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Your search found 6 Results

  1. 1
    325662

    Liquid assets: How demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources. Summary.

    Boberg J

    In: Liquid assets: How demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources, [by] Jill Boberg. Santa Monica, California, RAND, 2005. xiii-xxiii.

    Demographic factors play an important role in environmental change, along with biophysical, economic, sociopolitical, technological, and cultural factors, all of which are interrelated. Recent demographic trends have sparked concern about the impact of the human population on a critical element of the natural environment - fresh water. In the last 70 years, the world's population has tripled in size while going from overwhelmingly rural to a near balance of urban and rural - a change that affects both how humans use water and the amount they consume. In the late 1980s, concern over a potential water crisis began to grow. Much of the resulting literature has taken an alarmist view. Numerous reports sensationalized the so-called water crisis without talking into account the local or regional nature of water resources and the relationship between supply and demand. A number of factors are cited to support the position that the earth is headed toward a water crisis. They include the following: the human population continues to grow; water withdrawals are outpacing population growth; per-capita water availability is declining; clean, potable water is less available worldwide. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    325661

    Liquid assets: How demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources.

    Boberg J

    Santa Monica, California, RAND, 2005. [150] p.

    Demographic factors play an important role in environmental change, along with biophysical, economic, sociopolitical, technological, and cultural factors, all of which are interrelated. Recent demographic trends have sparked concern about the impact of the human population on a critical element of the natural environment - fresh water. In the last 70 years, the world's population has tripled in size while going from overwhelmingly rural to a near balance of urban and rural - a change that affects both how humans use water and the amount they consume. In the late 1980s, concern over a potential water crisis began to grow. Much of the resulting literature has taken an alarmist view. Numerous reports sensationalized the so-called water crisis without talking into account the local or regional nature of water resources and the relationship between supply and demand. A number of factors are cited to support the position that the earth is headed toward a water crisis. They include the following: the human population continues to grow; water withdrawals are outpacing population growth; per-capita water availability is declining; clean, potable water is less available worldwide. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    293723

    The challenge of uncertainty: the unexpected occurrence.

    Nierenberg D

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):91-110.

    This paper will deal with some of the issues that create demographic uncertainty and some of the trends which are likely to shape demographics in the future. World population has dramatically swelled to over 6 billion people today, more than double the number in 1950, when it was about 2.5 billion people. But population growth has not been linear over time. During the last half of the XX century, the annual growth rate of world population has been at first increasing to the value of almost 2% around the end of the 1950s, then decreasing until the beginning of the 1960s. It reached the pick of 2.19% in 1963. Afterwards it started an endless downward trend. In 2004 it was estimated to be 1.4%. World population is likely to keep on increasing through the first decades of the XXI century, although at a less rapid pace. The United Nations Population Division has acknowledged the lack of continuity in the population growth rate since the mid-1990s by periodically adjusting its estimates of population growth to 2050. Why the uncertainty? This paper will first quickly consider some of the reasons which cause the demographic uncertainty - economic and political changes, consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and of the improvements in girls' education levels. Second it will tackle some of the issues we should watch for in relation to population - aging populations, growing youth bulges in many countries, increasing urbanization in the developing world, spreading infectious diseases and rising consumption. It will end up providing reflections upon some prospective challenges for world population. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    292531

    Fossil fuel depletion will reverse the population explosion [editorial]

    Stanton W

    Population Review. 2005; 44(1):[2] p..

    Empires and civilizations emerge, peak and collapse, over time scales usually measured in centuries. The rise of Western civilization as we know it began with the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century. It is characterized by material prosperity based on the ready availability of cheap energy, mostly in the form of fossil fuels. It may now be peaking, with Westerners consuming lavish amounts of the most convenient fossil fuel, oil. Britons get through 10 barrels of oil per person per year, and North Americans use up more than twice that figure. For most Third Worlders, by contrast, individual consumption is normally a tiny fraction of one barrel. The benefits of Western civilization have spread around the world, allowing the human population to explode. It had risen slowly and painfully to about 0.6 billion in 1750, only to shoot up to 6 billion by 2000. Mechanized agriculture with artificial fertilizers, disease control by modern medicines, and the imposition of peace on warring tribal societies by colonizers, are responsible. There is usually enough food to eat, and life expectancies have risen steadily (until the advent of HIV/Aids in Africa). (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    291341
    Peer Reviewed

    Integrating nutrition with ecology: balancing the health of humans and biosphere.

    McMichael AJ

    Public Health Nutrition. 2005; 8(6A):706-715.

    The objective was to show that current rates of global population growth, production and consumption of food, and use of living and physical resources, are evidently not sustainable. To consider ways in which nutrition and allied sciences can respond to this great challenge of the twenty-first century. Past, current and future projected trends in production and consumption patterns are examined. These show that overall present and projected patterns cannot be sustained; and also show increasing unacceptable inequity between and within rich and poor regions and countries. Nutrition science classically focuses on nutrients in relation to human physiology, metabolism, growth, health and disease. The social and environmental conditions of the modern, interconnected, market-oriented world, and the consequences for food production and consumption, are extending the research and policy agenda with which nutrition science must now urgently engage. Historically, much attention has been paid to eliminating nutritional deficiency states, and this remains an important task. In modern urban populations ‘malnutrition’ encompasses new forms of dietary imbalance, especially excesses of certain nutrients. These contribute to various non-communicable diseases and, particularly, to overweight/obesity and its attendant metabolic derangements and disease risks. As a mass phenomenon the current surge in obesity has no historical precedent. The escalating impact of humankind on the natural environment, with its ramifications for present and future food production, is also unprecedented. The essential challenge for nutrition science is to develop new understanding and strategies to enable a balance between promoting, equitably, the health of humans while sustaining the long-term health of the biosphere. Extension of nutrition science and food policy to meet those goals will be aided by understanding better how dietary conditions shaped the biological evolution of humankind. The fundamental long-term task is to integrate human health with the health of the biosphere. (author's)
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  6. 6
    291178
    Peer Reviewed

    Dietary Westernisation: conceptualisation and measurement in Mauritius. [" L'occidentalisation diététique " : conceptualisation et évaluation à Maurice]

    Uusitalo U; Sobal J; Moothoosamy L; Chitson P; Shaw J

    Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Sep; 8(6):608-619.

    The aims of the study were to provide information that will contribute to conceptualising what is called ‘dietary Westernisation’, and to provide an example of measuring it on an individual level. Food consumption frequency and demographic data on adults in Mauritius were examined in 1988, 1992 and 1998. In 1992, a 24-hour recall was also included. The cross-sectional samples consisted of 1115 (age 25–74 years) Mauritians in 1987/88, 1917 (age 30–74 years) in 1992 and 2239 (age 20–74 years) in 1998. Principal components analysis was carried out on daily consumption frequencies of 10 indicator foods (white rice, white bakery bread, pulses, processed meat, poultry, fresh/frozen fish, butter, margarine, whole milk and skimmed/low-fat milk). Correlations between dietary patterns and selected food consumption frequencies were examined in each survey year. Four dietary patterns were identified as being related to dietary Westernisation. The Traditional dietary pattern was characterised by higher consumption frequencies of Indian breads, salted/smoked fish and sugar-sweetened tea. The Western dietary pattern was characterised by higher consumption frequencies of cakes/pastries, meat and many Western fast foods like burgers, but, surprisingly, also by brown bread, breakfast cereals and salad. The Bread/butter dietary pattern predominantly described more frequent consumption of bread compared with rice. The Margarine/milk dietary pattern was inconsistently related with staple foods. Younger, educated and wealthier Mauritians appeared to adopt Western dietary patterns earlier. This study suggests that relatively few indicator foods are needed for measuring dietary Westernisation. Dietary Westernisation in a non-Western country may also include shifts towards voluntary consumption of healthier foods. (author's)
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