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Stockholm, Sweden, Environment Advisory Council, 2007. 89 p.The purpose of the study is to bring out often-neglected facts concerning dissimilarities in the lifestyles and consumption patterns of women and men, and thus in their environmental impact, by describing how men, primarily through their greater mobility and more extensive travel, account for more carbon dioxide (COB2B) emissions than women, in both rich and poor countries. The study points to how a changed behavior among men – notably rich men who are decision-makers – can be crucial in addressing climate change and in enhancing the opportunities of all human beings to enjoy sustainable development.
Studies of Tribes and Tribals. 2007 Dec; 5(2):85-95.The term "environmental refugees" describes a new kind of mass human casualty caused by negative ecological impacts during the last decades. It has been estimated that 25 million environmental refugees are on the move worldwide due to environmental problems, 50 million are left homeless by cyclones, floods and earthquakes, 90 millions are displaced by infrastructural projects. These figures are expected to increase sharply in the next few decades due to the impacts of global warming and the consequence of sea level rise by 2050. Yet, the unfortunate environmental victims are refused refugee status and are not granted assistance and protection by the international community. Why is the number of environmental victims on the increase? Why are they left unassisted? Who should be responsible for what they have been suffered from? What should be done to limit the hardship being suffered by environmentally displaced people? This paper will attempt to answer these questions. (author's)
Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study.
Science of the Total Environment. 2007 Mar; 374(1):60-70.The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, µg/L). Mercury levels were 0.38±0.5 µg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50±0.64 µg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45±13.8 µg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 µg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level. (author's)
[Unpublished] 2007. Presented at the Population Association of America 2007 Annual Meeting, New York, New York, March 29-31, 2007. 30 p.The present paper examined the relationship of population to the environment and with growing population, poverty and urbanization the environment is degrading. Conducted an analysis of changes and trends over last fifty years. The study reveals that the country's population growth is imposing an increasing burden on the country's limited and continually degrading natural resource base. The natural resources are under increasing strain, even though the majority of people survive at subsistence level. Population pressure on arable land contributes to the land degradation. The increasing population numbers and growing affluence have already resulted in rapid growth of energy production and consumption in India. The environmental effects like ground water and surface water contamination; air pollution and global warming are of growing concern owing to increasing consumption levels. The paper concludes with some policy reflections, the policy aimed at overall development should certainly include efforts to control population and environmental pollution. (author's)
Finance and Development. 2007 Jun; 44(2): p.When leaders in developed and developing countries alike ponder ways to boost growth, reduce inequality, and improve living standards, the enduring battle of the sexes is most likely the last thing on their minds. But they might want to think again. Gender differences have long been incorporated into economic analysis at the microeconomic level in such fields as public finance, labor, and development economics. For instance, different migration patterns for men and women in developing countries from rural to urban areas have long been a staple of models in development economics and contribute to our understanding of the overall development process. But more recently, the focus has turned to the potential macroeconomic implications of gender differences in behavior-both for understanding economic developments and for formulating sensible policies. Gender differences in behavior that are the outcome of private decisions or reflect the influence of public policies may lead to different outcomes in the macroeconomy, with implications for aggregate consumption, investment, and government spending and, hence, national output. Yet fiscal policies are rarely formulated to take account of gender. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2007; 33(2):247-287.The goal of this article is to examine the determinants of the improvements in life expectancy in the developing world during the period after World War II. Recent estimates suggest that longevity has been a quantitatively vital component of the overall gains in welfare during the twentieth century, both within and across countries. From a research perspective, pinning down the factors determining the observed reductions in mortality may shed light on the interactions between health, human capital, and income, and on their relative importance for economic development and social change. From a policy perspective, it may help maximize the impact of future health interventions in countries that still lag behind in health improvements. In particular, this knowledge may be fundamental in designing policies to enable sub-Saharan Africa to recover from its present circumstances. (excerpt)