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Indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando Community, Lagos State, Nigeria.
African Journal of Social Work. 2014 Jun; 4(1):59-77.The study examined indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando Community Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 195 people was randomly selected from the population. The study used four hypotheses to test the respondents’ attitude to the use of indigenous and modern communication approaches to STIs/HIV/AIDS; differences based on literacy level, religion and marital status. The instruments were author constructed questionnaires with 0.713 reliability coefficient and 0.71 construct validity, respectively. The data obtained were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test to determine the difference in variables. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference between modern and indigenous approaches, literacy level, religion and marital status of respondents towards STIs/HIV/AIDS. It was recommended that traditional community leaders, traditional doctors, social workers and religious leaders dwelling in rural communities should lead in the local campaign against STIs/HIV/AIDS at the grassroots level using acceptable contemporary approaches.
Adolescents on stage: an educational proposal in the field of sexual and reproductive health. Adolescentes em cena: uma proposta educativa no campo da saude sexual e reprodutiva.
Revista Da Escola De Enfermagem Da U S P. 2011 Dec; 45 Spec No 2:1716-21.The objective of this study was to describe the experience of developing educational material in the form of a play, created and performed by adolescents as a strategy to obtain a reflexive and autonomous attitude of these subjects, in the affective-sexual and reproductive field. This intervention and investigation process was developed at a public school located in Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais, Brazil - with 12 students aged between 14 and 18 years. The analysis was founded on the method of experience-based learning, by John Dewey. Twenty-three workshops were performed until the production of the show and video Sex yes, Disease No, exhibited to high-school students. The production of educational technologies, created by students themselves, permitted to broaden their experiences and assign new meaning to their knowledge. It also helped to understand the everyday reality of these subjects, permitting them to establish a connection between inner aspects (the adolescent's thoughts) and outer aspects (that materialize the social phenomenon) in the affective-sexual and reproductive field.
Washington, D.C., Save the Children, TOPS Program, 2015 Jun.  p.These lessons seek to build the skills of community-level workers, such as community development agents, community health workers, and agriculture extension agents, so that they can be more effective behavior change promoters in their communities. The lessons are not sector specific, and are tried and true generic skills, such as communication and storytelling, that can help a development worker in any sector become more effective as an agent of behavior change.
Aligning HIV/AIDS Communication With the Oral Tradition of Africans: A Theory-Based Content Analysis of Songs’ Potential in Prevention Efforts.
Health Communication. 2015 Jun 19; 30(5):441-450.Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
From intervention to invitation: reshaping adolescent sexual health through story telling and games.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2012 Jun; 16(2):189-96.The University of Chicago and the University of Ibadan in Nigeria have partnered to exchange innovative insights into the sexual and reproductive health of disadvantaged populations in Chicago and Nigeria. Youth in both Chicago and Nigeria face disproportionately high rates of mortality and morbidity due to poor sexual and reproductive health. Traditional models have fallen short of the needs of these youth, so the University of Chicago is seeking to reframe and retool adolescent sexual health education. Game Changer Chicago is an initiative that incorporates digital storytelling, new media, and game design to conduct workshops with youth around issues of sexuality and emotional health. Based on the success of storytelling and digital media programs in Nigeria and the success of Game Changer Chicago, we believe this model holds promise for implementation in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan countries
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2012 Jun; 16(2):55-70.This paper is based on an international study, HIV Prevention for Rural Youth (HP4RY) 2008-2012, designed to examine the state of, and teach about, sexual health and HIV/AIDS in Edo State, Nigeria. The paper focuses on the mixed methods used in this study, paying attention to the meaning of collaboration and participation in research in a cross-continental setting. Additionally, the paper considers the complexities of engaging in decolonizing and respectful methodological approaches in these settings. Drawing on specifics from the mixed methods and details from the relevant literature, this paper demonstrates the continued need for cross-continental decolonization and decentralized engagements, specifically when dealing with sensitive topics like sexuality and HIV/AIDS. .
Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.
Health Promotion International. 2012 Mar; 27(1):52-62.In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.
Dialogues for life. Training facilitators in dialogue-based behavior change communication for reproductive health. Trainer's guide (revised).
[Kathmandu, Nepal], PATH, 2007 Jun.  p.This training was originally developed for the Dialogues for Life project, a pilot behavior change communication project focusing on preventing unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and increasing women's access to safe, legal abortion to terminate unwanted pregnancy. Led by PATH in collaboration with the Nepal Ministry of Health and Population, Family Health Division, and local nongovernmental partner groups in 2004-2006, with funding from an anonymous donor, the project sought to achieve these objectives by promoting dialogue about sensitive reproductive health issues in families and communities. The central intervention in Dialogues for Life is the facilitated dialogue group, which meets twice a month for about two hours to explore reproductive health issues through role-play, story-making, and experience-sharing, as well as discussion and critical reflection on values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. (excerpt)
Journal of Biosocial Science. 2008 Jan; 40(1):153-154.I read with great interest Akrami and Osati's article entitled 'Is consanguineous marriage religiously encouraged?' Islamic and Iranian considerations' published in the March 2007 issue of the Journal of Biosocial Science. The authors showed that in many Islamic sources, there is no sign that could be described as encouraging cousin marriages. I would like to make a few comments about it. It is well established that consanguinity is associated with loss of biological fitness for both communities and individuals. For countries such as Iran, where consanguineous marriages are common, the reasons behind consanguinity are highly important for public health programmes. Very recently, I reported on consanguineous marriages in Iranian folktales. Also, I reported that there was a very strong correlation between the mean inbreeding coefficients (a) estimated for the eleven different Iranian (ethical and/or geographical) populations based on records of folktales and a estimation of the populations at the present time. Surprisingly, a estimation using data derived from folktales can explain more than 56% (r/2=0.5625) of the differences between populations for consanguineous marriages at present. Because folktales represent the historical basis of knowledge, attitude and practice about consanguinity, consanguinity has been a long-standing social habit among Iranian populations. Considering that Akrami and Osati reported that there was no encouragement of consanguineous marriages in the Islamic context, it might be suggested that the historical background is very important in the attitudes and practice about marriages between relatives. Finally, Imam Ali and Fatima were first cousins once removed. (full text)
Using narrative communication as a tool for health behavior change: A conceptual, theoretical, and empirical overview.
Health Education and Behavior. 2007 Oct; 34(5):777-792.Narrative is the basic mode of human interaction and a fundamental way of acquiring knowledge. In the rapidly growing field of health communication, narrative approaches are emerging as a promising set of tools for motivating and supporting health-behavior change. This article defines narrative communication and describes the rationale for using it in health-promotion programs, reviews theoretical explanations of narrative effects and research comparing narrative and nonnarrative approaches to persuasion, and makes recommendations for future research needs in narrative health communication. (author's)
Journal of the History of Sexuality. 2007 Jan; 16(1):14-39.Putting together (1) the belief that sexual characteristics can change, (2) the focus on male superiority, (3) the emphasis on women being reborn as men, and (4) the popular wish to be reborn in one of a number of heavens, some of which excluded women, leads to the conclusion that there was an implicit strand of Buddhism that not only negates the spiritual potential of women but appears determined to exterminate womanhood and to add to the stock of manhood. It is a Buddhism that reveals its collaboration with patriarchal and misogynistic traditions and the insecurities for men that those traditions engendered. This understanding can shed new light on Uppalavannas legend. (excerpt)
Narrative communication in cancer prevention and control: a framework to guide research and application.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2007 May-Jun; 33(3):221-235.Narrative forms of communication-including entertainment education, journalism, literature, testimonials, and storytelling-are emerging as important tools for cancer prevention and control. To stimulate critical thinking about the role of narrative in cancer communication and promote a more focused and systematic program of research to understand its effects, we propose a typology of narrative application in cancer control. We assert that narrative has four distinctive capabilities: overcoming resistance, facilitating information processing, providing surrogate social connections, and addressing emotional and existential issues. We further assert that different capabilities are applicable to different outcomes across the cancer control continuum (e.g., prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship). This article describes the empirical evidence and theoretical rationale supporting propositions in the typology, identifies variables likely to moderate narrative effects, raises ethical issues to be addressed when using narrative communication in cancer prevention and control efforts, and discusses potential limitations of using narrative in this way. Future research needs based on these propositions are outlined and encouraged. (author's)
Art'ishake. 2006 Winter; (1):24-25.Nrityanjali Academy is a socio-cultural, voluntary organization based in Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh. From the year 1989 it has been actively involved in cultural interventions by using different folk dance forms of Andhra Pradesh. It has used the folk and theatre forms to educate the people on Environment, Health, Illiteracy, and Social Injustice. The performances of Nrityanjali are being well applauded and well received by the vulnerable population and people in general. Nrityanjali Academy has also taken the responsibility of keeping up the traditional art forms and forgotten traditions through performances; it has been performing its traditional presentations at various national and international platforms. (excerpt)
Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism. 2003; 4(1):142-164.Prefatory Note: This essay revisits an experience—my encounter with an airport border control official as I was leaving Pakistan—that occurred in October 2000. At first, this otherwise trivial incident seemed to me illustrative of several postcolonial and feminist concerns, such as the regulation of national and gender identities at sites of border crossing, or the patriarchal oppressiveness of state power and practices. But as I retold the story, I began to realize that there were additional dimensions to it that called for something else, that required me to re-examine, though not altogether repudiate, my initial indignation. This encounter then became a cultural text calling for a somewhat different critical analysis, leading me to reflect on feminist (and postcolonial) outrage, on how we might complicate our gender-based reactions, and how such a feminist politics may be responsibly practiced. (Much of this essay was written before September 11, 2001. I have not returned to Pakistan since then and can only imagine that airport security has greatly increased.) (excerpt)
Beyond new order gender politics: case studies of female performers of the classical Balinese dance-drama, Arja.
Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context. 2004 Aug; (10): p..A considerable body of scholarship documents the significant impact that New Order cultural policies has had upon the Indonesian performing arts sector. These studies testify to an ongoing process of control and 'development' of Indonesia's arts world during the New Order period. The plurality of Indonesia's regional cultural traditions has been systematically muted as a result of the New Order State's sustained effort to impose an overarching official 'national culture' upon the Indonesian archipelago in an apparent attempt to secure national unity in an era of modernisation and development. An additional consequence of this phenomenon in Java was the generally reduced status of female performers. Scholarship on this phenomenon in Bali, including my own research, has revealed that Balinese cultural forms were not immune to the repressive cultural policies. In Bali's case, the prescriptive cultural policies governing its local performing arts sector under the auspices of the Suharto government's national development campaign engendered an ever-widening gulf between Bali's 'official,' academic site of performing arts development and that in its grassroots sphere. The state-sanctioning of Bali's official performing arts scene marginalised and obscured the time-honoured traditions of its grassroots performing arts domain. In this new era of regional autonomy in Bali and in light of the prospects that the era holds for the preservation and reinvigoration of indigenous knowledge, it is a timely moment to examine the contemporary status of the marginalised owners of Bali's grassroots performing arts sector, whose voices were repressed by the New Order State's 'selective cultural memory.' (excerpt)
Preventing HIV and partner violence. Research guides design of peer education and drama components in Tanzania.
Horizons Report. 2004 Dec; 7-9.In 2001, researchers from the Horizons Program and Muhimbili University in Tanzania published a disturbing finding. Among women attending an HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center in Dar es Salaam, young HIV-positive women (under 30 years old) were 10 times more likely to report physical violence with a current partner than HIV-negative women in the same age group. Their research also revealed that HIV-infected women overall reported significantly more sexual violence in their relationships, a greater number of physically violent partners in their lifetime, and a greater number of physically violent events with their current partner. Unfortunately, such findings are not confined to Tanzania. Researchers working in Rwanda, South Africa, India, and the United States have found similar relationships between women's HIV serostatus and experiences of partner violence. (excerpt)
African Studies Review. 2003 Apr;  p..This study of contemporary Hausa literature analyzes a northern Nigerian body of popular fiction currently referred to as Kano market literature and known to Hausa speakers as Littattafan Soyayya (books of love). The popularity of this genre of romance rests firmly upon its subject matter, one that has proven controversial within the conservative Muslim environment of Hausa society. On the surface, the novels are preoccupied with love and marital relationships, depicting the ordeals faced by courting lovers or married couples. However, on a deeper level, the novels have become an explorative territory for the socially, culturally, and religiously loaded issues of polygamy, marriages of coercion, purdah, and the accessibility of female education. In effect, Kano market literature reflects the rapid social change confronting Hausa society and positions itself as a voice offering a new perspective on gender relations. This article examines closely the works of arguably the most celebrated woman writer, Bilkisu Ahmed Funtuwa. Acutely aware of her rigid social and religious milieu, Funtuwa offers suggestions to young women who desire a greater level of control over their familial relationships and educational direction. (author's)
["Milonguitas" in Buenos Aires (1910-40): tango, social ascent, and tuberculosis] Milonguitas en Buenos Aires (1910-1940): tango, ascenso social y tuberculosis.
Historia, Ciencias, Saude - Manguinhos. 2002; 9 Suppl:187-207.During the first three decades of the 20th century, in the fervor of urban change that transformed Buenos Aires into a metropolis, poetry, cinema, theater, and the lyrics of the tango repeatedly portrayed the path of muchachas de barrio who, by taking to nightlife and the downtown cabarets, placed their stakes on a society where social ascent--limited yet real--was part of the urban experience. For the most part written by men, the lyrics speak of these journeys in a tone of censure and tuberculosis is cast as a form of punishment for these young women who dared to question there place in the domestic world and the world of the barrio. The tango thus offers its audience not only a highly moralizing account but also paints an image of an illness that seems unique to women although it in fact affected male and female alike. (excerpt)
Using entertainment-education to reach youth in Mexico. [Uso de la educación-entretenimiento para llegar a los jóvenes mexicanos]
Global HealthLink. 2003 Sep-Oct; (123):9, 18.Poverty and overpopulation are two of Mexico's biggest challenges. The Population Media Center (PMC) is working with the Adolescent Orientation Center (CORA) of Mexico to produce a series of radio mini-serials mixed with talk shows in the five states of Mexico with the highest fertility rates. These programs have been developed by young people and are aimed at youth audiences. Based in Shelburne, VT, the mission of Population Media Center is to collaborate with the mass media and other organizations worldwide to bring about stabilization of human population numbers at a level that can be supported sustainably by the world's natural resources and to lessen the harmful impact of humanity on the earth's environment. The emphasis of the organization's work is to educate people about the benefits of small families, encourage the use of effective family planning methods, elevate women's status and promote the concept of gender equity. (excerpt)
ABNF Journal. 2001 Mar-Apr; 12(2):28-34.Health professionals are frequently the first point of contact for many women who are abused and experience intimate male partner violence. Yet, practitioners often do not have the knowledge and/or feel prepared to address these issues with women. The authors propose the use of storytelling and literature as an educational strategy to challenge and change nurses' conceptualization and practices relative to abuse and violence against women. (author's)
New Delhi, India, Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1999 Jul 20. 55 p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00023-04)Over the last few years SIFPSA has been able to develop a number of innovative models for expanding and improving quality of health & family planning services. One of the most innovative methods is the District Action Plans (DAPs). DAPS provide a model to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the vast health and family welfare infrastructure by bringing about a synergy between the private and public sector and by introducing an RCH management system at the district level. This publication documents the first year of the experiences of implementation of the DAPs in 6 districts of Uttar Pradesh covering a population of more than 15 million. (author's)
In: Lessons learnt. NGO presentations, dissemination workshop, Kathmandu, AmFAR\Nepal, 18 December 1995, [compiled by] American Foundation for AIDS Research [AmFAR]. Kathmandu, Nepal, AmFAR, 1995. 7-11.WICOM, a nongovernmental organization in Nepal, has conducted AIDS awareness and prevention activities in Kathmandu and other districts since 1990. A mid-term review assessed the effectiveness of AIDS orientations and street dramas. A total of 882 respondents (representing 10% of those exposed to the programs) were interviewed. 81.4% were knowledgeable about the major modes of AIDS transmission. Communication vehicles favored by respondents included street dramas (73.5%), radio (53.9%), television (51.7%), and group discussions (51.5%). Based on the evaluation findings, WICOM plans to continue to offer a combination of educational approaches. In rural areas, particular emphasis will be placed on dramas and videos tailored to local conditions. Reproductive health issues will be integrated into the AIDS education campaign given the finding that teenage marriages are widespread. WICOM's activities have confirmed the importance of improving the status of women in Nepal and advocating for shared decision-making power between men and women at all levels of society.
[Unpublished] . , 96, 20 p. (RBNL Job No. 5318)This report documents a mid-campaign study that incorporates earlier reports on the use of two musical songs about sexual responsibilities. The songs were introduced during the last quarter of 1989. The songs were "Wait for Me" and "Choices." These songs were assessed for market penetration, acceptance, and impact by the Research Bureau Nigeria Limited under contract with the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS). The evaluation was conducted before, during, and after the promotional campaign in Lagos, Enugu, and Kano cities, areas with a broad socioeconomic and cultural mix of people. In addition, a Rural Exposure Survey was conducted in three rural local government areas in Oyo State. The report is organized into four sections: introduction; background and survey objectives; tables and graphs; and main findings. The appendix includes a description of the survey design, additional tables, attitudes toward family planning, cross tabulations from an earlier report, a list of sample areas, a household selection grid, a respondent selection key, and a survey questionnaire. In general, findings suggest a widespread lack of knowledge of family planning methods in all three urban locations. Both modern and traditional contraceptive usage were even lower than knowledge. Between the baseline and mid-campaign surveys, findings indicate that knowledge and awareness of methods increased. Over 60% of respondents indicated that their spouses would not approve of use of contraception for spacing births or ending childbearing. The baseline and mid-campaign surveys revealed that most considered family planning important as an economic benefit followed by psychological well-being. Only 4-20% believed that family planning did not promote promiscuity. Respondents were more aware of the pill than the condom. Current usage of traditional methods was two times higher than modern methods, except in Kano where use was the same.
[Traditional arts in the service of family planning. Dissemination of evaluation results. Traditional and Modern Media Project] Les arts traditionnels au service de la planification familiale. Dissemination des resultats de l'evaluation. Projet des Medias Traditionnels et Modernes.
[Bamako], Mali, Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille, .  p.This is the final report of the Traditional and Modern Media Project, a three-year undertaking to reinforce the institutional capacity of the Malian Association for Protection and Promotion of the Family (AMPPF) and collaboration at the central and regional levels to promote family planning by married couples. The project combined five traditional means of communication with radio and television to provide family planning messages. AMPPF personnel and others attended a workshop on new orientations in health communications. A consensus-building workshop was held with representatives of several organizations active in family planning communication to enable them to contribute to project goals. A coordinating committee was created to plan and supervise activities of the Traditional and Modern Media project. The AMPPF organized an IEC campaign utilizing traditional media in synergy with modern media to orient men and women on family planning. Koteba, a type of theater rooted in Malian oral tradition, was selected for family planning communication. A contest held in Bamako and Segou led to selection and filming of 4 30-minute Kotebas or theater pieces with family planning messages for television broadcast. A series of 1-minute television spots for men was also prepared. The spots dealt with discussion by couples, rumors, financial advantages of family planning, and the Koran and family planning. Two songs were selected in the same contest for radio broadcast. Broadcast of the theater pieces, songs, and radio spots coincided with launching of the national family planning logo in a ceremony presided over by the Minister of Public Health. The project collaborated closely with the Center for Studies and Research in Population for Development (CERPOD) to assess project impact using baseline and follow-up surveys and analysis of clinic statistics. The results indicated slight increases in method use, clinic attendance, and intentions to use family planning in the future.
Evaluation of the National Folk Singing Program of IEM Unit, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Final report.
Dhaka, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad, 1990 Aug. xxiii, 134 p.This report contains an evaluation of Bangladesh's National Folk Singing Program (NFSP) which has existed since 1976 to promote family planning and a two-child norm in rural areas. This evaluation covers the period starting in April 1989, with data collected from May 26 to June 10, 1990. The report opens with an executive summary which is followed by a chapter that describes the NFSP and the present evaluation. Chapter 2 discusses the study methodology in terms of the sampling design, the data collection framework, the selection and training of the research teams, and data collection and processing. The third chapter presents findings on program management at the central and the field levels, chapter 4 deals with the message providers (the teams of folk singers), and chapter 5 covers aspects of the evaluation relating to the program's audience (an audience profile, the audience response, audience perception and comprehension of the messages, efforts to reach target groups, a review of an observed performance, information collected through informal discussions, and a review of the actual folk songs). The final chapter presents 12 conclusions and related recommendations in the areas of program design and funding, supervision and monitoring, record-keeping and documentation, control over FP officers, accountability at the Upazila level, monthly reports, the location of performances, the role of FP workers, field visits of the National Folk Singers Team, remuneration and training of the folk singers, community participation, and proposed management guidelines.