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  1. 126

    Why excess immigration damages the environment.

    Population-Environment Balance

    POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT. 1992 Summer; 13(4):303-12.

    Overpopulation is the single greatest threat to the environment because as population increases, consumption increases faster than conservation. Thus, it is easy to exceed the carrying capacity of the natural, social, and economic systems. An immigration policy based on replacement levels, combined with the near zero growth by natural increase, would allow the US to maintain a stable population size. Every year approximately 200,000 people leave the country voluntarily, these spots should be filled by people with the greatest need and who will best serve the interests of the US as determined by the Congress and the citizens of America. The 200,000 figure must include all refugees asylees, relatives, and other immigrants in order to maintain the concept of replacement level immigration.
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  2. 127

    Caracas statement on environment and development.

    Inter-Parliamentary Meeting on Socio-Economic Development and Environmental Protection (1991: Caracas)


    By the close of an international meeting on socioeconomic development and environmental protection, a statement was prepared by the participants, and is presented as the body of this paper. Parliamentarians and environmental experts were in attendance from Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, the United States, Venezuela, and other governmental and private agencies. Participants acknowledged global threats to the environment and overall quality of life caused by some forms of agrarian development, population growth, poor land use, excessive consumption, energy waste, and inequitably distributed resources. Responding to these threats, strategies and policies for sustainable development while meeting the needs of future generations were developed. Heightened awareness of the importance of environmental protection and resource management among parliamentarians, business leaders, communications professionals, and the general community is a priority. Effective international cooperation is also stressed in facing these global-scale challenges. Moreover, developing countries should be accorded favored treatment by developed countries due to incurred ecological debt, while local populations should be actively involved as participants in any development process. Sustainable economic growth of poverty-stricken nations is deeply interrelated with equitable wealth distribution, adequate land use, education, conservation, health, employment opportunities, the advancement of women, and population policy. Successful strategies must consider such interrelationships, and include policy elements accordingly.
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  3. 128

    Trends and opportunities abroad, 1987: an annual special publication of International Demographics.

    American Demographics

    INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS. 1986 Dec; 5(12):i-x, 1-217.

    To facilitate understanding of the consumer market potential of today's world, "International Demographics" clusters the world's 150 largest countries based on their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The names of the 5 clusters--The Dependents, The Seekers, The Climbers, The Ultimate Consumers, and The Rocking Chairs--help identify the kind of consumer markets the countries represent. The 150 countries included in this 1987 volume are considered potential markets and are organized by cluster. All data cited are the most current numbers available, and all population estimates are the latest projections by the Center for International Research, US Census Bureau. Population trends of the next 14 years will change existing markets, and open new markets. However, due to rapid population growth in the poorest of the world economy, the Dependent countries, only intensified efforts on the part of the countries themselves and increased assistance from the international development community can pull these countries up. The sheer size of the market in Seeker and Climber countries is sufficient to indicate increased consumer demand. Add to that increasing income, the predominance of youth, and the ongoing rural-to-urban shift, and it is clear that demand will center on consumer durables for beginning families as the large proportions of youth will center on consumer durables for beginning families as the large proportions of youth enter their prime spending years of 15-64. Construction, sanitation, power, telecommunications, and transport are expected to boom as youth add pressure to urban job markets and housing. Slowed or stagnated growth in the rapidly aging Ultimate Consumer and Rocking Chair countries tells a different story. Some Rocking Chair countries such as West Germany already are experiencing natural decrease. Market growth in the Ultimate Consumer and Rocking Chair countries is geared to the increasingly sophisticated tastes and needs of the elderly rather than to an increase in numbers. 4 demographic factors help identify market potential--the average annual population growth rate, the average number of lifetime births per woman, the status of women, and urbanization. Countries not currently considered good potential markets are growing very rapidly at an average population growth rate of 2.5% or more and will continue to do so. The status of women is low, and the urban population is concentrated in 1 city. countries with good market potential are growing more slowly, at a rate of 1.5-2.5% a year. Fertility is under control, the status of women is improving, and urbanization is spread throughout the country.
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  4. 129

    The metro area of Montreal.

    American Demographics

    INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS. 1986 Oct; 5(10):1-7.

    Montreal, one of the most civilized and cosmopolitan of North American cities, is the 2nd city in Canada in size and the largest French-speaking city. Of the 2.8 million people who lived there at census time in 1981, 45% chose both French and English as their official language, 41% chose French, and 1% used some other language. Fully 68% of Montreal residents said their mother tongue was French, and 68% also said they spoke French at home. The importance of bilingualism to the business culture of Montreal cannot be overemphasized. In the last decade, French-Canadians have taken an increasingly stronger role in business. Upper-middle-class suburbs that as little as 10 years ago had only 10% of their residents who were of French-Canadian descent now have as many as 50-60% of their residents who are French-Canadians. Most residents of Montreal willingly learn 2 languages. US firms should assume that all representatives who are sent to Montreal should be fluent in both French and English. Montreal's 2,828,349 people create a population density of 1004.9 persons per square kilometer. Montreal has 665 census tracts, which are described in the Metropolitan Atlas Series. Nearly 62% of Montreal's population fall between the ages of 20 and 64--the prime working ages. Although Montreal is 79% Catholic, it does not have the high fertility levels often associated with Catholic areas. There were 1,026,920 households in Montreal in 1981 with an average of 2.7 persons per household. 71% of these were census family households. Montreal had 1,026,895 occupied dwellings in 1985 with an average of 5 rooms each. About 71% of the population aged 15 and over that were not in school were in the labor force; 41% of the labor force was female. The largest employment category for men was manufacturing (16%) and the largest for women was clerical work (39%).
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  5. 130

    The city of Ottawa.

    American Demographics

    INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS. 1986 Jun; 5(6):1-5, 7.

    As Canada's capital, Ottawa's main business is government. The City of Ottawa is a low-density residential community with an abundance of open space. The unprecedented development boom in the City of Ottawa's industrial, commercial, and residential sectors since 1981 reversed the city's declining population trend and slowed the continuous loss of inner-city residents to suburban neighborhoods and new communities outside the city. Ottawa's population is skewed toward an older population because professionals migrate to the city for work and do not leave as they age. In 1981, 8% of Ottawa's population was over 65 years old; by 2001 this percentage is expected to jump to 20%. Although Ottawa's population declined from 1961 to 1981, the total number of households grew at about 4% annually. The trend toward small household formation is expected to continue with the traditional family taking more and more of a minority position. Average household size declined from 3.2 in 1971 to an estimated 2.2 in 1984. There are approximately 147,100 dwelling units in the City of Ottawa of which 12,000 are nonconventional. A realistic density, excluding government-owned public and open space lands, is 15.6 housing units per acre. About half of all dwelling units are low density. By 1984, the city counted 69 shopping centers with over 4 million square feet of floor space. Ottawa's major employer is the federal government, with about 40% of all jobs within the city being civil service. Employment participation rates have increased signficiantly at just over 70% in 1983, up from 62% in 1971, due largely to increased participation by women. The City of Ottawa leads surrounding areas in per capita income due primarily to the increase in the number of young professionals who make up 1 and 2-person households.
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  6. 131

    Asia-Pacific report: trends, issues, challenges.

    East-West Center

    Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Center, 1986. x, 104 p.

    This report contains a review of the major developments in the Asia-Pacific region over the past quarter century, as well as examinations of the trends, issues, and challenges that will be critical to the region's future and to its relations with the US. The view of the region as an arena of internal and international conflict that prevailed in the 1950s and 1960s has been replaced in the 1970s and 1980s by a focus on the rapid economic progress of many of the countries. The region includes 56% of the world's population in 33 independent countries and several territories covering 19% of the world's land area. Part I of the report comprises 2 broad overviews dealing with prospects for peace and continued economic progress. Chapter I examines encouraging trends and continuing problems in the political developments and international relations of the region, while Chapter 2 provides a brief survey of economic trends and challenges in the principal countries and country groups: the newly industrialized countries, the resource-rich Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, low-income southeast Asia, China, South Asia, and the Pacific island countries. Part II examines specific topic areas related to regional economic development which reflect current policy emphases at the East-West Center. Chapter 3 assesses the relationship between the world economy and economic development in the region and analyzes future prospects for external trade opportunities and access to capital. Chapter 4 discusses the connection between population growth and economic development, while also examining the demographic transition in the area, the role of family planning, and future demographic challenges. The influence of declining fertility on increased savings and improved education is explored. Chapter 5 assesse the longterm sustainability of the region's remarkable resource base, which is already under severe strain from the numbers of people requiring food, clothing, shelter, and fuel. The chapter demonstrates the conflict between shortterm exploitation of resources and policies that protect the resource base in the longterm. Chapter 6 reviews changing patterns of supply and demand for minerals and fuels, noting significant additions to supplies of some minerals in Oceania. Based on worldwide trends, access to minerals and fuels is not expected to be a constraint on economic development.
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  7. 132

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  8. 133

    The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.

    New Internationalist Publications

    [Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.

    This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
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  9. 134
    Peer Reviewed

    Water-quality changes in Latvia and Riga 1980-2000: possibilities and problems.

    Juhna T; Kjavins M

    Ambio. 2001 Aug; 30(4-5):306-314.

    Long-term changes in the environmental quality of water in Latvia (chemical composition of inland waters, wastewater treatment, and drinking-water treatment practices and quality) as a response to socioeconomic changes have been studied. Water composition, the major factors influencing water chemistry, and human impacts (wastewater loading) were studied to determine changes that occurred after recent reductions in pollution emissions, particularly nutrient loading, to surface waters. After 1991, (Latvia regained independence in 1991) inland water quality has begun to improve mainly as a result of decreases in nutrient loads from point and nonpoint sources and substantial efforts in the area of environmental protection. The situation differs, however, for drinking-water treatment, where practices have also changed during the whole period from 1980 till 2000. More stringent drinking water-quality standards and novel insights regarding changes in water quality in the distribution network, necessitate further improvements in public water supply, and place this particular water issue among Latvia's main priorities. (author's)
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  10. 135
    Peer Reviewed

    Temporary stability of urban food and nutrition security: the East Jakarta study.

    Wasito E; Pritasari; Susilowati D; Iswarawanti DN; Schultink W

    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001; 10 Suppl:S29-S33.

    The food and nutrition situation in households of East Jakarta was assessed in 1993/94 and 1998/99 with the aim of identifying the determinants of potential problems and the dynamics of change. In 1993/94, the nutritional status of approximately 73% of children under 5 years of age and 60% of mothers was within the normal range, although underweight and overweight were prevalent in almost all households. Between 1998 and 1999, there was a sharp increase in fathers reporting unemployment. The consumption of animal food sources decreased, whereas the consumption of food derivatives such as oils and sugar remained high. Approximately 90% of the population obtained drinking water from wells. By 1998, the public garbage collection system had almost completely collapsed in East Jakarta. Between 1993 and 1998, the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections in children aged under 5 years increased dramatically, from 8 and 44% to 24 and 70%, respectively. The urban environment has undergone significant changes. In Indonesia, as a whole, many achievements in the improvement of household food security and care have been lost due to the economic and political crisis. The statistical association between mothers' and fathers' education and the nutritional status of their children that was observed in 1993/94 did not appear in the 1998 survey. It seems that the education-related coping mechanisms of the parents were inadequate to deal with the rapid deterioration in the economic and political situation. (author's)
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  11. 136
    Peer Reviewed

    Nutrient intake and consumption of supplementary nutrition by severely malnourished children in two ICDS projects in Rajasthan state.

    Kapil U; Tandon M; Pathak P; Nayar D

    Indian Pediatrics. 1999 Aug; 36(8):799-802.

    In India, severe protein energy malnutrition is one of the important factors associated with high infant and child mortality rate. Thus, direct intervention in the form of supplementary nutrition (SN) is provided through ICDS scheme to malnourished children for improving their nutritional status. However, data regarding the status of receipt of consumption of SN by severely malnourished children in the ICDS scheme is lacking. As such, a study was undertaken in two urban ICDS projects of Rajasthan to evaluate the nutrient intake and consumption pattern of SN by severely malnourished children. The nutritional status of all the children in 6 months-6 year age group in 50 angan-wadi centers was assessed by weight for age criteria as per the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Classification. Overall, the results show that the calorie intake of severely malnourished children was found to be low and insufficient in all the three age groups, in spite of registration for delivery of supplementary nutrition. It is also noted that the distribution of double supplementary nutrition to severely malnourished children was not according to the guidelines. Hence, there is a need to emphasize the guidelines for distribution and consumption of SN for management of severe malnutrition through the ICDS scheme.
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  12. 137

    Population and the environment.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Center for Population, Health and Nutrition

    Washington, D.C., USAID, Center for Population, Health and Nutrition, 1999 Oct. [2] p. (POP Briefs)

    Despite extensive access to family planning services, the UN projected the world population to have reached 6 billion in 1999. It is noted that the cumulative impact of population growth is seriously degrading the foundations of life--the air, water, croplands, grasslands, forests, and fisheries. The National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London warn that if the existing predictions of population growth prove accurate and patterns of human activity on the planet remain unchanged, science and technology may not be able to prevent either irreversible degradation of the environment or continued poverty for much of the world. To this effect, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) has supported programs to improve environmental management by conserving biological diversity, reducing threats of global climate change, promoting improved urbanization and pollution management, increasing energy efficiency, and improving natural resource management. Aside from its supported projects, the USAID Office of Population funds a number of special projects to connect population and environmental issues.
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  13. 138

    Consumption patterns by income groups and carbon-dioxide implications for India: 1990-2010.

    Parikh J; Panda M; Murthy NS

    International Journal of Global Energy Issues. 1997; 9(4-6):237-55.

    This paper highlights consumption pattern differences across income classes in India, namely the top 10%, middle 40% and the bottom 50% of the population in rural and urban areas. The analysis is based on an input-output model that uses consumption expenditure distribution data from various sources. It examines direct and indirect demand on resources and carbon-dioxide emissions due to consumption of each of these income classes. Out of a total of 167 metric tons carbon (mtC) of carbon emissions in 1989-90, 62% was due to private consumption, 12% from direct consumption by households and remaining 50% due to indirect consumption of intermediates like power, steel and cement, while the rest was attributed to investment, government consumption and exports. The analysis reveals that the consumption of the rich is oriented more towards energy using sectors like electricity and transport, and uses relatively more resources in the form of minerals and metal products. The net effect is that the rich have a more carbon intensive lifestyle. The per capita direct and indirect emission level of the urban rich is about 15 times that of the rural poor and yet about the same as the world average. In a scenario where private consumption expenditure is expected to reach twice the 1990 level by 2010, carbon-dioxide emissions are projected to rise to 502 mtC. The low purchasing power of the poor results in their dependence on nature and the environment. This points to the conclusion that poverty is unsustainable. (author's)
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  14. 139

    Envisioning equity in consumption, population and sustainability.

    Petersen RL

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 309-34.

    The correlation of patterns of consumption, population policy, and levels of acceptable sustainability is complex: consumption is related to freedom, population issues are related to the perception of future, and each of these concepts carries emotional weight as they relate to prevailing democratic philosophies and politics. Over the years, growing awareness of ecological degradation has added an edge to the variable of sustainability in discussions about consumption and population. This concern over issues of ecological degradation has been paralleled by interest in the relationship of religion to issues of consumption and population in the context of a developing environmental ethic. This book chapter discusses efforts to draft a shared vision of ethical values and practical guidelines essential to ecological security and sustainable living. That vision should include world religious bodies and particular denominations and academic departments of religion, intergovernmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations, the scientific and technological community, and the Earth Charter Consultation Process.
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  15. 140

    Population, consumption, and eco-justice: a moral assessment of the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development.

    Martin-Schramm JB

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 219-44.

    This article employs the concept of eco-justice to provide a moral assessment of the approach to population and consumption issues reflected in the 1994 Programme of Action of UN International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt. This approach represents a shift away from a focus on numbers of people, demographic goals, and rates of contraceptive use toward an emphasis on the empowerment of women, reproductive rights, and improvement in the lives of all people. However, despite the important improvements that the Cairo consensus represents, it is noted that that there are some significant ways in which the document has failed. This article evaluates these weaknesses along with the strengths of the existing approach to population and consumption issues that were agreed upon in Cairo. It also examines the unique features and key objectives of the Programme of Action, and provides a brief historical summary of international reflection on the relationship of population and development. Finally, it identifies the key objectives of the program in relationship to the plan's relevant chapters.
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  16. 141

    Comsumption and well-being.

    Crocker DA

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 207-17.

    One way of assessing consumption is to consider whether a consumption choice or pattern may be beneficial or detrimental to a person's own well-being, which is apart from its effect on institutions, other people and the world. What role should goods and services play if our lives are to go well? What kinds of consumption are good for us? In seeking to answer these questions, the author begins by assessing the notions of materialism and antimaterialism. He states that getting clear on how these rival norms go wrong will help establish a more adequate consumption norm and a better conception of “well-being” In a subsequent exploration of the concept of well-being, it is noted that to be and to do well, is to function and to be capable of functioning in certain humanly good ways. This conception provides the basis for a general consumption norm. It is cited that one consumption pattern or choice is better than another if it does better in protecting and promoting a person's well-being. Such a consumption norm has sufficient content to rule out the one-sidedness of materialism and antimaterialism, and to permit "balancing acts", depending on a person's specific abilities, opportunities, and choices. Thus, wise consumption requires knowledge of ones' self and ones' society as well as choice in the light of that knowledge.
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  17. 142

    Overview of religious perspectives.

    Chapman AR

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 111-9.

    This article discusses the potential contributions of the religious community on environmental protection by considering the perspective of the Christian, Jewish and Muslim traditions. It also presents the text of a statement of an international and interfaith consultation and a topical treatment of the religious ethic of frugality. Noting that faith communions have only begun to deal with threats to the environment from overpopulation and overconsumption, they have also begun to examine what their traditions have to say about these issues. Ecological awareness, population and consumption have posed a challenge to the religious community in their commitment to promote a more sustainable future. One of the formative challenges for the religious community is to develop effective instruments of religious education to instruct, inspire, and transform the moral life of members to live in accordance with a sustainable ethic. As such, the concept of frugality provides a norm of economic activity for both individuals and societies that leads to ethically disciplined production and consumption for the sake of some higher ends.
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  18. 143

    Overview of scientific perspectives.

    Chapman AR

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 39-47.

    This paper examines questions about the impact of human population growth, technology, and consumption patterns on the environment, and considers to what extent science can provide answers. It notes that the impact of population growth is compounded by the fact that the greatest increase is taking place in poor countries, worsening the alarming rates of hunger, poverty and environmental degradation. Such problems limit the possibilities of achieving sustainable economic development and improving the quality of life. Moreover, it is noted that high rates of natural resource consumption and pollution, primarily in affluent countries, exert strong demographic pressures. In this regard, the inequality between poor and rich countries underlies the population- consumption-environmental crisis. In assessing the state of the environment and options for solving the problems, science has made various contributions such as knowledge, promotion of awareness of the interdependence of life forms, and provision of long-term global view. However, science has little likelihood of providing answers to critical issues due to the difficulty in measuring the interrelationships between human population and environment.
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  19. 144

    Perspectives on sustainability.

    Barbour IG

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 23-35.

    To address various environmental concerns, members of scientific and religious communities have been working together on issues of population, consumption, and the environment. It is noted that both communities have significant contribution to make to their common endeavor. This paper discusses the contributions from science and religion. Science, it is noted, provides better understanding of the environmental impacts of the agricultural, industrial, and personal practices such as the awareness of ecological interdependence. On the other hand, both the religious and scientific communities have advocated a global perspective, respect for all forms of life, and concern about population growth and stabilization. Furthermore, contributions from the religious communities are reflected in their commitment to social justice and less consumptive vision of the good life than existing patterns in industrial nations.
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  20. 145

    Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion.

    Chapman AR; Petersen RL; Smith-Moran B

    Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. xi, 355 p.

    An outgrowth of a conference organized in November 1995 by the Boston Theological Institute and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, this book provides a history of the dialogue between science and religion on environmental issues. It comprises essays that reflect a diversity of perspectives of the interrelated issues on population pressure, consumption patterns, and environmental sustainability. It is organized into five parts: 1) introduction, 2) scientific perspectives, 3) religious and theological perspectives, 4) ethics and public policy issues, and 5) conclusions.
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  21. 146

    Rise in world population threatens the planet.

    Vass A

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2001 Nov 10; 323(7321):1088.

    World population and consumption is rising at a rate that is threatening the well-being of people and the planet, a report published last week by the UN Population Fund said. Over the past 70 years the global population has tripled, from 2 billion to 6.1 billion, and it continued to grow by about 77 million people a year. By 2050 it will reach 9.3 billion. The 49 least developed countries, already straining to provide basic services to their people, will nearly triple in size, from 668 million to 1.86 billion people by 2050. The report said that there now exists "a huge consumption gap" between those who live in industrialized countries and those living in developing countries. The 20% of the world's population who live in high income regions account for 86% of total private consumption. According to the report, the "ecological footprint"--the productive area of earth necessary to support the lifestyle of an individual in a given population--is nearly four times as big in industrialized nations as in developing countries and double the level that is sustainable. (full text)
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  22. 147

    Rethinking municipal water tariffs: the problems with IBTs.

    Bellamy R

    [Unpublished] 1999 [2] p.

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) system is the most widely used water tariff in many countries. It charges higher prices for high consumption of water so as to discourage excessive water use. However, it has been noted that municipal water tariffs are hurting both the poor and the environment in many developing countries. Research conducted by Professors John Boland and Dale Whittington, which examined how IBTs are implemented in cities across Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Africa, indicate that the IBT system is seriously flawed. Instead of helping the poor, it hinders them from fully capitalizing on the potential savings offered by the IBT. The high cost that IBTs establish on firms also further reduce the tariff's effectiveness at distributing water cost equitably. Another problem is the lack of transparency and over-complexity associated with IBTs. In response, the researchers recommend a different approach to water pricing, involving a much simpler 2-part tariff. This would consist of a single volumetric charge equal to the marginal water cost coupled with a fixed monthly credit or rebate. The scheme also incorporates a minimum monthly charge to avoid negative bills. Under this approach, most poor households would receive a lower bill than the one they receive under the IBT system and a higher percentage of households would face the full marginal cost of the water.
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  23. 148

    Ecological footprints of nations. How much nature do they use? How much nature do they have?

    Wackernagel M; Onisto L; Callejas Linares A; Lopez Falfan IS; Mendez Garcia J

    Xalapa, Mexico, Universidad Anahuac de Xalapa, Centro de Estudios para la Sustentabilidad, 1997 Mar 10. 32, [5] p.

    This "Ecological Footprints of Nations" initiative compares the ecological impact of 52 large nations, inhabited by 80% of the world population. It also shows to what extent their consumption can be supported by their local ecological capacity. All the calculations are based on official UN statistics. This document provides solid evidence that the human enterprise already far exceeds the long-term biophysical carrying capacity of the planet. About one-third more resources and eco-services are used by humanity than what nature can regenerate. People are living on the biophysical heritage of their children. Most significantly, eco-footprint analysis shows that it is the high-income countries that have appropriated most of the world's ecological output. In conclusion, sustainability begins with accepting the fact that people are dependent on nature and should acknowledge the problems posed by unsustainable lifestyles. Progress is only possible if there is a clear vision and measurable goals toward it. The contribution of this study was to show that the ecological bottom-line of sustainability can be measured. This document also presents systemic assessment to give direction for local, national, and global efforts to close the sustainability gap, which became an effective strategic planning tool and a guidepost for a more secure, equitable, and sustainable future.
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  24. 149

    Environment and health: 1. Population, consumption and human health.

    Speidel JJ

    CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2000 Sep 5; 163(5):551-6.

    This paper focuses on the impact of population growth on human health, socioeconomic development, and the environment. The impact of humans on their environment is related to population size, per capita consumption and the environmental damage caused by the technology used to produce what is consumed. Human activity has already transformed an estimated 10% of Earth's surface from forest or range land into desert. Unproductive land and food scarcity contribute to malnutrition among 1 billion people, with infants and children suffering the most serious health consequences. Water scarcity also impairs health as fresh water supplies for human use become polluted. These are considered to be among the many important interactions between population growth, consumption, environmental degradation and health. Meeting the family planning needs of the 100-120 million women in developing countries would lower the total fertility rate (TFR) from 3.2 to 2.1, the TFR needed for population stabilization. With the political will to make available good reproductive health care, population growth is likely to decline to manageable levels.
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  25. 150

    [Demographic temporalities and environmental temporalities: are they compatible?] Temporalites demographiques et temporalites environnementales: sont-elles compatibles?

    Matarasso P

    In: Regulations demographiques et environnement. Actes des VIes Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM, 22-24 septembre 1997 - Paris, sous la direction de Laurent Auclair, Patrick Gubry, Michel Picouet, Frederic Sandron. Paris, France, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, 2001 Feb. 13-20. (Etudes du CEPED No. 18)

    Research conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that human activity is affecting the earth's climate through the greenhouse effect. The effect is associated with the atmospheric accumulation of a number of gases, mainly carbon dioxide, during human activities in the energy, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The only way to limit or avoid potential climatic damage resulting from such accumulation is to end the accumulation. Starting right now, measures must be taken to control atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases over the next 100 years. The more that stable concentrations of these gases approach pre-industrial concentrations, the more the world's population will be able to thrive without affecting the global climate. However, population growth and the growing material needs of developing country populations oppose the establishment and maintenance of a fixed ceiling for greenhouse gas emissions. The author considers how to reduce global energy consumption and agricultural and industrial emissions over the next 50 years given such constraints. Discussion unfolds in sections on time constraints in moving forward, demographics and development, and the key role of demographic and economic perspectives in debate over global change.
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