Your search found 1668 Results

  1. 1
    374797

    Tea stall conversations: Bangladesh.

    CARE

    Atlanta, Georgia, CARE, 2017 Sep. 16 p. (Tipping Point Social Norms Innovations Series Brief 4)

    This brief documents CARE’s Tipping Point project and how using tea stalls can help change social norms. It offers tips on how to replicate this approach in your own work. Personal relationships often reinforce or challenge power imbalances between men and women. Fathers and brothers hold a great deal of power in the lives of adolescent girls in Bangladesh’s Sunamganj district. For men and older boys, the tea stall is a common spot to socialise with peers. Tea stalls are a productive space to start discussions with men on gender and equity in a familiar setting.
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  2. 2
    374796

    Amra-o-Korchi (We are also doing): Bangladesh.

    CARE

    Atlanta, Georgia, CARE, 2017 Oct. 16 p. (Tipping Point Social Norms Innovations Series Brief 3)

    This brief documents CARE’s Tipping Point project and how it encouraged men and boys to take up tasks that are not typical for their gender. It offers tips on how to replicate this approach in your own work. In rural communities in Bangladesh’s Sunamgank district, household chores take up much of women and girls’ days. This limits their time for themselves, their friends and community engagement. The campaign, called Amra-o-Korchi (“We are also doing” in Bangla) supported men and boys to take up tasks that are not typical for their gender. Men and boys took part in public competitions around cooking, stitching and laundry. These small competitions culminated in a large public event –which saw men and boys go head to head to test their cooking skills.
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  3. 3
    374795

    Football for girls: Bangladesh.

    CARE

    Atlanta, Georgia, CARE, 2017 Sep. 16 p. (Tipping Point Social Norms Innovations Series Brief 2)

    This brief documents CARE’s Tipping Point project and how teaching girls how to play football can help change social norms. It offers tips on how to replicate this approach in your own work. In rural communities in Bangladesh’s Sunamganj district, adolescent girls are rarely seen spending free time outside their homes like boys, who play sports and meet for casual conversation. As they become adolescents, girls are increasingly expected to keep busy with house work. The Tipping Point initiative uses football to change social norms around girls in public spaces and the belief that girls cannot play sports.
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  4. 4
    370864
    Peer Reviewed

    Performing (heterosexual) femininity: female agency and role in sexual life and contraceptive use - a qualitative study in Australia.

    Kelly M; Inoue K; Barratt A; Bateson D; Rutherford A

    Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2017 Feb; 19(2):240-255.

    Women’s liberation and the sexual revolution have changed the social landscape for heterosexual women in the West over the past 50 years, but exploration of women’s lived experiences of contraceptive use in the context of their sexual lives is comparatively recent. We conducted 94 in-depth open-ended interviews with women of reproductive age (16-49 years) living in New South Wales, Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Four major themes are explored here: (1) what women do and do not do: unspoken gendered assumptions; (2) focus on partner’s pleasure; (3) juggling responsibilities: sex as a chore; and (4) women’s sexual motivations. Findings suggest sexual double standards and gender expectations continue to pervade women’s sexual and contraceptive practices. We found that women performed their femininity by focusing on enabling their male partner’s pleasure, while simultaneously ignoring their own sexual desires, wishes or interests. Accompanying new-found freedoms are new-found responsibilities, as women now add managing modern contraceptives and a good sex life to their list of tasks alongside paid employment, domestic labor and childrearing. Our research findings suggest that women may derive different pleasures from sex, including what we term ‘connection pleasure’.
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  5. 5
    386566
    Peer Reviewed

    Validation of the Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth questionnaire.

    Noor NM; Aziz AA; Mostapa MR; Awang Z

    BioMed Research International. 2015; 2015:972728.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. RESULTS: The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple.
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  6. 6
    386038
    Peer Reviewed

    Pregnancy incidence and correlates in a clinical trial preparedness study, North West Province South Africa.

    Chetty-Makkan CM; Fielding K; Feldblum PJ; Price MA; Kruger P; Makkan H; Charalambous S; Latka MH

    PloS One. 2014; 9(5):e95708.

    INTRODUCTION: Women in HIV prevention trials often must typically agree to avoid pregnancy. Regardless, some become pregnant. Screening tools predicting pregnancy risk could maximize trial safety and efficiency. OBJECTIVES: We assessed incidence and correlates of pregnancy among women at high HIV risk. METHODS: We enrolled sexually-active, HIV-negative women into an observational cohort (2008-2011). At enrollment demographic, contraceptive, reproductive, pregnancy intention and behavioural data were collected. Women reported if one or both partners wanted or intended for the couple to become pregnant. We measured gender role beliefs using a locally validated eight-point index. We tested HIV and pregnancy, and inquired about sexually transmitted infection symptoms (STIs) at enrollment and monthly. HIV testing included behavioural counselling and condom provision, but did not specifically counsel women to avoid pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard modelling evaluated the associations with pregnancy. The multivariate model included the following variables "Recent pregnancy attempts", "Gender Roles Beliefs", "Self-reported STIs" and "Age". RESULTS: We screened 1068 women and excluded (24.6%, 263/1068) who did not report risk behaviour. Non-pregnant, non-sterilized women aged 18-35 (median = 21 years) enrolled (n = 438). Most women reported one partner (74.7%) and a prior live birth (84.6%). Median follow-up time was 6 months (range 0.7-15.5). Pregnancy incidence was 25.1 per 100 women-years (n = 57 pregnancies). Conservative beliefs on gender roles (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.9), recent pregnancy attempts (aHR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.4) and baseline self-reported STI (aHR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.4) were associated with increased incident pregnancy. Report of no pregnancy intention was associated with lowered pregnancy risk (aHR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.7). CONCLUSIONS: We identified new and confirmed existing factors that can facilitate screening for pregnancy risk.
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  7. 7
    386022
    Peer Reviewed

    Predictors of Condom Use Among Iranian Women at Risk of HIV.

    Lotfi R; Ramezani Tehrani F; Salehifar D; Dworkin SL

    Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2016 Feb; 45(2):429-37.

    Sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS is increasing in Iran and is the main route of infection among women. In order to foster the development of future HIV prevention interventions for women, researchers need to understand the factors that influence sexual risk reduction behaviors in this group. The aim of this study was to explore the predictors of condom use among women at risk of HIV and develop a model of condom use in a sample of women at risk of HIV. We cross-sectionally examined predictors of condom use among 200 women at risk of HIV. Women were recruited from drop-in centers and voluntary counseling and testing centers in Tehran. Condom use among women at risk of HIV was examined using path analysis, and fit indices showed a good fit for the model. Condom use self-efficacy, social support, and less stereotypic gender roles influenced sexually protective behaviors of women at risk of HIV. Our results can provide a basis for future gender-specific intervention programs among women at risk of HIV. Researchers, practitioners, and organizations that play a central role in protecting the health of this population can make use of these results for the benefit of sexual and reproductive health programs.
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  8. 8
    385985
    Peer Reviewed

    Supporting adolescent girls to stay in school, reduce child marriage and reduce entry into sex work as HIV risk prevention in north Karnataka, India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Beattie TS; Bhattacharjee P; Isac S; Davey C; Javalkar P; Nair S; Thalinja R; Sudhakar G; Collumbien M; Blanchard JF; Watts C; Moses S; Heise L

    BMC Public Health. 2015; 15:292.

    BACKGROUND: Low caste adolescent girls living in rural northern Karnataka are at increased risk of school drop-out, child marriage, and entry into sex-work, which enhances their vulnerability to HIV, early pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes. This protocol describes the evaluation of Samata, a comprehensive, multi-level intervention designed to address these structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability. METHODS/DESIGN: The Samata study is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will be conducted in eighty village clusters (40 intervention; 40 control) in Bijapur and Bagalkot districts in northern Karnataka. The intervention seeks to reach low caste girls and their families; adolescent boys; village communities; high school teachers and school governing committees; and local government officials. All low caste (scheduled caste/tribe) adolescent girls attending 7th standard (final year of primary school) will be recruited into the study in two consecutive waves, one year apart. Girls (n = 2100), their families (n = 2100) and school teachers (n = 650) will be interviewed at baseline and at endline. The study is designed to assess the impact of the intervention on four primary outcomes: the proportion of low caste girls who (i) enter into secondary school; (ii) complete secondary school; (iii) marry before age 15; and (iv) engage in sex before age 15. Observers assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome will be an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at follow-up. We will also conduct survival analyses for the following secondary outcomes: marriage, sexual debut, pregnancy and entry into sex work. Complementary monitoring and evaluation, qualitative and economic research will be used to explore and describe intervention implementation, the pathways through which change occurs, and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. DISCUSSION: This is an innovative trial of a comprehensive intervention to improve the quality of life and reduce HIV vulnerability among marginalised girls in northern Karnataka. The findings will be of interest to programme implementers, policy makers and evaluation researchers working in the development, education, and sexual and reproductive health fields. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT01996241 . 16th November 2013.
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  9. 9
    337462

    “Girls are like leaves on the wind”: How gender expectations impact girls’ education -- A closer look from West Nile, Uganda.

    Stoebenau K; Warner A; Edmeades JD; Sexton M

    Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women {IRCW], 2015. [16] p.

    In most places around the world, girls are now just as likely to be enrolled in primary school as boys. This is, however, not the case for girls in sub-Saharan African nations, where they remain behind, especially at the secondary level. In West Nile, Uganda women’s rates of schooling are far below the national average. For every ten male secondary students enrolled, six female students are enrolled. ICRW's report, "Girls Are Live Leaves on the Wind" examines the factors that contribute to girls ages 14 through 18 dropping out of school in two regions of West Nile, Uganda: Adjumani and Arua. The report examines the complex factors that determine school dropout among girls, highlighting the ways in which gendered expectations and norms may influence girls' education. The report also contains a host of recommendations on how governments and communities can ensure girls remain in school, including comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education, improved outreach efforts to re-enroll girls in school if they have dropped out, and a focus on programs that can help shift gender norms among women, men, girls and boys.
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  10. 10
    338643
    Peer Reviewed

    Constructions of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negiotation practices among women in urban Ghana.

    Fiaveh DY; Izugbara CO; Okyerefo MPK; Reysoo F; Fayorsey CK

    Culture Health and Sexuality. 2014 Dec 16; 1-13.

    Using qualitative data gathered through in-depth interviews with women in Accra, Ghana, this paper explores narratives of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women. While women framed ‘proper’ masculinity in terms of stereotypical reproductive norms, they also acknowledged the fluidity and multiplicity of masculinities. Femininity was more uniformly characterized in terms of physical attractiveness and beauty, responsibility and reproduction. These features, especially those related to adherence to morally and socially appropriate sexual norms (e.g., menstrual and bodily hygiene, unplanned pregnancy etc.), influenced women's approach to sexual negotiation. Work aiming to support women to negotiate sex safely needs to pay attention to their notions of gender and practices of sexual negotiation.
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  11. 11
    380319

    Commentary on Cook C (2012) 'Nice girls don't': women and the condom conundrum. Journal of Clinical Nursing 21, 535-43.

    Whitfield C

    Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2014 Sep; 23(17-18):2691.

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  12. 12
    338318
    Peer Reviewed

    The management of unwanted pregnancy among women in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Izugbara C

    International Journal of Sexual Health. 2014; 26:100-112.

    Qualitative data gathered from women in Nairobi, Kenya, were used to explore decisionmaking in relation to unwanted pregnancy. Gender, livelihoods, morality,marital status, and male partners exerted extensively complex and multidimensional influence on women’s management of their unintentional pregnancies. For instance, although gender norms were frequently invoked to justify terminating unwanted pregnancies, they also regularly provided strong motivations for carrying such pregnancies to term. Urgently needed are programs and policies that not only support women to avoid unwanted pregnancies, but also help them to respond safely and pragmatically to such pregnancies when they occur.
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  13. 13
    338246
    Peer Reviewed

    Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.

    Skafte I; Silberschmidt M

    Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2014 Jan 2; 16(1):[13] p.

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognize that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification -acknowledged and valued by women as well as men -play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognizing their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this ‘sexual capital’, women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.
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  14. 14
    360966
    Peer Reviewed

    Women's roles in voluntary medical male circumcision in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Lanham M; L'engle KL; Loolpapit M; Oguma IO

    PloS One. 2012; 7(9):e44825.

    Women are an important audience for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) communication messages so that they know that VMMC provides only partial protection against HIV. They may also be able to influence their male partners to get circumcised and practice other HIV protective measures after VMMC. This study was conducted in two phases of qualitative data collection. Phase 1 used in-depth interviews to explore women's understanding of partial protection and their role in VMMC. Phase 2 built on the findings from the Phase 1, using focus groups to test VMMC communication messages currently used in Nyanza Province and to further explore women's roles in VMMC. Sixty-four sexually active women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated. In Phase 1, all women said they had heard of partial protection, though some were not able to elaborate on what the concept means. When women in Phase 2 were exposed to messages about partial protection, however, participants understood the messages well and were able to identify the main points. In Phases 1 and 2, many participants said that they had discussed VMMC with their partner, and for several, it was a joint decision for the man to go for VMMC. These findings suggest that current VMMC messaging is reaching women, though communications could more effectively target women to increase their ability to communicate about partial HIV protection from VMMC. Also, women seem to be playing an important role in encouraging men to get circumcised, so reaching out to women could be a valuable intervention strategy for increasing VMMC uptake and promoting use of other HIV protective measures after VMMC.
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  15. 15
    359964
    Peer Reviewed

    Cultural expectations and reproductive desires: experiences of South African women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA).

    Sofolahan YA; Airhihenbuwa CO

    Health Care For Women International. 2013; 34(3-4):263-80.

    We explored factors influencing sexual and reproductive (SR) decisions related to childbearing for women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) in South Africa. We conducted four focus group interviews with 35 women living with HIV/AIDS. Our results show that the SR health care needs of women were not being addressed by many health care workers (HCWs). Additionally, we found that health care decisions were influenced by partners and cultural expectations of motherhood. Given the importance of motherhood, it is necessary for HCWs to address the diverse sexual needs and reproductive desires of WLHA.
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  16. 16
    357147
    Peer Reviewed

    Girl-child education under the shariah: it's relevance to the Muslim community in the Northern Nigeria.

    Badamasiuy J

    Journal of Research in Peace, Gender and Development. 2012 Jun; 2(6):132-138.

    Female gender has always been marginalised and relegated to background in most societies and civilizations. Female education including the Girl-Child education is one of the most neglected areas of educational planning and practice in most predominantly Muslim societies, the Northern Nigeria inclusive. Islam; the religion professed by the Muslims makes compulsory the acquisition of knowledge on all the Muslims, regardless of the sex or gender. Yet, the same Islam has often but erroneously been used to prevent a number of Muslim females in Northern Nigeria from acquiring knowledge. The females are the first contact and trainers of the nation builders and they form more than half of the population. They are the life vein of the society and the custodian of its socio-cultural values. Neglecting their education can cost the society its development in the positive manner. There is, therefore, the need for the government of the states in the Northern Nigeria to take care of the Girl-Child and womenfolk in the educational planning, policy and practice and provide to them appropriate education in accordance with the Islamic law. The females themselves also need to take serious their education to enable them perform diligently and effectively their roles and responsibility in the society as provided by Shariah.
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  17. 17
    356348
    Peer Reviewed

    Traditional gender roles, forced sex and HIV in Zimbabwean marriages.

    Mugweni E; Pearson S; Omar M

    Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2012; 14(5):577-90.

    Little is known on how forced sex contributes to the sexual transmission of HIV in marriage. This paper describes traditional gender norms surrounding forced sex in Zimbabwean marriage. Data were collected from 4 focus group discussions and 36 in-depth interviews with married women and men in Harare. Results indicate that hegemonic masculinity characterised by a perceived entitlement to sex, male dominance and being a provider contributed to forced sex in marriage. A femininity characterised by a tolerance of marital rape, the desire to please the husband and submission contributed to women experiencing forced sex. An alternative femininity characterised by sexual pleasure-seeking contributed to women forcing their spouses to have sex. Future HIV interventions must go beyond narrowly advocating for safer sex within marriage and instead address practices that increase risk as well as promote positive marital relationship needs such as mutual respect, love and friendship.
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  18. 18
    339466
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexuality and the limits of agency among South African teenage women: theorising feminities and their connections to HIV risk practises.

    Jewkes R; Morrell R

    Social Science and Medicine. 2012 Jun; 74(11):1729-1737.

    In South Africa, gender inequalities give men considerable relational power over young women, particularly in circumstances of poverty and where sex is materially rewarded. Young women are often described as victims of men, but this inadequately explains women's observed sexual agency. The authors of this paper use qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation among 16 young women from the rural Eastern Cape to explore ways young women construct their femininities and exercise agency. The data were collected as part of an evaluation of Stepping Stones, which is a participatory behavioral intervention for HIV prevention that seeks to be gender transformative. Agency was most notable in particular stages of the dating “game,” especially the initiation of relationships. Constructions of desirable men differed but generally reflected a wish to avoid violence, and a search for mutual respect, sexual pleasure, romance, modernity, status and money. Agency was constrained once relationships were consented to, as men expected to control their partners, using violent and non-violent methods. Women knew this and many accepted this treatment, although often expressing ambivalence. Many of the women expressed highly acquiescent femininities, with power surrendered to men, as a “choice” that made their lives in cultural terms more meaningful. In marked contrast to this was a “modern” femininity, centered on a desire to be “free.” A visible third position, notably emerging after the Stepping Stones intervention, rested not on a feminist challenge to patriarchy, but on an accommodation with men's power while seeking to negotiate greater respect and non-violence within relations with men.
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  19. 19
    355026
    Peer Reviewed

    Searching for sexual revolutions in India: Non-governmental organisation-designed sex education programmes as a means towards gender equality and sexual empowerment in New Delhi, India.

    Gabler M

    Sex Education. 2012 Jul; 12(3):283-297.

    At the foundation of most inequalities in expression of sexuality lie social constructions of gender. In this paper, sex education is considered as a possibility to challenge sexism and promote healthy and self-affirmative sex lives. In the past decade, the discourse of sex education in India has become a 'battle of morality' where concerned citizens condemn sex education on the grounds it may encourage sexual activity and immoral conduct (e.g. promiscuity or infidelity). The work of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) is an alternative to the governmental national curriculum plan. This paper discusses NGO potential in terms of sexual empowerment by examining beliefs and understanding, choices of information, strategies and methods, and approaches apparent in sex education programmes and projects. Through qualitative data, findings were analysed by constructing a sexual empowerment model that divides components of sex education into four parts and utilises theories of empowerment. The main findings include that all four components of sex education - foundation, content, strategies and approaches - show great potential to challenge gender inequalities in regard to sexuality. Sexual health programmes and projects are seen to be highly participatory, deliberative and encouraging of critical thinking. Some concerns are highlighted: the strong focus on girls as the main actors of change, and external limitations such as parents and institutions.
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  20. 20
    354610
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender and work-life balance: a phenomenological study of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan.

    Rehman S; Roomi MA

    Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 2012; 19(2):209-228.

    Purpose: Increased participation of women in the labor force creates challenges for them to balance work and family obligations. The situation becomes more complicated in patriarchal societies such as Pakistan due to women's stereotypical domestic roles, religious prescriptions as well as cultural norms and values. This study aims to explore different influencing factors on women's work and family roles in the unique Pakistani socio-economic and cultural environment. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA), this study explores different influencing factors on women's work and family roles in the unique Pakistani socio-economic and cultural environment. The methodology helped to analyse data about challenges faced by women entrepreneurs to achieve work-life balance as well as to have an insight about some of the techniques and effective strategies they use to balance work and family obligation. Findings: The results show that among other motivational drivers to start their own businesses, achieving work-life balance is one of the most significant ones. Their own businesses give them flexibility, control and freedom to juggle with their family and social responsibilities. Lack of sufficient time, gender bias, social and cultural norms as well as family responsibilities are the most significant challenges women face to achieve balance in a patriarchal Islamic society. Strategic planning, organising and delegating are the most effective strategies women use to cope with competing roles of work and family. Originality/value: This ground-breaking work in Pakistan on women entrepreneurs' work-life balance may also inspire other women who want to start their entrepreneurial career.
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  21. 21
    354512
    Peer Reviewed

    Support for the continuation of female genital mutilation among adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Mariam AG; Hailemariam A; Belachew T; Michael KW; Lindstrom D

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2009 Jul; 19(2):119-129.

    BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting is a harmful practice which has effect on female’s wellbeing. However, the practice has continued to prevail in many cultures. Research on the social determinants of the practice and its continuation are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess whether attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation is predicted by gender role perception among adolescents in Jimma zone. METHODS: This study used data collected in the first round of Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth. A total of 2084 adolescents were identified from 3700 households and one adolescent were interviewed from each household using structured questionnaire. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics, religiosity, access to electronic media, perception of gender role, attitude towards continuation of Female circumcision was collected. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the data using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Statically tests were performed at the level of significance of 5%. RESULTS: Of the 2084 adolescents, 1146 (55.0%) were aged 12 -14 years, 1025 (49.2%) females and 749 (35.9%) from rural areas. The majority, 1289 (61.9%) were Muslims and 1351 (64.8%) Oromo. Five hundred seventy three (28.1%) of the male youth did not agree to the importance of marrying a circumcised girl. However, 149 (13.8%) and 258 (12.7%) agreed that it is very important and important, to marry a circumcised girl, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, perception of gender role, sex, place of residence, highest education in the household and religion remained to be important predictors of attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation after adjustment for age and ethnicity. Adolescents who had low gender role perception were 1.4 times more likely to have a positive attitude towards the continuation of the female genital mutilation (OR: 95%CI, 1.41: 1.02-1.94). Female adolescents were 36% less likely to support (P<0.01) the continuation of FGM compared to their male counter parts (OR: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.49, 0.83). Compared to urban youth, those who live in semi urban and rural areas were 1.46 and 1.52 times more likely to have a positive attitude towards the continuation of the FGM practice, respectively(P<0.05). Similarly the Probability of having positive attitude towards the continuation of the FGM practice decreased steadily as the highest educational level in the household increased. CONCLUSION: One-fifth of the youth support the continuation of the practice. Low gender roles perception, being from the rural areas, household’s lower level of education and being Muslim were strong predictors of the attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation. Improving perception of adolescents towards gender roles through effective behavior change communication, and involving religious leaders in the campaign against the practice of female genital mutilation is recommended as a useful strategy to ban the practice.
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  22. 22
    353827
    Peer Reviewed

    Male Providers” and “Responsible Mothers”: Gender and Livelihood Politics in the Rural Philippines.

    Hill K

    Gender, Technology and Development. 2011 Jun; 15(2):223-247.

    This article explores the links between rural livelihood change and gender identities and relations in the Philippines. To bring the feminist and agrarian scholarly agendas closer together, the author presents ethnographic accounts from Naga City, Bicol, to examine how daily discourses and practices of livelihood change are implicated in (re)producing social identities along gender lines, as well as class and geographical lines. The first part of the article presents the ways in which gender is constituted in the state policies and programs governing agrarian change. Drawing on policy documents and interviews with state officials, civil servants, local academics, and NGO leaders, noting how state practices and policies both influence people’s tendency to diversify and are imbued with inherently gendered discourses. In the second part of the article, the location and scale of analysis shift to one location expressive of these official discourses: Pacol, a small farming community located on Naga’s peri-urban fringe. By working through ethnographic accounts provided by households in Pacol, the author examines how state-fed gendered discourses are (re)enacted during livelihood diversification and (re)produced in intra-household activities, decision-making processes, and other quotidian performances.
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  23. 23
    353825
    Peer Reviewed

    Space, Gender, and Fear of Crime: Some Explorations from Kolkata.

    Paul T

    Gender, Technology and Development. 2011 Nov; 15(3):411-435.

    This article examines the conflicting roles of ethnographers in the field, and the power relations between researchers and informants. The article posits the notion that the conflicting and multiple identities of an ethnographer could enrich and contribute immensely to ethnographic work in the field. The article explores how a researcher oscillates between multiple positions while conducting fieldwork, which is always contextual, relational, and politicized. Through an analysis of 20 months of fieldwork undertaken to study gender dynamics in two rural villages in Hong Kong, I illustrate how my experience as a native researcher depends on my multiple positions, and how the data collection experience is deeply enhanced by my identities. In this article, I argue that having multiple identities could work to a researcher’s advantage in understanding the dynamics of the people within the locale. Contrary to the belief of upholding a dichotomous relationship between researchers and informants to safeguard objectivity during the research process, navigating among multiple identities and negotiating the axis of differences and inequalities between the researcher and the informants, as I strongly argue, is a worthy endeavor in order to perform truly ethical and fruitful ethnographic research.
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  24. 24
    353824
    Peer Reviewed

    Contextualizing Gender and Migration in South Asia: Critical Insights.

    Afsar R

    Gender, Technology and Development. 2011 Nov; 15(3):389-410.

    This article critically examines, with the help of an intersectional analytical framework, the gender, space, and mobility debate as reflected in the existing empirical research on gender and migration from Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the Arab states. The article emphasizes that far from the simplistic rational individualistic calculation that underlies both the push-pull theory and the structuralist Marxist deterministic political economic approach, migration trajectory is multilayered and multicausal, which involves complexity, dynamism, and “emancipatory momentum.” All the findings on the gender impact of migration presented in the article echoed contradictory outcomes, which is not new. What distinguishes this article from others are the insights that it has generated and the gender dynamics that it has revealed. These include, for instance, how gender roles and responsibilities influence differential behavior patterns of currently married and never married women and men, reflected in the size of remittances and the number of remitters, as well as spending patterns of remittances. The article argues that whilst migration as a condition affects women and men’s lives differentially, it also enables them to challenge existing relationships of power in various formal and informal settings.
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  25. 25
    353822
    Peer Reviewed

    Natural Landscapes and Regional Constructs of Gender: Theorizing Linkages in the Indian Context.

    Datta A

    Gender, Technology and Development. 2011 Nov; 15(3):345-362.

    This article theorizes the influence of natural landscape or terrain on the construction of feminine gender roles in India. Throughout the discussion, an attempt is made to understand the regional nuances in the construction of feminine gender roles with a reference to the role of terrain or natural landscape. Primarily, by virtue of their terrain conditions, landscapes, it is argued, lay the foundations for the emergence of a specific set of cultural conditions. These cultural layers, which include a specific kinship regime, work in tandem to create and sustain regional gender constructs. Thus, the basis of regional differences in the construction of femininity and feminine gender roles may be traced in part to specific types of natural landscapes or terrain and the demand for women’s labor that they evoke. The latter is itself contingent upon, among other factors, the productivity of agricultural land. Despite significant changes in society, the relevance of these natural landscape-inspired constructs of gender remains.
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