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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Epidemiological analysis of maternal deaths in Hunan province in China between 2009 and 2014.

    Lili X; Jian H; Mengjun Z; Yinglan W; Donghua X; Aihua W; Fanjuan K; Hua W; Zhiyu L

    PloS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207920.

    BACKGROUND: The control of maternal deaths continues to be a significant public health issue and commands an enormous amount of attention, especially under the future family planning policy. Here, we describe the epidemiology and trends of maternal deaths in Hunan province, and give several policy implications. METHODS: Maternal deaths in Hunan province between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to assess the time trends of maternal mortality rates. Binary logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify the factors that were associated with unavoidable maternal deaths. RESULTS: In total, there were 987 maternal deaths, with the overall MMR declining by 45.24%. The most common causes of maternal death during this period were pregnancy complications (28.37%), obstetric hemorrhage (25.33%), and amniotic fluid embolism (15.70%). Obstetric hemorrhage (28.14%) was higher in rural areas, while pregnancy complications were higher (29.27%) in urban areas. In all, 627 (63.5%) deaths were avoidable. The risk factors associated with unavoidable maternal deaths was above 35 years (aOR = 1.80 95%CI: 1.27-2.55), without prenatal examination (aOR = 8.97 95%CI: 1.11-7.78), low household incomes (aOR = 1.15 95%CI: 1.02-1.29), without adopting the new way to deliver (aOR = 5.15 95%CI: 3.20-8.31), and death location (aOR = 1.09 95%CI: 1.02-1.18). The most frequent and important factors associated with avoidable deaths was improper knowledge and skills of the county medical institutions. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate progress was made in reducing the MMR in Hunan province. The government should aim to improve the basic midwifery skills in rural areas and the obstetric emergency rescue service for critically ill pregnant women in urban areas, and strengthen training to improve knowledge and skills in medical institutions in counties.
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  2. 2
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    Increased frequency of mind wandering in healthy women using oral contraceptives.

    Raymond C; Marin's MF; Juster RP; Leclaire S; Bourdon O; Cayer-Falardeau S; Lupien SJ

    Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 Nov 8; 101:121-127.

    Oral contraceptive (OC) is the most common type of contraceptive method used in industrialized countries. A recent epidemiological study showed that OC use was associated with the onset of depression in young women. Mind wandering, a cognitive process associated with spontaneous thoughts unrelated to the task at-hand, has previously been associated with depressive thinking. Consequently, mind wandering might be a precursor for cognitive vulnerability in individuals who are at-risk for mood disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and nature of mind wandering in women using OC in comparison to two control groups: naturally cycling women and men. We recruited 71 participants (28 women currently using OC, 14 naturally cycling women in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle and 29 men) aged between 18 and 35 years, and measured the frequency and nature (guilt/fear oriented and positive) of mind wandering using the short version of the Imaginal Process Inventory. In all analyses, we controlled for depressive symptoms to delineate the unique association between OC use and mind wandering. We also measured estradiol, progesterone and testosterone to confirm expected group differences in sex hormones concentrations. Results show that women using OC presented increased frequency of mind wandering when compared to naturally cycling women and men who did not differ between each other. The three groups did not differ in terms of the nature of mind wandering. These results show that OC use is associated with increased frequency of mind wandering and suggest that the association between OC use and dysphoric mood described in previous studies may be partially explained by the impact of OC use on cognitive processes underlying mind wandering. Copyright (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. 3
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    Epidemiology of acute respiratory infections among under-fives in a rural community of Trivandrum district, Kerala.

    Sebastian SR

    International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Aug; 5(8):3459-3463.

    Background: More than 2 million children die from pneumonia each year, accounting for almost 18 percent of under five deaths worldwide. Childhood ARI is a significant public health problem in India, although robust epidemiological data are not available on its incidence. In recent years, the burden posed by ARI in underdeveloped and developing countries has stimulated global concern. The objective of the study was to study the occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under the age of five years in Nellanad Panchayat, Trivandrum district and to study the factors associated with ARI in children under five years of age. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 children below the age of five years. Results: Occurrence of ARI was found to be 52%. A significant association was found between ARI and under-nutrition, low birth weight, poor breast feeding practices, poor parental education, exposure to passive smoking and inadequate indoor ventilation. Conclusions: The study points towards the importance of basic health promotional measures like good antenatal care, proper breast feeding practices, proper nutrition of the child and socio-economic improvement in prevention and control of ARI.
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  4. 4
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    Epidemiological profile of maternal mortality.

    Martins ACS; Silva LS

    Revista Brasileira De Enfermagem. 2018; 71(suppl 1):677-683.

    OBJECTIVE: To know the epidemiological profile of maternal mortality in Juiz de Fora, a city in the state of Minas Gerais. Data collection was carried out from April to December 2016. METHOD: Summary of a confidential investigation of maternal mortality on deaths occurred from January 1st, 2005 to December 31, 2015. RESULTS: Eighty-five deaths of women residing in Juiz de Fora were identified and analyzed. The age group was between 20 and 36 years. The women carried out prenatal care (74.1%) with less than six visits (34.0%). Cesarean section was conducted in 38.8% of the childbirths and the obstetric treatment was considered appropriate (32.9%). The first cause of maternal death was hypovolemic shock 12 (14.10%), followed by uterine hypotony 6 (7.0%). CONCLUSION: Cesarean section rates are high and prenatal adherence is lower than that expected, which could justify the number of deaths in the period studied.
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  5. 5
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    Current status of the HIV epidemic & challenges in prevention.

    Karim QA

    Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2017 Dec; 146(6):673-676.

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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    High vertical HIV transmission rate in the Midwest region of Brazil.

    Matos VTG; Batista FM; Versage NV; Pinto CS; Oliveira VM; Vasconcelos-Pereira EF; Matos RBDR; Dal Fabbro MMFJ; Oliveira ALL

    Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2018 May - Jun; 22(3):177-185.

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate vertical HIV transmission rate in a capital city of the Midwest region of Brazil and describe the factors related to transmission. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study based on the analysis of secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). The analysis considered all HIV-infected pregnant women with delivery in Campo Grande-MS in the years 2007-2013 and their HIV-exposed infants. RESULTS: A total of 218 births of 176 HIV-infected pregnant women were identified during the study period, of which 187 infants were exposed and uninfected, 19 seroconverted, and 12 were still inconclusive in July 2015. Therefore, the overall vertical HIV transmission rate in the period was 8.7%. Most (71.6%) of HIV-infected pregnant women were less than 30 years at delivery, housewives (63.6%) and studied up to primary level (61.9%). Prenatal information was described in 75.3% of the notification forms and approximately 80% of pregnant women received antiretroviral prophylaxis. Among infants, 86.2% received prophylaxis, but little more than half received it during the whole period recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Among the exposed children, 11.3% were breastfed. CONCLUSION: The vertical HIV transmission rate has increased over the years and the recommended interventions have not been fully adopted. HIV-infected pregnant women need adequate prophylactic measures in prenatal, intrapartum and postpartum, requiring greater integration among health professionals. Copyright (c) 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Population surveys using validated questionnaires provided useful information on the prevalence of maternal morbidities.

    Souza JP; Parpinelli MA; Amaral E; Cecatti JG

    Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2008 Feb; 61(2):169-76.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of population surveys to estimate the occurrence of maternal morbidities. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE references from relevant papers and proceedings of scientific meetings. No restrictions were made regarding language, date, design, journal, or country. Potentially relevant papers were independently evaluated by two reviewers. Eligible studies were critically evaluated, particularly with respect to complications: eclampsia and other hypertensive complications, hemorrhages, dystocias, and infections. The questions with the highest combined values for sensitivity and specificity were identified in each study. RESULTS: Seven hospital-based studies involving 2,907 women were included. The gold standard was the clinical records, and the validation strategy consisted of applying questionnaires and comparing them with the gold standard. Questions regarding eclampsia and other hypertensive complications performed satisfactorily in four studies; questions on dystocia and infection in two studies each, and questions regarding hemorrhagic complications in only one study. In general, when the actual prevalence of the condition is low (
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  8. 8

    HIV epidemiology in Nigeria.

    Awofala AA; Ogundele OE

    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2018; 25(4):697-703.

    Nigeria realizes the devastating effects of HIV/AIDS on its people, health, economic, and social progress fairly recently. This paper analyses descriptively the HIV epidemiology in Nigeria based on the sentinel surveillance system in place. Recently, it is estimated that about 3, 229, 757 people live with HIV in Nigeria and about 220, 393 new HIV infections occurred in 2013 and 210,031 died from AIDS related cases. People practicing low-risk sex are the driving force of HIV epidemic in Nigeria while the high risk groups involving female sex workers, men who have sex with men and injecting drug users contribute substantially to new infections. In conclusion, HIV prevalence among adults in Nigeria is relatively low (3.2%), yet Nigeria is an enormous country where HIV infection remains an issue that demands a systematic and highly tailored intervention. © 2016 The Authors
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Public health impact and cost effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination for hepatitis a in Jordan: a dynamic model approach.

    Hayajneh WA; Daniels VJ; James CK; Kanibir MN; Pilsbury M; Marks M; Goveia MG; Elbasha EH; Dasbach E; Acosta CJ

    BMC Infectious Diseases. 2018 Mar 7; 18(1):119.

    BACKGROUND: As the socioeconomic conditions in Jordan have improved over recent decades the disease and economic burden of Hepatitis A has increased. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential health and economic impact of a two-dose hepatitis A vaccine program covering one-year old children in Jordan. METHODS: We adapted an age-structured population model of hepatitis A transmission dynamics to project the epidemiologic and economic impact of vaccinating one-year old children for 50 years in Jordan. The epidemiologic model was calibrated using local data on hepatitis A in Jordan. These data included seroprevalence and incidence data from the Jordan Ministry of Health as well as hospitalization data from King Abdullah University Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. We assumed 90% of all children would be vaccinated with the two-dose regimen by two years of age. The economic evaluation adopted a societal perspective and measured benefits using the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). RESULTS: The modeled vaccination program reduced the incidence of hepatitis A in Jordan by 99%, 50 years after its introduction. The model projected 4.26 million avoided hepatitis A infections, 1.42 million outpatient visits, 22,475 hospitalizations, 508 fulminant cases, 95 liver transplants, and 76 deaths over a 50 year time horizon. In addition, we found, over a 50 year time horizon, the vaccination program would gain 37,502 QALYs and save over $42.6 million in total costs. The vaccination program became cost-saving within 6 years of its introduction and was highly cost-effective during the first 5 years. CONCLUSION: A vaccination program covering one-year old children is projected to be a cost-saving intervention that will significantly reduce the public health and economic burden of hepatitis A in Jordan.
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  10. 10
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    HIV epidemics in Shenzhen and Chongqing, China.

    Yang S; Chiu APY; Lin Q; Zeng Z; Li Y; Zhang Y; Yang Z; Yang L; He D

    PloS One. 2018; 13(2):e0192849.

    OBJECTIVE: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals are the populations with the fastest growing HIV infection rates in China. We characterize the epidemic growth and age patterns between these two routes from 2004 to 2015 in Chongqing and Shenzhen, China. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were downloaded from the National HIV/ AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. For the new HIV diagnoses of heterosexuals and MSM in both cities, we estimated the growth rates by fitting different sub-exponential models. Heat maps are used to show their age patterns. We used histograms to compare these patterns by birth cohort. RESULTS: The MSM epidemics grew significantly in both cities. Chongqing experienced quadratic growth in HIV reported cases with an estimated growth rate of 0.086 per week and a "deceleration rate" of 0.673. HIV reported cases of MSM in Shenzhen grew even more drastically with a growth rate of 0.033 per week and "deceleration rate" of 0.794. The new infections are mainly affecting the ages of 18 to 30 in Chongqing and ages of 20 to 35 in Shenzhen. They peaked in early 1990's and mid-1990's birth cohorts in Chongqing and Shenzhen respectively. The HIV epidemic among heterosexuals grew rapidly in both cities. The growth rates were estimated as 0.02 and 0.028 in Chongqing and Shenzhen respectively whereas the "deceleration rates" were 0.878 and 0.790 in these two places. It affected mostly aged 18 to 75 in males and 18 to 65 in females in Chongqing and aged 18 to 45 in males and 18 to 50 in females in Shenzhen in 2015. In Chongqing, the heterosexual female epidemics display two peaks in HIV diagnoses in the birth cohorts of early 1950's and early 1980's, with heterosexual male epidemics peaked in early 1940's and early 1960's. The heterosexual male and female epidemics display higher rates in the birth cohort 1940-1960, than the birth cohort 1960-1990. It peaked in birth cohorts of 1950's and 1980's in Shenzhen. CONCLUSIONS: We revealed striking differences in epidemic growth and age patterns of the HIV epidemics in these two cities. Our results may be used to inform age-targeted public health policies to curb their epidemic growth.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate, unlike norethisterone, increases HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and an indicator cell line, via mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor, increased CD4/CD8 ratios and CCR5 levels.

    Maritz MF; Ray RM; Bick AJ; Tomasicchio M; Woodland JG; Govender Y; Avenant C; Hapgood JP

    PloS One. 2018; 13(4):e0196043.

    High usage of progestin-only injectable contraceptives, which include the intramuscular injectables depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM, Depo-Provera) and norethisterone (NET) enanthate (NET-EN or Nur-Isterate), correlates worldwide with areas of high HIV-1 prevalence. Epidemiological data show a significant association between usage of DMPA-IM and increased HIV-1 acquisition but no such association from limited data for NET-EN. Whether MPA and NET have similar effects on HIV-1 acquisition and pathogenesis, and the relationship between these effects and the dose of MPA, are critical issues for women's health and access to suitable and safe contraceptives. We show for the first time that MPA, unlike NET, significantly increases HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a cervical cell line model. The results provide novel evidence for a biological mechanism whereby MPA, acting via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), increases HIV-1 replication by at least in part increasing expression of the CCR5 HIV-1 coreceptor on target T-lymphocytes. MPA, unlike NET, also increases activation of T-cells and increases the CD4/CD8 ratio, suggesting that multiple mechanisms are involved in the MPA response. Our data offer strong support for different biological mechanisms for MPA versus NET, due to their differential GR activity. The dose-dependence of the MPA response suggests that significant effects are observed within the range of peak serum levels of progestins in DMPA-IM but not NET-EN users. Dose-response results further suggest that effects of contraceptives containing MPA on HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression may be critically dependent on dose, time after injection and intrinsic factors that affect serum concentrations in women.
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Does Caesarean Section Affect Breastfeeding Practices in China? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Zhao J; Zhao Y; Du M; Binns CW; Lee AH

    Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2017 Nov; 21(11):2008-2024.

    Objectives To ascertain the association between caesarean delivery and breastfeeding practices in China. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Electronic databases of CNKI, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest and Science Direct were searched and screened to identify relevant articles from January 1990 to June 2015. Both fixed and random effect meta-analysis techniques were used to estimate the pooled effect size between caesarean delivery and breastfeeding outcomes at different time points. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias test were also conducted. Results Forty six studies were eligible for the qualitative synthesis of systematic review; among them, 27 studies were included for the meta-analysis. At the early postpartum period, the odds of exclusive breastfeeding after caesarean section was 47% (pooled OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41, 0.68) lower than that after vaginal delivery. At 4 months postpartum, the odds of breastfeeding was similarly lower (pooled OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.53, 0.71) for caesarean mothers. Substantial heterogeneity among studies was detected for both breastfeeding outcomes. Subgroup analyses stratified by study design, time points of breastfeeding outcomes and definitions of breastfeeding all confirmed the negative association between caesarean section and breastfeeding prevalence. Conclusions In China, breastfeeding practices were affected adversely by caesarean delivery. Therefore, health policy to improve breastfeeding outcomes should take this into consideration.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of electronic immunization registry in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization.

    Sato APS; Ferreira VLR; Tauil MC; Rodrigues LC; Barros MB; Martineli E; Costa AA; Inenami M; Waldman EA

    Revista De Saude Publica. 2018 Feb 5; 52:4.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe adverse events following vaccination (AEFV) of children under two years old and analyze trend of this events from 2000 to 2013, in the city of Araraquara (SP), Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive study conducted with data of the passive surveillance system of AEFV that is available in the electronic immunization registry (EIR) of the computerized medical record of the municipal health service (Juarez System). The study variables were: age, gender, vaccine, dose, clinical manifestations and hospitalization. We estimated rates using AEFV as numerator and administered doses of vaccines as denominator. The surveillance sensitivity was estimated by applying the method proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We used Prais-Winsten regression with a significance level of 5.0%. RESULTS: The average annual rate of AEFV was 11.3/10,000 administered doses, however without a trend in the study period (p=0.491). Most cases occurred after the first dose (41.7%) and among children under one year of age (72.6%). Vaccines with pertussis component, yellow fever and measles-mumps-rubella were the most reactogenic. We highlighted the rates of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion that were 4.1/10,000 and 1.5/10,000 doses of vaccines with pertussis component, respectively, most frequently in the first dose; 60,0% of cases presented symptoms in the first 24 hours after vaccination, however, 18.6% showed after 96 hours. The sensitivity of surveillance was 71.9% and 78.9% for hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The EIR-based AEFV surveillance system proved to be useful and highly sensitive to describe the safety profile of vaccines in a medium-sized city. It was also shown that the significant increase of the vaccines included in the basic vaccination schedule in childhood in the last decade did not alter the high safety standard of the National Immunization Program.
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  14. 14

    HIV/AIDS and Development: A Reappraisal of the Productivity and Factor Accumulation Effects.

    Azomahou TT; Boucekkine R; Diene B

    American Economic Review. 2016 May; 106(5):472-7.

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  15. 15

    The Role of Marriage in Fighting HIV: A Quantitative Illustration for Malawi.

    Greenwood J; Kircher P; Santos C; Tertilt M

    American Economic Review. 2017 May; 107(5):158-62.

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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Remoteness influences access to sexual partners and drives patterns of viral sexually transmitted infection prevalence among nomadic pastoralists.

    Hazel A; Holland Jones J

    PloS One. 2018; 13(1):e0191168.

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprise a significant portion of the infectious-disease burden among rural people in the Global South. Particular characteristics of ruralness-low-density settlements and poor infrastructure-make healthcare provision difficult, and remoteness, typically a characteristic of ruralness, often compounds the difficultly. Remoteness may also accelerate STI transmission, particularly that of viral STIs, through formation of small, highly connected sexual networks through which pathogens can spread rapidly, especially when partner concurrency is broadly accepted. Herein, we explored the effect of remoteness on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) epidemiology among semi-nomadic pastoralists in northwestern (Kaokoveld) Namibia, where, in 2009 we collected HSV-2-specific antibody status, demographic, sexual network, and travel data from 446 subjects (women = 213, men = 233) in a cross-sectional study design. HSV-2 prevalence was high overall in Kaokoveld (>35%), but was heterogeneously distributed across locally defined residential regions: some regions had significantly higher HSV-2 prevalence (39-48%) than others (21-33%). Using log-linear models, we asked the following questions: 1) Are sexual contacts among people in high HSV-2-prevalence regions more likely to be homophilous (i.e., from the same region) than those among people from low-prevalence regions? 2) Are high-prevalence regions more "functionally" remote, in that people from those regions are more likely to travel within their own region than outside, compared to people from other regions? We found that high-prevalence regions were more sexually homophilous than low-prevalence regions and that those regions also had higher rates of within-region travel than the other regions. These findings indicate that remoteness can create contact structures for accelerated STI transmission among people who are already disproportionately vulnerable to consequences of untreated STIs.
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  17. 17
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    Understanding biological mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes in developing countries: protocol for a prospective cohort (AMANHI bio-banking) study.

    Baqui AH; Khanam R; Rahman MS; Ahmed A; Rahman HH; Moin MI; Ahmed S; Jehan F; Nisar I; Hussain A; Ilyas M; Hotwani A; Sajid M; Qureshi S; Zaidi A; Sazawal S; Ali SM; Deb S; Juma MH; Dhingra U; Dutta A; Ame SM; Hayward C; Rudan I; Zangenberg M; Russell D; Yoshida S; Polasek O; Manu A; Bahl R

    Journal of Global Health. 2017 Dec; 7(2):021202.

    Objectives: The AMANHI study aims to seek for biomarkers as predictors of important pregnancy-related outcomes, and establish a biobank in developing countries for future research as new methods and technologies become available. Methods: AMANHI is using harmonised protocols to enrol 3000 women in early pregnancies (8-19 weeks of gestation) for population-based follow-up in pregnancy up to 42 days postpartum in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania, with collection taking place between August 2014 and June 2016. Urine pregnancy tests will be used to confirm reported or suspected pregnancies for screening ultrasound by trained sonographers to accurately date the pregnancy. Trained study field workers will collect very detailed phenotypic and epidemiological data from the pregnant woman and her family at scheduled home visits during pregnancy (enrolment, 24-28 weeks, 32-36 weeks & 38+ weeks) and postpartum (days 0-6 or 42-60). Trained phlebotomists will collect maternal and umbilical blood samples, centrifuge and obtain aliquots of serum, plasma and the buffy coat for storage. They will also measure HbA1C and collect a dried spot sample of whole blood. Maternal urine samples will also be collected and stored, alongside placenta, umbilical cord tissue and membrane samples, which will both be frozen and prepared for histology examination. Maternal and newborn stool (for microbiota) as well as paternal and newborn saliva samples (for DNA extraction) will also be collected. All samples will be stored at -80 degrees C in the biobank in each of the three sites. These samples will be linked to numerous epidemiological and phenotypic data with unique study identification numbers. Importance of the study: AMANHI biobank proves that biobanking is feasible to implement in LMICs, but recognises that biobank creation is only the first step in addressing current global challenges.
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Type of Combined Contraceptives, Factor V Leiden Mutation and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism.

    Hugon-Rodin J; Horellou MH; Conard J; Gompel A; Plu-Bureau G

    Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2018 May; 118(5):922-928.

    OBJECTIVE: This article estimates the interaction between types of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) and factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation on the risk of venous thrombosis event (VTE). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All premenopausal women with first incident VTE who were referred to our unit (Paris, France) between 2000 and 2009 were included in this case-only study. Differences in interactions by progestin type were assessed on a multiplicative scale, assuming the independence of genotype and prescription of type of CHC. RESULTS: Among 2,613 women with VTE, 15.9% had a FVL and 69% used CHC. The interaction between CHC use and presence of FVL on VTE risk was statistically significant (1.37, 1.06-1.77 95% confidence interval [CI]). This interaction appeared higher for drospirenone 1.99 (1.18-3.38 95% CI) (n = 98) or cyproterone acetate users 1.71 (1.20-2.45 95% CI) (n = 326), but not significant for 1st or 2nd or norgestimate CHC users. The results were similar when excluding women with a family history of VTE or with provoked VTE. In this sub-group of women, these interactions appeared higher for third generation, cyproterone acetate and drospirenone CHC users as compared with 1st or 2nd or norgestimate CHC users (odds ratio [OR], 1.68 [1.04-2.70; 95% CI], 2.91 [1.71-4.95 95% CI], 3.22 [1.54-6.73 95% CI], respectively). CONCLUSION: Our results show that the interaction between FVL and CHC use differ by progestin type, which is higher in CHC containing third-generation progestin, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate, compared with second generation. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of biological thrombophilia screening (FVL) when such prescription of CHC is planned. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Hormonal contraception increases the risk of psychotropic drug use in adolescent girls but not in adults: A pharmacoepidemiological study on 800 000 Swedish women.

    Zettermark S; Perez Vicente R; Merlo J

    PloS One. 2018; 13(3):e0194773.

    The burden of depression and anxiety disorders is greater in women, and female sex hormones have been shown to affect mood. Psychological side effects of hormonal contraception (HC) are also a common complaint in the clinic, but few previous studies have investigated this subject. We therefore wanted to investigate whether use of HC was associated with adverse psychological health outcomes, and whether this association was modified by age. All women aged 12-30 years on 31 December 2010, residing in Sweden for at least four years and with no previous psychiatric morbidity (n = 815 662), were included. We followed the women from their first HC use (or 31 December 2010, if they were non-users) at baseline, until a prescription fill of psychotropic drugs or the end of the one-year follow-up. We performed age-stratified logistic regression models and estimated odds ratios (OR) to measure the association between different HC methods and psychotropic drug use, as well as the area under the receiver operating curve to estimate discriminatory accuracy of HC in relation to psychotropic drugs. Overall, we found an association between HC and psychotropic drugs (adjusted OR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.37). In the age-stratified analysis, the strongest association was found in adolescent girls (adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI 3.04-4.94 for age 12 to 14 years), while it was non-existent for adult women. We conclude that hormonal contraception is associated with psychotropic drug use among adolescent girls, suggesting an adverse effect of HC on psychological health in this population.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    An Epidemiological Study on the Awareness and Attitude of the Youths Toward AIDS in a Rural Area of West Bengal in India.

    Bandyopadhyay S; Das S; Mondal S

    Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care. 2017 May/Jun; 16(3):290-295.

    INTRODUCTION: This community-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was performed to assess the awareness and attitude of youths toward AIDS in a rural area of West Bengal in India. METHODS: Study population included 190 individuals (15-24 years). Data were collected using a semistructured, pretested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17 by logistic regression model. RESULTS: It was revealed that older youths and particularly men compared to women had more comprehensive knowledge of AIDS than adolescents. Education, media exposure, marriage, and possessing above poverty level (APL) status, all had stronger positive association with youths (more in men) having comprehensive knowledge of AIDS. Older, never married youths, and particularly men were more likely than adolescents to have accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Education, media exposure, and not having below poverty level card, all had stronger positive association with youths having accepting attitudes toward women than toward men. Surprisingly among the male APL population, this association was negative. CONCLUSION: Educational and socioeconomic setbacks should be overcome in order to impose a better and justified attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Improved health conditions, proper counseling, and knowledge are essential to break the barriers of communication and ignorance toward HIV/AIDS in these parts of the developing countries.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Review of HIV treatment progress, gaps, and challenges in the Caribbean, 2005-2015.

    Gebre Y; Forbes NM; Peters A

    Revista Panamericana De Salud Publica. 2016 Dec; 40(6):468-473.

    Objective: To highlight the current context of the HIV response in the Caribbean and what remains to be addressed to close gaps in HIV treatment and care and end AIDS by 2030. Methods: We reviewed and analyzed reports from peer-reviewed and gray literature for the period of 2005-2015 on HIV treatment progress and gaps in the Caribbean, based on searches done in four bibliographic databases and three organizations' websites and/or libraries. Data were extracted using forms detailing study objectives, thematic areas for HIV care and treatment in the Caribbean, results, and other key information. Before being included in the descriptive review, each publication was assessed for its relevance to the HIV response in the Caribbean. Results: We carefully analyzed a total of 62 sources addressing HIV treatment coverage in the Caribbean, including peer-reviewed articles, gray literature reports, and abstracts. The Caribbean has made remarkable progress in reducing new infections and in increasing health care access. Coverage with antiretroviral (ARV) treatment rose between 2005 and 2015, and HIV-related mortality fell by half. Despite the decline in HIV incidence rates, some Caribbean countries have reported challenges with linkages to care, access and adherence to ARV treatment, and viral suppression. Conclusion: The risk of HIV infection in the Caribbean among at-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, transgender persons, and sex workers, is disproportionately high. Caribbean countries need to work together to face the HIV threat. National programs need to fast-track HIV treatment services and accelerate other responses to HIV by 2020, and then maintain sustained actions up through 2030.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV prevention where it is needed most: comparison of strategies for the geographical allocation of interventions.

    Anderson SJ; Ghys PD; Ombam R; Hallett TB

    Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2017 Dec; 20(4)

    INTRODUCTION: A strategic approach to the application of HIV prevention interventions is a core component of the UNAIDS Fast Track strategy to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Central to these plans is a focus on high-prevalence geographies, in a bid to target resources to those in greatest need and maximize the reduction in new infections. Whilst this idea of geographical prioritization has the potential to improve efficiency, it is unclear how it should be implemented in practice. There are a range of prevention interventions which can be applied differentially across risk groups and locations, making allocation decisions complex. Here, we use mathematical modelling to compare the impact (infections averted) of a number of different approaches to the implementation of geographical prioritization of prevention interventions, similar to those emerging in policy and practice, across a range of prevention budgets. METHODS: We use geographically specific mathematical models of the epidemic and response in 48 counties and major cities of Kenya to project the impact of the different geographical prioritization approaches. We compare the geographical allocation strategies with a nationally uniform approach under which the same interventions must be applied across all modelled locations. RESULTS: We find that the most extreme geographical prioritization strategy, which focuses resources exclusively to high-prevalence locations, may substantially restrict impact (41% fewer infections averted) compared to a nationally uniform approach, as opportunities for highly effective interventions for high-risk populations in lower-prevalence areas are missed. Other geographical allocation approaches, which intensify efforts in higher-prevalence areas whilst maintaining a minimum package of cost-effective interventions everywhere, consistently improve impact at all budget levels. Such strategies balance the need for greater investment in locations with the largest epidemics whilst ensuring higher-risk groups in lower-priority locations are provided with cost-effective interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings serve as a warning to not be too selective in the application of prevention strategies. Further research is needed to understand how decision-makers can find the right balance between the choice of interventions, focus on high-risk populations, and geographical targeting to ensure the greatest impact of HIV prevention. (c) 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis among women in sub-Saharan Africa: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 18 HIV prevention studies.

    Torrone EA; Morrison CS; Chen PL; Kwok C; Francis SC; Hayes RJ; Looker KJ; McCormack S; McGrath N; van de Wijgert JHHM; Watson-Jones D; Low N; Gottlieb SL

    PLoS Medicine. 2018 Feb; 15(2):e1002511.

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence are essential for efforts to prevent and control STIs. Few large STI prevalence studies exist, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa by age, region, and population type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed individual-level data from 18 HIV prevention studies (cohort studies and randomized controlled trials; conducted during 1993-2011), representing >37,000 women, that tested participants for >/=1 selected STIs or BV at baseline. We used a 2-stage meta-analysis to combine data. After calculating the proportion of participants with each infection and standard error by study, we used a random-effects model to obtain a summary mean prevalence of each infection and 95% confidence interval (CI) across ages, regions, and population types. Despite substantial study heterogeneity for some STIs/populations, several patterns emerged. Across the three primary region/population groups (South Africa community-based, Southern/Eastern Africa community-based, and Eastern Africa higher-risk), prevalence was higher among 15-24-year-old than 25-49-year-old women for all STIs except HSV-2. In general, higher-risk populations had greater prevalence of gonorrhea and syphilis than clinic/community-based populations. For chlamydia, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 10.3% (95% CI: 7.4%, 14.1%; I2 = 75.7%) among women specifically recruited from higher-risk settings for HIV in Eastern Africa and was 15.1% (95% CI: 12.7%, 17.8%; I2 = 82.3%) in South African clinic/community-based populations. Among clinic/community-based populations, prevalence was generally greater in South Africa than in Southern/Eastern Africa for most STIs; for gonorrhea, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.4%; I2 = 82.8%) in South Africa and was 1.7% (95% CI: 1.2%, 2.6%; I2 = 55.2%) in Southern/Eastern Africa. Across the three primary region/population groups, HSV-2 and BV prevalence was high among 25-49-year-olds (ranging from 70% to 83% and 33% to 44%, respectively). The main study limitation is that the data are not from random samples of the target populations. CONCLUSIONS: Combining data from 18 HIV prevention studies, our findings highlight important features of STI/BV epidemiology among sub-Saharan African women. This methodology can be used where routine STI surveillance is limited and offers a new approach to obtaining critical information on STI and BV prevalence in LMICs.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    The epidemiology of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV: A cross-region global cohort analysis.

    Slogrove AL; Schomaker M; Davies MA; Williams P; Balkan S; Ben-Farhat J; Calles N; Chokephaibulkit K; Duff C; Eboua TF; Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere A; Maxwell N; Pinto J; Seage G 3rd; Teasdale CA; Wanless S; Warszawski J; Wools-Kaloustian K; Yotebieng M; Timmerman V; Collins IJ; Goodall R; Smith C; Patel K; Paul M; Gibb D; Vreeman R; Abrams EJ; Hazra R; Van Dyke R; Bekker LG; Mofenson L; Vicari M; Essajee S; Penazzato M; Anabwani G; Q Mohapi E; N Kazembe P; Hlatshwayo M; Lumumba M; Goetghebuer T; Thorne C; Galli L; van Rossum A; Giaquinto C; Marczynska M; Marques L; Prata F; Ene L; Okhonskaia L; Rojo P; Fortuny C; Naver L; Rudin C; Le Coeur S; Volokha A; Rouzier V; Succi R; Sohn A; Kariminia A; Edmonds A; Lelo P; Ayaya S; Ongwen P; Jefferys LF; Phiri S; Mubiana-Mbewe M; Sawry S; Renner L; Sylla M; Abzug MJ; Levin M; Oleske J; Chernoff M; Traite S; Purswani M; Chadwick EG; Judd A; Leroy V

    PLoS Medicine. 2018 Mar; 15(3):e1002514.

    BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Through the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER), individual retrospective longitudinal data from 12 cohort networks were pooled. All children infected with HIV who entered care before age 10 years, were not known to have horizontally acquired HIV, and were followed up beyond age 10 years were included in this analysis conducted from May 2016 to January 2017. Our primary analysis describes patient and treatment characteristics of APHs at key time points, including first HIV-associated clinic visit, antiretroviral therapy (ART) start, age 10 years, and last visit, and compares these characteristics by geographic region, country income group (CIG), and birth period. Our secondary analysis describes mortality, transfer out, and lost to follow-up (LTFU) as outcomes at age 15 years, using competing risk analysis. Among the 38,187 APHs included, 51% were female, 79% were from sub-Saharan Africa and 65% lived in low-income countries. APHs from 51 countries were included (Europe: 14 countries and 3,054 APHs; North America: 1 country and 1,032 APHs; South America and the Caribbean: 4 countries and 903 APHs; South and Southeast Asia: 7 countries and 2,902 APHs; sub-Saharan Africa, 25 countries and 30,296 APHs). Observation started as early as 1982 in Europe and 1996 in sub-Saharan Africa, and continued until at least 2014 in all regions. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) duration of adolescent follow-up was 3.1 (1.5-5.2) years for the total cohort and 6.4 (3.6-8.0) years in Europe, 3.7 (2.0-5.4) years in North America, 2.5 (1.2-4.4) years in South and Southeast Asia, 5.0 (2.7-7.5) years in South America and the Caribbean, and 2.1 (0.9-3.8) years in sub-Saharan Africa. Median (IQR) age at first visit differed substantially by region, ranging from 0.7 (0.3-2.1) years in North America to 7.1 (5.3-8.6) years in sub-Saharan Africa. The median age at ART start varied from 0.9 (0.4-2.6) years in North America to 7.9 (6.0-9.3) years in sub-Saharan Africa. The cumulative incidence estimates (95% confidence interval [CI]) at age 15 years for mortality, transfers out, and LTFU for all APHs were 2.6% (2.4%-2.8%), 15.6% (15.1%-16.0%), and 11.3% (10.9%-11.8%), respectively. Mortality was lowest in Europe (0.8% [0.5%-1.1%]) and highest in South America and the Caribbean (4.4% [3.1%-6.1%]). However, LTFU was lowest in South America and the Caribbean (4.8% [3.4%-6.7%]) and highest in sub-Saharan Africa (13.2% [12.6%-13.7%]). Study limitations include the high LTFU rate in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have affected the comparison of mortality across regions; inclusion of data only for APHs receiving ART from some countries; and unavailability of data from high-burden countries such as Nigeria. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, our study represents the largest multiregional epidemiological analysis of APHs. Despite probable under-ascertained mortality, mortality in APHs remains substantially higher in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and South America and the Caribbean than in Europe. Collaborations such as CIPHER enable us to monitor current global temporal trends in outcomes over time to inform appropriate policy responses.
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  25. 25

    [Epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents, during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province]

    Wang JB; Chen XC; Duan X; Yang J; Wang YK; Yang T; Ye RH; Yang YC; Yao ST; Jiang Y; Duan S; He N

    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2017 Oct 10; 38(10):1372-1375.

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan province (Dehong) and to provide evidence for the development of related programs on prevention and control. Methods: All the HIV infections who were newly reported during 2012-2016 in Dehong, were recruited as the study subjects, with epidemiological characteristics of the cases analyzed by using the software SPSS 22.0. Results: A total of 5 692 HIV infections were newly reported between 2012 and 2016 (including 5 592 in this study), in which the Chinese patients accounted for 43.3% (2 419) and the rest 56.7% (3 173) were Burmese. Differences in age, gender and other social characteristics of these newly reported HIV infections were statistically significant between the Chinese and the Burmese (all p-values <0.05). Most cases were males and between the age of 20-49 years old. Other characteristics of the patients would include: having had primary school education, married, being farmers, and with CD(4)(+)T cells counts >/=350 cells/mul. HIV infection was mainly transmitted through sexual contact among the Chinese patients but through injecting drug use among the Burmese patients. Conclusions: Epidemiological characteristics of the newly reported HIV infections were different between the Chinese and the Burmese, between 2012 and 2016 in Dehong. Targeted prevention and control programs should be taken.
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