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[Opinions on population development. The recent past and future of the Hungarian population] Korkerdes a nepesedesrol. A Magyar nepesedes kozelmultja es jovoje.
DEMOGRAFIA. 1999; 42(3-4):306-11.Two world wars, the great depression between the wars, dictatorships, the crushing of the revolution in 1956, and subsequent decades all account for the fact that frustrated and disintegrated generations make up Hungarian society, which is starting to reorganize itself very slowly. Nevertheless, the low fertility rate in Hungary is paralleled by developed European countries. The common link in this phenomenon is consumerism. In Mediterranean countries traditional values have lost ground and fertility dropped, while in post-communist countries rising expectations caused by the free flow of information have contributed to the development of a crisis of values. In the majority of the countries of the European Union further reduction in fertility did not take place; in fact, there has been improvement in some cases. In Hungary the economic recession after 1990 was unavoidable, but the continuing declining fertility rate was also attributable to current consumerism and the fiscal austerity policy introduced in 1995. In recent years a slight improvement of mortality can be observed, possibly owing to healthier living and somewhat improved health care. The biggest challenge is the support of an aging population which could be enhanced either by the boosting of fertility or receiving masses of immigrants from high fertility regions. In general, in Europe and in developed countries, narcissistic societies have emerged and in Hungary even the establishment of a civil society is missing.
Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute [WRI], 1999. 71 p.This report examines consumption trends, and the associated impacts on natural ecosystems, for three key resources--food (cereals and meat), wood fiber, and fish. In the last 30 years, world cereal consumption has more than doubled, while meat consumption has tripled since 1961, and is increasing at a linear rate. Most agricultural experts believe that increasing global demand for cereals and meat can be met, and forecast that grain production will rise by about 15% by 2010, and by 25 to 40% by 2020. Global wood consumption has risen by 64% since 1961. Demand for fuelwood and charcoal rose by nearly 80% and more than half the world's wood fiber supply is now burned as fuel. For industrial wood fiber, the demand is projected to rise by between 20% and 40% by 2010. Consumption of fish and fishery products has risen 240% since 1960 and more than five-fold since 1950. These three examples from the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sectors demonstrate how existing practices are undermining the biological systems that support key renewable resources, exploiting them in such a way that potentially everlasting supplies are being depleted. Policy interventions can be made at the point of resource production, or at any point in the processing and distribution chain, or they can target end-use behavior by the consumer.
WORLD WATCH. 2001 Mar-Apr; 14(2):12-8.In this article, the advantages and influence of extensive choices on development are speculated about. The author compares the factors involved in the decision-making process between a subject with an extensive amount of choices and one with a limited number of choices. Problems caused by these excesses like health and matters of economics are considered. The author expresses that the lack of restraint in people is promoted under the guise of individualism or privacy, conditions that increase the options by allowing people to do what they want and when they want. On the other hand, constraints have been considered to be advantageous to the moral, cultural and physiological development of humanity. The author expresses that drawing clear lines that limit options for consumption or technology is one of the most effective ways to maximize development.
In: The Fifteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 18-19, 1999, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association [APDA], 1999. 105-9.Vayalar Ravi, a delegate from India discusses the impact of growing population on the global economy and environment during the 15th Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development held in Seoul, Korea, on April 18-19, 1999. Specifically, he focuses on issues concerning 1) trends in population in the world, 2) the asymmetry of world population distribution, 3) the glaring imbalances between the low-income and middle-income countries’ populations and land areas. He explained the impact of ever expanding consumption on the environment and on poor countries, and ironically poor people and poor countries bear the costs of unequal consumption. Lastly, he suggested several measures for the efficacy of the Asian Confederation.
In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 420-9.The water crisis is a very complicated issue. Roughly 1 billion people on Earth still have no access to drinkable water; almost 4 billion have no access to sanitation or sewage services. According to WHO, almost half of the people of the world suffer from water-borne or water-related diseases, which together account for roughly 5 million deaths a year. Moreover, the World Resources Institute has estimated that by 2050, 13-20% of the world's people will be living in water-scarce countries, mostly in the Middle East and Africa, but all countries face pockets of scarcity due to drought and various factors. Daily per capita use of water in Africa is about 30 liters--for those with access to it. In the US daily per capita use is 600 liters. This paper discusses the efforts of different international organizations and governments to secure potable water supply in the coming years. It quotes statements issuing from several conferences on the water crisis and follows an argument concerning private- versus public-sector investment in such technologies as community pipes and rain harvesting structures.
In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 412-7.This paper presents recommendations on how the business community can address the issues of climate change. The forecast of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is that over the next century temperatures might rise from 1 to 3.5 degrees Celsius, and that sea levels might rise by between 15 and 95 cm. The challenge is to achieve growth and a continuing rise in the living standards of all the people of the world in a non-destructive way. Since there is an existing target for an overall reduction of carbon emissions by 2005 or 2010, the next step will be to develop the means through which any target can be achieved. Through practical incentives, much can be achieved through means of: using combined heat and power plants to increase energy efficiency use; supporting scientific research and joint implementation initiatives in such areas as solar and other renewable energies; exploring for future oil, coal, and gas reserves. There is a great scope for practical constructive action across the whole agenda, and business has a role and a responsibility in that, including working with governments and nongovernmental organizations.
[Some economic consequences of decreasing population] A csokkeno nepesseg nehany gazdasagi kovetkezmenye.
DEMOGRAFIA. 1998; 41(1):108-13.A growing population has a very substantial impact on the demand for capital, because in a period of growing population demand is increasing in general, and even some defects originating in the oversupply of various forms of capital can be corrected. However, during a period of declining population just the opposite takes place and demand falls short of supply. The demand for capital depends on the population, the standard of living, and the technical level of capital. In other words the demand for capital depends on the number of consumers, the average level of consumption, and the average production period of goods and services. During the period 1860-1913 the technical duration of production did not change significantly, however, the British population grew by 50% and the population supplied by British industry and investments even more. The standard of living also grew by 60%, and consequently the increased demand for capital could be attributed to the growth of the population and the standard of living and only to a lesser degree to technical changes. The population data indicated that about half the rate of growth of capital was needed for caring for the needs of the growing population. On the other hand, if the population is declining, maintaining the standard of living is a lot more difficult than earlier. The dilemma of how to avoid unemployment at the time of a growing population can be resolved by a policy that distributes income more equally and that regulates interest rates.
Population, consumption, and entrapment. Improve access to contraception to curb population growth [letter]
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2000 Apr 29; 320(7243):1207-8.In this letter to the editor, John Guillebaud agrees with the comment by Loefer, that in terms of population the adverse influence of the Pontiff reaches beyond Catholicism. The Pope says that contraceptives are anti-life, yet they are cost-effective in reducing the mortality of both mothers and infants. The author acknowledges that poverty has many dimensions, and not all could be mentioned, but population growth is the unrecognized multiplier of the major problems in the world. Among those living in rural areas, having more children would seem advantageous; yet this would limit the resources of the family, bringing smaller shares for all, and exacerbating poverty with high infant mortality and an unstable social security factor. Moreover, there is an added environmental impact, which was highlighted by an equation developed by the authors. Guillebaud believes that making certain every woman wishing to control her fertility via contraception can actually obtain it for herself or her partner would vastly control and eventually prevent future population growth.
Population, consumption, and entrapment. Raise living standards to reduce population growth [letter]
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2000 Apr 29; 320(7243):1207.In this letter to the editor, Giuseppe Benagiano and Michele Ermini comment on the article by Maurice King. In King's article, he raised the specter of an international conspiracy led by the US which is aimed at preventing free discussion of the possibility that certain countries in the developing world may have become entrapped. According to him, this occurs when a population exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecosystem and is unable to buy extra food or migrate elsewhere. The authors, on the other hand, argue that this conspiracy theory is insignificant, as well as the proposal of adopting a policy of one child for each family. The authors believe that a significant change in attitude is possible if the global standard of living for couples would be raised; however, this will take both time and effort, and by definition, will not succeed if true entrapment exists. The challenge faced by King is whether his stated objective--a one-child family proposal--justifies the stern, unpopular, totally coercive approach, which in the authors' view is unethical.
Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1994. xvi, 444 p.This book is a compilation of essays and articles written by activists, academics, and policy-makers on the issues of population and environment. It aims to illuminate the contours of complex population and environment issues and to explore areas of debate beyond the polarized extremes. These debates and controversies focus on population, consumption and the environment. The book is organized into sections. Section I discusses population, consumption, development and the environment. Articles under this section examine the relationship between the issues mentioned. Section II highlights population growth and structure, with an article entitled Population by the Numbers: Trends in Population Growth. Section III emphasizes history and analysis of population and family planning programs. Articles presented focuses on the international family planning movement, political assistance and policies. Section IV talks about population policy, reproductive health and reproductive rights. Section V considers population, gender and culture. Section VI focuses on population and religion. The essays collected in this book put forth a bold vision of humane, effective population policies for the 21st century.
New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1992. 200 p. (Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series)This book, entitled How Much is Enough? , explains the need to break the vicious cycle of material consumption, which brings more destruction to the earth. The author argues that the consumer society can only be a passing phase in the world's history for its own sake and that of the future habitability of the planet. He also stressed the need for consumer society to change ways in order for the future generations to enjoy abundance of food, better education, fulfilling work, shelter, and good health. This can only be achieved through a culture of permanence, a society that lives within its means; that draws on the interest provided by the earth's resources, not its principal; that seeks fulfillment in a web of friendship, family and meaningful work. Finally, the author points out the linked fates of humanity and the natural realm, which depends on consumers.
[Unpublished] 1998 Jul 1. 59,  p.This paper presents the results from a study designed to explore consumers' expectations for quality of family planning (FP) services and how it may influence demand in Egypt. The first section of the paper presents findings on women's and men's knowledge of reproductive health issues, including their definition of FP, the various FP methods, rumors and misinformation about these methods, attitudes and decision-making processes about FP practice and sources of information on FP. The findings provide a context for the types of services that Egyptian women and men may want or need. The second section covers the elements of quality that participants consider critical to good services and how the participants ranked these elements. The elements of quality are illustrated by descriptions of women's experiences with FP services as either positive or negative examples of each element. Finally, the third section presents results on the respondents' willingness to pay for high-quality services.
PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1995; 4(1):18.This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.
NEW YORK TIMES. 1996 May 23; 10.This paper concerns a water crisis and the impact it had on the lives of Chinese village peasants, who depended on the Yellow River for agriculture and industry. The crisis occurred when the government restricted the peasants from using the water from the Yellow River and only allowed the oil industry access to the water supply. This scenario was another indication of China's developing water crisis. The government favored the oil industry by declaring a state of emergency that forced farmers and factories to close sluice gates so that the water would reach Dongying, where the oil company was located. This bias was just one of the many problems that caused the water shortage. Chinese government scientists had predicted that the demand for Yellow River water would outstrip available supplies by 250 billion cu. feet in the year 2000, while the World Bank s assessment went beyond that of the scientists predicted value. Although China ranks 6th in the world in total water resources, at that time the abundant water resources were often found in the wrong places at the wrong time, so a shortage still occurred. Since the Yellow River is key to the people s survival in that region, the government planned a series of new dams to be built, which would control the flow of river water.
In: Population and environment in developing countries: the macro scenario and select case studies, edited by Rajib Nandi, G.N. Rao. Thiruvananthapuram, India, Centre for Development Studies, 1999. 30-8. (Research Monograph Series Vol. 1)This study examined the state of China's energy use and explored the problems existing in both commercial and noncommercial energy consumption. China has a very rich source of energy. Its sources of energy include fossil fuel (coal and crude oil), hydroelectric energy, tidal energy, wind energy, and biomass. In focusing on China s commercial energy consumption and contribution to world environmental problems, it was noted that the structure of commercial energy consumption is unique and is a key to environmental problems for its huge share of coal. Some of the environmental consequences of China's energy use include acid rain, siltation, deforestation and emission of greenhouse gas. In terms of the linkage between economic growth and energy use in the country, it was highlighted that economic progress was positively dependent on the use of energy during 1949-74. Such linkage weakened during 1978-90, in which period China acquired advanced technologies during the 1980s. It may be the result of the transition from heavy industry to a light and less energy-intensive industrial structure. However, considering the course of its ongoing rapid economic growth, it is important to follow an environment-friendly energy policy. Some policy suggestions are given along with tables that contain specific figures of energy consumption of China, as well as figures from other countries and indexes of their greenhouse emissions.
Washington, D.C., Negative Population Growth [NPG], 1998 Mar. 4 p. (NPG Forum)In many environmental and population circles, the traditional thinking dictates that the problem in developing countries is overpopulation, while in the developed world the bulk of the problem is overconsumption. Such an oversimplification, that the US only faces a problem of overconsumption, provides easy answers to many environmentally conscious individuals and organizations. However, easy answers are dangerous because they lead to incomplete actions by masking the enduring effects of population growth. In most developing countries, consumption levels are lower than the US because of a lack of the most basic items. Only these items make up most of the consumption difference between the US and these developing countries. Attaining reasonable levels of consumption may not be morally wrong, but population size matters most with regard to the big picture and over the longer term. Even when new technology or reduced consumption might help in solving environmental problems, evidences are available which point out that population growth is even more important in the ride toward sustainability. Population growth is important in itself, and so is its effect on overall consumption growth. Overall, halting population growth is a necessary part of the sustainability equation.
[Review of methodologies applied in studies on food consumption] Revision de las metodologias aplicadas en estudios sobre el consumo de alimentos.
Guatemala City, Guatemala, Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama [INCAP], 1992 May. 64 p.Food consumption surveys carried out by trained personnel are the best source of data on the diet and food habits of populations. This work is intended as a reference on organization and execution of diet studies. The work is based on a literature review and extensive personal experience in studies conducted in Central America using different methodologies. Studies at the population level oriented toward food and nutrition planning are emphasized rather than diet studies for therapeutic purposes. The first chapter contains general information on food consumption at the national, household, and individual levels, the purposes of food consumption studies, and difficulties resulting from such factors as variability between and within individuals, seasonality, determination of quantities of food, conversion of food to nutrients, and statistical management of the data. Types of food consumption studies are differentiated according to the sample unit, type of data, and reference period. Criteria for selection of a methodology are defined, including objectives, the target population, required data and degree of precision, possible sources of error, and availability of resources. Requirements for food consumption studies are then discussed, including clearly defined objectives, information on composition of local foods, daily dietary recommendations, a plan for data analysis, and personnel requirements. The third chapter describes studies of availability of food, including inventory and acquisition of food in the household; studies of actual food consumption, including frequency of consumption, the 1-day record, daily record, and direct weighing; and studies at the institutional level, including inventory and direct weighing. The discussion of each method includes its definition and description, limitations, and suggestions for application.
Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1998 Dec. 60 p. (Worldwatch Paper 144)This paper discusses the impact of industrialization on the natural environment and enumerates solutions that would help rebuild the damage created by industrialization on the environment. Since the Industrial Revolution advances in technology and changes in society and business practices have interacted to build economies that would extract, process, consume, and dispose tremendous quantities of materials. Preoccupied with technological advancement and consumption of new goods, many people were unaware of the possible long-term effects of industrialization. As shown by recent studies, materials extraction, processing, and disposal have resulted in environmental damage, thus providing more direct evidence that material flows for today and future consumption were highly unsustainable. Limiting or reducing use of raw materials among industrialized nations is therefore suggested. Industrialized nations need to learn how to recycle solid waste materials in order to prevent further environmental damage. Lastly, businesses need to focus on providing services and less on producing goods.
Albany, New York, State University of New York Press, 1998. xv, 151 p. (SUNY Series in Religious Studies)This book assesses the combined impact of overpopulation, overconsumption, and economic and political injustice. Complementary studies on these issues are presented by two major social ethicists, which focus on seeking a new understanding of religion and its power. Daniel C. Maguire indicts the male-dominated religions for the ecologic and reproductive ethical problems. He raises the controversial questions of whether the concept of God is a problem and whether the Christian notions of afterlife and a divinized male have done more harm than good. Larry L. Ramussen, on the other hand, identifies a male-made and wealth-dominated world as the cause of the problem. He observes that Europeans packaged a form of earth-unfriendly capitalism and sent it all over the world with missionary zeal. He reviews the history that led to the manic rush to push the earth beyond its limits and suggests moral norms and policy guidelines for sustainable communities and shared power. Arguments between positive and renewable moral energies in the world's religions, as well as an understanding of the response on the sanctity of life, provides a grim prospect for the world. A sense of sacredness is presented as the nucleus of good and the only force that could bring about the lifestyle changes and power reallocations necessary for terricide prevention.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1998. xii, 228 p.This report examines consumption in the context of human development. Following the overview of the trends in global consumption, chapter 1 offers general information on the advances and setbacks in human development. Chapter 2 discusses consumption from a human development perspective, particularly the concepts of consumption and factors affecting consumption options, as well as its link with human development. Chapter 3 explains the unequal and unbalanced distribution of the growth of global consumption, which has left a tremendous backlog of shortfalls in areas of consumption necessary for human development. Chapter 4 analyzes the disproportionate consequences of local and global environmental damage for the low-income population, presenting the geography of environmental impacts. It also presents a scenario for future environmental degradation, recognizing positive advancements and concluding with some relevant policy issues. Chapter 5 outlines key actions and recommendations for action.
Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR], 1999. , 91 p. (IPSR Publication No. 224)This report presents a study of the link between population, consumption and environment through a case study on air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the demographic, consumption and environmental situation in Thailand, with emphasis on population trends, dynamics and composition, socioeconomic characteristics, household consumption trends and projections, global warming, land and forestry resource, urban infrastructure and industry and energy. Chapter 2 focuses on the air pollution study conducted in Bangkok through an evaluation of air quality, transportation fuel consumption, and the demographic and socioeconomic condition of the population, which includes population size and structure, occupational structure and education attendance. The third chapter highlights the research objective and methodology. This chapter shows the three conceptual frameworks employed in the study, data sources used at macro and household level analysis, and in-depth interviews and focus groups applied. Chapter 4 presents the research results with emphasis on the health impact and behavioral and structural causes of air pollution, as well as the dynamics on the link between consumption behavior and air pollution. Solutions to the problem which include decentralization, city planning and the Green Zone, implementation of legal measures and awareness campaigns were suggested in the fifth and last chapter.
New York, New York, W. W. Norton, 1994. 382 p. (Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series)According to the findings of this book, the world energy economy is poised for a sweeping shift away from imported oil and environmentally damaging coal during the next few decades. Pushed by the need to stabilize the earth's climate and pulled by the investment opportunities that beckon, the global energy markets are beginning to make a rapid move to a more efficient, decentralized, and cleaner system, echoing the shift from mainframe to personal computers during the 1980s. Among the emerging changes expected are a new generation of lightweight, super-efficient electric cars that can be refueled at home; the rapid conversion of coal and nuclear plants to efficient gas turbine plants; a new generation of mass-produced wind and solar generators that are cost-competitive with the most advance fossil plants; tiny fuel cells and rooftop solar panels that allow people to generate their own electricity; and the gradual emergence of nonpolluting hydrogen as the world's main energy carrier, supplanting oil and natural gas. The book identifies recent deployments of new energy technologies by enterprising engineers, small entrepreneurs, and eccentric tinkers in countries around the world, providing an early glimpse of the massive changes ahead. The book predicts a turbulent next decade, as large energy companies struggle to preserve the status quo and newer firms and their environmental allies fight to change government policy and open up energy markets to greater competition.
Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1992. , 217 p.The world faces two contrasting crises: 20% of its people live in poverty, while 25% enjoy a lifestyle of profligate consumption. A deteriorating environment links them both. It is increasingly clear that environmental problems cannot be solved without full consideration of the process of development, the results of which are so often destructive rather than sustainable. In this book, these issues are examined from a Southern viewpoint. Examples are drawn from Oxfam's (an international organizations dealing with environmental problems in the Third World) experience of how poor people are responding to safeguard and improve the environment on which their livelihood and common future depend.
[New York, New York], United Nations, 1998 Dec.  p. (1999 Global Population. The Facts of Life)This article focuses on the population dynamics of the US. As of November 1998, the US population has reached 274 million, which is considered to be the third-highest in the world, next to China with 1.2 billion and India with 982.2 million. A census conducted in mid-1999 revealed that the US rate of natural increase is 0.6%, with US legal immigrants potentially numbering 820,000 in 1999. Furthermore, it was observed that the US fertility rate (average number of birth per woman) is 1.96, highest of all industrialized nations. In addition, US life expectancy is 73.4 years for men and 80.1 years for women, compared with the global average life for men of 63.4 years and 67.7 years for women. Infant mortality rate is 7 deaths per 1000 live births (compared with the world average of 57/1000)--higher than that in 14 other industrialized countries. These growth rates are declining, although UN estimates that the US population will increase to 332.5 million by 2025, with global humanity numbering 8.039 billion, which is about 360 million less than estimates made 5 years ago.
UNESCO SOURCES. 1996 Nov; (84):7.This paper discusses the possibilities of facing global water shortages within the next 50 years. The limited freshwater supplies have been attributed to the growing population and wide-scale mismanagement, which paved the way for conflict in the national, regional and commercial levels. In order to avoid this worst possible scenario, there is a need to learn more about the water cycle and the impact of human activities on ecological balance. Aside from that, developing strategies entails a better understanding of the ways in which different cultures perceive and value water so that equitable sharing is achieved. Lastly, this crisis can be confronted only with the availability of best scientific data and nations working closely together to achieve this goal.