing pregnancy. While LARC use in Title X programs has increased over the past decade, little is know about the extent to which gains are occurring uniformly across states. METHODS: We examined state-level changes in LARC use among Title X clients between 2012 and 2016 using a repeated cross-sectional study design. States were characterized by the proportion of reproductive age women in need of publicly funded contraception. Variation in LARC use by level of need was examined using GEE models. RESULTS: Across all states, LARC use in Title X clinics increased from 9.1% to 16.2% during the study period. In 2012, LARC use in the states with the highest and lowest level of need differed by 2.3 percentage points (7.8% compared to 10.1%). By 2015 the gap in LARC use between high and low need states widened to reach 5.3 percentage points, more than double what was observed in 2012. However, by 2016 the margin of the gap narrowed. CONCLUSIONS: Observed increases in LARC use among states with the highest level of need for publically funded services are much lower than what is observed among states with the lowest level of need. However, we did find this gap is narrowing. This finding is important given states with greater need are those with higher proportions of low-income and younger women who are at greater risk for experiencing unintended pregnancies. Copyright (c) 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Pro-poor birth coverage and child health in Africa.

    Nattrass N

    Development Southern Africa. 2018; 1-12.

    This paper explores which African countries had relatively low rates of underweight children and relatively high birth coverage (percentage of births with a skilled attendant) in the poorest quintile. Swaziland and Rwanda emerged as relatively ‘pro-poor’ in that both measures were more than one standard deviation better than predicted by GDP per capita. Unlike Swaziland, Rwanda’s status as an outlier was eliminated in regressions controlling also for urbanisation, medical professionals per 1000 people and health spending, suggesting that its pro-poor outcomes were related to these factors. AIDS funding may have helped Swaziland provide primary health care to the poor, but its high birth coverage preceded the HIV epidemic. Although relatively pro-poor in international terms, Swaziland and Rwanda emerged as relatively unequal by the CIX measure of health inequality with regard to percentage of underweight children across quintiles. It is important not to conflate relatively equal with relatively pro-poor health outcomes. © 2018 Government Technical Advisory Centre (GTAC)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Changes in uptake and cost of long-acting reversible contraceptive devices following the introduction of a new low-cost levonorgestrel IUD in Utah's Title X clinics: a retrospective review.

    Roth LP; Sanders JN; Simmons RG; Bullock H; Jacobson E; Turok DK

    Contraception. 2018 Jul; 98(1):63-68.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess changes in long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method uptake at Utah's Title X clinics before and after introduction of a new, low-cost levonorgestrel (LNG) 52mg IUD (Liletta(R)). STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of LARC visits occurring at seven Title-X family planning clinics in Utah before the introduction of the low-cost LNG IUD (preintroduction period: 01/01/2014-04/30/2015) and after (postintroduction period: 05/01/2015-03/31/2016). We ran segmented, interrupted time series ordinary least squares regression models using Newey-West standard errors to assess both the change in numbers of women initiating any LARC method and the average payment amount per LARC method. We evaluated both the low-cost LNG IUD and all LARC methods. RESULTS: At the outset of preintroduction period, there were 29.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 20.1-38.4] monthly LNG IUD insertions. Immediately postintroduction, there was a significant level of increase of 14.4 LNG IUD insertions the first month (95% CI: 2.0-26.8) followed by a significant trend increase each month of 2.4 additional LNG IUD insertions (95% CI: 0.32-4.47). Postintroduction, there was a significant level of remitted-payment decrease from all sources of -$240.43 per LNG IUD (95% CI: -311.02 to 168.87) followed by a significant monthly trend decrease of -$23.01 per LNG IUD (95% CI: -32.02 to -13.98). There were minimal changes in uptake and payment of other LARC methods following the introduction of the low-cost LNG IUD. CONCLUSIONS: Following introduction of a low-cost LNG IUD at Title X clinics, LNG IUD initiation increased and average payment for the method decreased. IMPLICATIONS: Reducing the cost of LARC methods, both to clinics and to patients, is essential to expanding access. Additional efforts to develop and provide access to low-cost copper IUDs and subdermal implants as well as novel LARC methods should be continued. Copyright (c) 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Putting Referrals from Family Planning Providers in Context.

    Bronstein JM

    Journal of Women's Health. 2018 Aug; 27(8):953-954.

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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    PEPFAR Investments In Governance And Health Systems Were One-Fifth Of Countries' Budgeted Funds, 2004-14.

    Moucheraud C; Sparkes S; Nakamura Y; Gage A; Atun R; Bossert TJ

    Health Affairs. 2016 May 1; 35(5):847-55.

    Launched in 2003, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the largest disease-focused assistance program in the world. We analyzed PEPFAR budgets for governance and systems for the period 2004-14 to ascertain whether PEPFAR's stated emphasis on strengthening health systems has been manifested financially. The main outcome variable in our analysis, the first of its kind using these data, was the share of PEPFAR's total annual budget for a country that was designated for governance and systems. The share of planned PEPFAR funding for governance and systems increased from 14.9 percent, on average, in 2004 to 27.5 percent in 2013, but it declined in 2014 to 20.8 percent. This study shows that the size of a country's PEPFAR budget was negatively associated with the share allocated for governance and systems (compared with other budget program areas); it also shows that there was no significant relationship between budgets for governance and systems and HIV prevalence. It is crucial for the global health policy community to better understand how such investments are allocated and used for health systems strengthening. Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Policy change is not enough: engaging provider champions on immediate postpartum contraception.

    Okoroh EM; Kane DJ; Gee RE; Kieltyka L; Frederiksen BN; Baca KM; Rankin KM; Goodman DA; Kroelinger CD; Barfield WD

    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2018 Jun; 218(6):590.e1-590.e7.

    Rates of short-interval pregnancies that result in unintended pregnancies remain high in the United States and contribute to adverse reproductive health outcomes. Long-acting reversible contraception methods have annual failure rates of <1%, compared with 9% for oral contraceptive pills, and are an effective strategy to reduce unintended pregnancies. To increase access to long-acting reversible contraception in the immediate postpartum period, several State Medicaid programs, which include those in Iowa and Louisiana, recently established reimbursement policies to remove the barriers to reimbursement of immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception insertion. We used a mixed-methods approach to analyze 2013-2015 linked Medicaid and vital records data from both Iowa and Louisiana and to describe trends in immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception provision 1 year before and after the Medicaid reimbursement policy change. We also used data from key informant interviews with state program staff to understand how provider champions affected policy uptake. We found that the monthly average for the number of insertions in Iowa increased from 4.6 per month before the policy to 6.6 per month after the policy; in Louisiana, the average number of insertions increased from 2.6 per month before the policy to 45.2 per month. In both states, the majority of insertions occurred at 1 academic/teaching hospital. In Louisiana, the additional increase may be due to the engagement of a provider champion who worked at both the state and facility level. Recruiting, training, engaging, and supporting provider champions, as facilitators, with influence at state and facility levels, is an important component of a multipart strategy for increasing successful implementation of state-level Medicaid payment reform policies that allow reimbursement for immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception insertions. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Postpartum contraceptive use and interpregnancy interval among women with opioid use disorder.

    Krans EE; Kim JY; James AE 3rd; Kelley DK; Jarlenski M

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2018 Feb 14; 185:207-213.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe postpartum contraceptive utilization patterns among women with OUD and evaluate the relationship between postpartum contraceptive method choice and interpregnancy interval. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with women in Pennsylvania Medicaid with a diagnosis of OUD between 2008 and 2013. Postpartum contraceptive use within 90days after delivery was identified through claims data and categorized by effectiveness (highly-effective, effective, and no method observed). Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses and multivariable-adjusted marginal Cox regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between postpartum contraceptive method choice and interpregnancy interval. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors predictive of a short interpregnancy interval (
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Contraceptive Method Use During the Community-Wide HER Salt Lake Contraceptive Initiative.

    Sanders JN; Myers K; Gawron LM; Simmons RG; Turok DK

    American Journal of Public Health. 2018 Apr; 108(4):550-556.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe a community-wide contraception initiative and assess changes in method use when cost and access barriers are removed in an environment with client-centered counseling. METHODS: HER Salt Lake is a prospective cohort study occurring during three 6-month periods (September 2015 through March 2017) and nested in a quasiexperimental observational study. The sample was women aged 16 to 45 years receiving new contraceptive services at health centers in Salt Lake County, Utah. Following the control period, intervention 1 removed cost and ensured staffing and pharmacy stocking; intervention 2 introduced targeted electronic outreach. We used logistic regression and interrupted time series regression analyses to assess impact. RESULTS: New contraceptive services were provided to 4107 clients in the control period, 3995 in intervention 1, and 3407 in intervention 2. The odds of getting an intrauterine device or implant increased 1.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 1.6) during intervention 1 and 2.5 times (95% CI = 2.2, 2.8) during intervention 2, relative to the control period. Time series analysis demonstrated that participating health centers placed an additional 59 intrauterine devices and implants on average per month (95% CI = 13, 105) after intervention 1. CONCLUSIONS: Removing client cost and increasing clinic capacity was associated with shifts in contraceptive method mix in an environment with client-centered counseling; targeted electronic outreach further augmented these results.
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  16. 16

    Social contracting: Supporting domestic public financing for civil society's role in the HIV response.

    Palladium. Heath Policy Plus [HP+]

    Washington, D.C., HP+, 2018 Jan. 4 p. (USAID Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-15-00051)

    From shaping public health policy to acting as first responders in the delivery of HIV services, civil society has and continues to play a critical role. But currently, there is a dangerously low level of domestic funding to civil society organizations in PEPFAR countries. Social contracting, a mechanism by which governments can directly fund civil society organizations to implement aspects of their HIV response, can help maintain civil society's critical role and accelerate progress toward epidemic control.
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  17. 17

    [The use of free-of-charge prescription contraceptives among women : Results of a pilot project in the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania] Inanspruchnahme kostenfreier verschreibungspflichtiger Verhutungsmittel durch Frauen : Ergebnisse eines Modellprojekts in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

    Ulbricht S; Beyer A; John U

    Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz. 2018 Apr; 61(4):412-419.

    BACKGROUND: There is a connection between the receipt of unemployment benefits and the failure to use contraceptives in Germany. This study aims to understand the use of contraceptives among women entitled to unemployment benefits under the Sozialgesetzbuch II or XII (SGB II or SGB XII), prior and during an offer of contraceptives free of charge (CFOC). METHODS: The criteria for the use of CFOC (pill, intrauterine device, or ring) over a 12-month period were: age between 20 and 35 years, resident in predefined urban or rural postal codes in the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and participation in a self-administered survey. Data about participants' age, education, number of children, relationship status, period of payment according to SGB II or SGB XII, the use and barriers to use of contraceptives during every occurrence of sexual intercourse, as well as the kind of contraceptives used. RESULTS: From a total of 418 women: 40.9% were single-mothers, 39.0% did not graduate school, 21.1% were childless, and 57.9% had received unemployment benefits for at least three years. Further, 21.1% rated their type of contraceptive as "less safe" or "unsafe." The most commonly cited reasons for nonregular use of contraceptives were: they are too expensive or their use is forgotten. A change in contraceptives was made by 30.9% due to the offer of CFOC. The change was associated with the number of children and the exclusive use of less safe contraceptives. DISCUSSION: CFOC seems to be attractive, especially for women with children and those who receive long-term unemployment benefits. Changing demands concerning the safety of birth control during the lives of women should be considered in the discussion about common rules for the access to CFOC.
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Rethinking Medicaid Coverage and Payment Policy to Promote High Value Care: The Case of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Vela VX; Patton EW; Sanghavi D; Wood SF; Shin P; Rosenbaum S

    Women's Health Issues. 2018 Mar - Apr; 28(2):137-143.

    CONTEXT: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is the most effective reversible method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Variability in state-level policies and the high cost of LARC could create substantial inconsistencies in Medicaid coverage, despite federal guidance aimed at enhancing broad access. This study surveyed state Medicaid payment policies and outreach activities related to LARC to explore the scope of services covered. METHODS: Using publicly available information, we performed a content analysis of state Medicaid family planning and LARC payment policies. Purposeful sampling led to a selection of nine states with diverse geographic locations, political climates, Medicaid expansion status, and the number of women covered by Medicaid. RESULTS: All nine states' Medicaid programs covered some aspects of LARC. However, only a single state's payment structure incorporated all core aspects of high-quality LARC service delivery, including counseling, device, insertion, removal, and follow-up care. Most states did not explicitly address counseling, device removal, or follow-up care. Some states had strategies to enhance access, including policies to increase device reimbursement, stocking and delivery programs to remove cost barriers, and covering devices and insertion after an abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Although Medicaid policy encourages LARC methods, state payment policies frequently fail to address key aspects of care, including counseling, follow-up care, and removal, resulting in highly variable state-level practices. Although some states include payment policy innovations to support LARC access, significant opportunities remain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Access to long-acting reversible contraception among US publicly-funded health centers.

    Bornstein M; Carter M; Zapata L; Gavin L; Moskosky S

    Contraception. 2018 May; 97(5):405-410.

    OBJECTIVES: Access to a full range of contraceptive methods, including long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), is central to providing quality family planning services. We describe health center-related factors associated with LARC availability, including staff training in LARC insertion/removal and approaches to offering LARC, whether onsite or through referral. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed nationally representative survey data collected during 2013-2014 from administrators of publicly funded U.S. health centers that offered family planning. The response rate was 49.3% (n=1615). In addition to descriptive statistics, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify health center characteristics associated with offering both IUDs and implants onsite. RESULTS: Two-thirds (64%) of health centers had staff trained in all three LARC types (hormonal IUD, copper IUD, implant); 21% had no staff trained in any of those contraceptive methods. Half of health centers (52%) offered IUDs (any type) and implants onsite. After onsite provision, informal referral arrangements were the most common way LARC methods were offered. In adjusted analyses, Planned Parenthood (AOR=9.49) and hospital-based (AOR=2.35) health centers had increased odds of offering IUDs (any type) and implants onsite, compared to health departments, as did Title X-funded (AOR=1.55) compared to non-Title X-funded health centers and centers serving a larger volume of family planning clients. Centers serving mostly rural areas compared to those serving urbans areas had lower odds (AOR 0.60) of offering IUD (any type) and implants. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in LARC access remains among publicly funded health centers. In particular, health departments and rural health centers have relatively low LARC provision. IMPLICATIONS: For more women to be offered a full range of contraceptive methods, additional efforts should be made to increase availability of LARC in publicly-funded health centers, such as addressing provider training gaps, improving referrals mechanisms, and other efforts to strengthen the health care system. Copyright (c) 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    Trends in Health Insurance Coverage of Title X Family Planning Program Clients, 2005-2015.

    Decker EJ; Ahrens KA; Fowler CI; Carter M; Gavin L; Moskosky S

    Journal of Women's Health. 2018 May; 27(5):684-690.

    BACKGROUND: The federal Title X Family Planning Program supports the delivery of family planning services and related preventive care to 4 million individuals annually in the United States. The implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion and provisions expanding access to health insurance, which took effect in January 2014, resulted in higher rates of health insurance coverage in the U.S. population; the ACA's impact on individuals served by the Title X program has not yet been evaluated. METHODS: Using administrative data we examined changes in health insurance coverage among Title X clinic patients during 2005-2015. RESULTS: We found that the percentage of clients without health insurance decreased from 60% in 2005 to 48% in 2015, with the greatest annual decrease occurring between 2013 and 2014 (63% to 54%). Meanwhile, between 2005 and 2015, the percentage of clients with Medicaid or other public health insurance increased from 20% to 35% and the percentage of clients with private health insurance increased from 8% to 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Although clients attending Title X clinics remained uninsured at substantially higher rates compared with the national average, the increase in clients with health insurance coverage aligns with the implementation of ACA-related provisions to expand access to affordable health insurance.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Financing the HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa from domestic sources: Moving beyond a normative approach.

    Remme M; Siapka M; Sterck O; Ncube M; Watts C; Vassall A

    Social Science and Medicine. 2016 Nov; 169:66-76.

    Despite optimism about the end of AIDS, the HIV response requires sustained financing into the future. Given flat-lining international aid, countries' willingness and ability to shoulder this responsibility will be central to access to HIV care. This paper examines the potential to expand public HIV financing, and the extent to which governments have been utilising these options. We develop and compare a normative and empirical approach. First, with data from the 14 most HIV-affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we estimate the potential increase in public HIV financing from economic growth, increased general revenue generation, greater health and HIV prioritisation, as well as from more unconventional and innovative sources, including borrowing, health-earmarked resources, efficiency gains, and complementary non-HIV investments. We then adopt a novel empirical approach to explore which options are most likely to translate into tangible public financing, based on cross-sectional econometric analyses of 92 low and middle-income country governments' most recent HIV expenditure between 2008 and 2012. If all fiscal sources were simultaneously leveraged in the next five years, public HIV spending in these 14 countries could increase from US$3.04 to US$10.84 billion per year. This could cover resource requirements in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Swaziland, but not even half the requirements in the remaining countries. Our empirical results suggest that, in reality, even less fiscal space could be created (a reduction by over half) and only from more conventional sources. International financing may also crowd in public financing. Most HIV-affected lower-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa will not be able to generate sufficient public resources for HIV in the medium-term, even if they take very bold measures. Considerable international financing will be required for years to come. HIV funders will need to engage with broader health and development financing to improve government revenue-raising and efficiencies. Copyright (c) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Medicaid Coverage for Family Planning - Can the Courts Stop the States from Excluding Planned Parenthood?

    Rosenbaum S

    New England Journal of Medicine. 2017 Dec 7; 377(23):2205-2207.

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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    Cash transfers and index insurance: A comparative impact analysis from northern Kenya.

    Jensen ND; Barrett CB; Mude AG

    Journal of Development Economics. 2017 Nov; 129:14-28.

    Cash transfers and index insurance have become popular interventions by development agencies worldwide, yet surprisingly little is known about these programs' comparative impacts on participant behavior or well-being. This paper exploits exogenous variation in program participation and panel data from Kenya to compare the causal impacts of a cash transfer program (HSNP) and an index-based insurance product (IBLI), which were implemented contemporaneously among the same population. We find that both programs benefit clients. HSNP improves child health, as measured by mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and helps households maintain their mobility-dependent livestock production strategies. Households with IBLI coverage make productivity increasing investments, reduce distress sales of livestock during droughts, and see a marked increase in income per adult equivalent. Estimating the impacts per total program costs reveals that the two programs perform comparably on average, while IBLI's impacts per unit marginal cost are considerably larger than HSNP's.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Health financing and integration of urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance systems in China.

    Zhu K; Zhang L; Yuan S; Zhang X; Zhang Z

    International Journal For Equity In Health. 2017 Nov 07; 16(1):194.

    BACKGROUND: China is in the process of integrating the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the urban residents' basic medical insurance system (URBMI) into the urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance system (URRBMI). However, how to integrate the financing policies of NCMS and URBMI has not been described in detail. This paper attempts to illustrate the differences between the financing mechanisms of NCMS and URBMI, to analyze financing inequity between urban and rural residents and to identify financing mechanisms for integrating urban and rural residents' medical insurance systems. METHODS: Financing data for NCMS and URBMI (from 2008 to 2015) was collected from the China health statistics yearbook, the China health and family planning statistics yearbook, the National Handbook of NCMS Information, the China human resources and social security statistics yearbook, and the China social security yearbook. "Ability to pay" was introduced to measure inequity in health financing. Individual contributions to NCMS and URBMI as a function of per capita disposable income was used to analyze equity in health financing between rural and urban residents. RESULTS: URBMI had a financing mechanism that was similar to that used by NCMS in that public finance accounted for more than three quarters of the pooling funds. The scale of financing for NCMS was less than 5% of the per capita net income of rural residents and less than 2% of the per capita disposable income of urban residents for URBMI. Individual contributions to the NCMS and URBMI funds were less than 1% of their disposable and net incomes. Inequity in health financing between urban and rural residents in China was not improved as expected with the introduction of NCMS and URBMI. The role of the central government and local governments in financing NCMS and URBMI was oscillating in the past decade. CONCLUSIONS: The scale of financing for URRBMI is insufficient for the increasing demands for medical services from the insured. The pooling fund should be increased so that it can better adjust to China's rapidly aging population and epidemiological transitions as well as protect the insured from poverty due to illness. Individual contributions to the URBMI and NCMS funds were small in terms of contributors' incomes. The role of the central government and local governments in financing URRBMI was not clearly identified. Individual contributions to the URRBMI fund should be increased to ensure the sustainable development of URRBMI. Compulsory enrollment should be required so that URRBMI improves the social medical insurance system in China.
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Insurance-related Practices at Title X-funded Family Planning Centers under the Affordable Care Act: Survey and Interview Findings.

    Zolna MR; Kavanaugh ML; Hasstedt K

    Women's Health Issues. 2018 Jan - Feb; 28(1):21-28.

    INTRODUCTION: Given the recent reforms in the United States health care system, including the passage and implementation of the Affordable Care Act, as well as anticipated upcoming changes to health care coverage, it is critical that publicly funded health care providers understand how to effectively work with their states' Medicaid program and the private health insurance plans in their service area to provide high-quality contraceptive care to the millions of women relying on services at these sites annually. METHODS: We collected survey data from a nationally representative sample of 535 clinics providing family planning services that received Title X funding and conducted semistructured interviews with 23 administrators at a subsample of surveyed clinics to explore provider-reported experiences working with health plans and to identify barriers to, and practices that lead to, adequate reimbursement for services provided. RESULTS: Providers report that knowledgeable staff are crucial to securing contracts with both public and private insurance plan issuers, and that the contracts they secure often include coverage restrictions on methods or services clinics offer their clients. Good staff relationships with issuers are key to obtaining adequate and consistent reimbursement for all covered services. CONCLUSIONS: Providers are trying to understand how insurance programs in their area knit together. Regardless of how U.S. health policies and delivery systems may change in the coming years, it is imperative that publicly funded family planning centers continue to work with health plans and maximize their third-party revenue to provide services to those in need. Copyright (c) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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