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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Nutrition scenario in Karnataka, a state in southern India.

    Sheela K

    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999; 8(2):167-174.

    India is an agricultural country and the majority of India’s population live in rural areas. This is so in Karnataka, a state in southern India. The present report consists of a detailed nutrition situation analysis. Karnataka has a population of 45 million, which is approximately 3–5% of India’s population. One in every two women are agricultural labourers, reflecting women’s predominance in the field of agriculture. The state has a literacy rate of 56%. The food consumption patterns reveal that cereals and millets are the main food items. However, protective foods (i.e. foods that are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals) are consumed in lesser amounts. When compared with the average Indian recommended dietary intake (RDI), the intake of energy in adults was found to be higher, as was protein. The average intake of vitamins, however, was 50% less than the RDI. Unlike adults, energy deficiency is a problem in the diets of preschool children. Growth retardation has been observed in a vast majority of children in Karnataka. An improvement in the nutritional status of rural adults has been observed in recent years. Protein energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and B-complex deficiencies are the major nutritional deficiencies among preschool children, while anaemia remains a major health problem in women. Improvement in the healthcare system has brought a decline in the infant mortality rate in Karnataka and the state attained universal immunization coverage in 1990. The National Nutrition Programme – Integrated Child Development Scheme provides an integrated package of services to residents of Karnataka. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Mortality risk and consumption by couples.

    Hurd M

    Santa Monica, California, RAND, Labor and Population Program, 1999 Mar. [50] p. (Labor and Population Program Working Paper Series 99-03; DRU-2061-NIA)

    The goal of this paper is to analyze a model to explain consumption by couples. It is an extension of the model for singles by Yaari (1965), and therefore emphasizes the role of mortality risk. It also allows for a what I call a "true" bequest motive, bequeathing by a couple to the next generation, or at least to others outside of their own two-person household. The distinction between a true bequest motive and simply the provision for a surviving spouse is important because the surviving spouse is the extension of the original household, and the survivor had a direct influence in choosing the consumptions by the couple when the deceased spouse was alive. This makes the situation very different from a true bequest where the bequest depends at least partly on motives other than purely selfish consumption and where the bequeathed has no direct control on the consumption by the household. There is also a difference in the planning horizon which causes important differences for public policy: if a couple desires to give bequests to their children, and possibly to their grandchildren, they will act in a very different way in response to, say, an increase in Social Security benefits than if they only want to bequeath to each other. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Nutrient intake and consumption of supplementary nutrition by severely malnourished children in two ICDS projects in Rajasthan state.

    Kapil U; Tandon M; Pathak P; Nayar D

    Indian Pediatrics. 1999 Aug; 36(8):799-802.

    In India, severe protein energy malnutrition is one of the important factors associated with high infant and child mortality rate. Thus, direct intervention in the form of supplementary nutrition (SN) is provided through ICDS scheme to malnourished children for improving their nutritional status. However, data regarding the status of receipt of consumption of SN by severely malnourished children in the ICDS scheme is lacking. As such, a study was undertaken in two urban ICDS projects of Rajasthan to evaluate the nutrient intake and consumption pattern of SN by severely malnourished children. The nutritional status of all the children in 6 months-6 year age group in 50 angan-wadi centers was assessed by weight for age criteria as per the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Classification. Overall, the results show that the calorie intake of severely malnourished children was found to be low and insufficient in all the three age groups, in spite of registration for delivery of supplementary nutrition. It is also noted that the distribution of double supplementary nutrition to severely malnourished children was not according to the guidelines. Hence, there is a need to emphasize the guidelines for distribution and consumption of SN for management of severe malnutrition through the ICDS scheme.
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  4. 4

    Population and the environment.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Center for Population, Health and Nutrition

    Washington, D.C., USAID, Center for Population, Health and Nutrition, 1999 Oct. [2] p. (POP Briefs)

    Despite extensive access to family planning services, the UN projected the world population to have reached 6 billion in 1999. It is noted that the cumulative impact of population growth is seriously degrading the foundations of life--the air, water, croplands, grasslands, forests, and fisheries. The National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London warn that if the existing predictions of population growth prove accurate and patterns of human activity on the planet remain unchanged, science and technology may not be able to prevent either irreversible degradation of the environment or continued poverty for much of the world. To this effect, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) has supported programs to improve environmental management by conserving biological diversity, reducing threats of global climate change, promoting improved urbanization and pollution management, increasing energy efficiency, and improving natural resource management. Aside from its supported projects, the USAID Office of Population funds a number of special projects to connect population and environmental issues.
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  5. 5

    Rethinking municipal water tariffs: the problems with IBTs.

    Bellamy R

    [Unpublished] 1999 [2] p.

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) system is the most widely used water tariff in many countries. It charges higher prices for high consumption of water so as to discourage excessive water use. However, it has been noted that municipal water tariffs are hurting both the poor and the environment in many developing countries. Research conducted by Professors John Boland and Dale Whittington, which examined how IBTs are implemented in cities across Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Africa, indicate that the IBT system is seriously flawed. Instead of helping the poor, it hinders them from fully capitalizing on the potential savings offered by the IBT. The high cost that IBTs establish on firms also further reduce the tariff's effectiveness at distributing water cost equitably. Another problem is the lack of transparency and over-complexity associated with IBTs. In response, the researchers recommend a different approach to water pricing, involving a much simpler 2-part tariff. This would consist of a single volumetric charge equal to the marginal water cost coupled with a fixed monthly credit or rebate. The scheme also incorporates a minimum monthly charge to avoid negative bills. Under this approach, most poor households would receive a lower bill than the one they receive under the IBT system and a higher percentage of households would face the full marginal cost of the water.
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  6. 6

    [Opinions on population development. The recent past and future of the Hungarian population] Korkerdes a nepesedesrol. A Magyar nepesedes kozelmultja es jovoje.

    Szabo K

    DEMOGRAFIA. 1999; 42(3-4):306-11.

    Two world wars, the great depression between the wars, dictatorships, the crushing of the revolution in 1956, and subsequent decades all account for the fact that frustrated and disintegrated generations make up Hungarian society, which is starting to reorganize itself very slowly. Nevertheless, the low fertility rate in Hungary is paralleled by developed European countries. The common link in this phenomenon is consumerism. In Mediterranean countries traditional values have lost ground and fertility dropped, while in post-communist countries rising expectations caused by the free flow of information have contributed to the development of a crisis of values. In the majority of the countries of the European Union further reduction in fertility did not take place; in fact, there has been improvement in some cases. In Hungary the economic recession after 1990 was unavoidable, but the continuing declining fertility rate was also attributable to current consumerism and the fiscal austerity policy introduced in 1995. In recent years a slight improvement of mortality can be observed, possibly owing to healthier living and somewhat improved health care. The biggest challenge is the support of an aging population which could be enhanced either by the boosting of fertility or receiving masses of immigrants from high fertility regions. In general, in Europe and in developed countries, narcissistic societies have emerged and in Hungary even the establishment of a civil society is missing.
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  7. 7

    Critical consumption trends and implications: degrading earth's ecosystems.

    Matthews E; Hammond A

    Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute [WRI], 1999. 71 p.

    This report examines consumption trends, and the associated impacts on natural ecosystems, for three key resources--food (cereals and meat), wood fiber, and fish. In the last 30 years, world cereal consumption has more than doubled, while meat consumption has tripled since 1961, and is increasing at a linear rate. Most agricultural experts believe that increasing global demand for cereals and meat can be met, and forecast that grain production will rise by about 15% by 2010, and by 25 to 40% by 2020. Global wood consumption has risen by 64% since 1961. Demand for fuelwood and charcoal rose by nearly 80% and more than half the world's wood fiber supply is now burned as fuel. For industrial wood fiber, the demand is projected to rise by between 20% and 40% by 2010. Consumption of fish and fishery products has risen 240% since 1960 and more than five-fold since 1950. These three examples from the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sectors demonstrate how existing practices are undermining the biological systems that support key renewable resources, exploiting them in such a way that potentially everlasting supplies are being depleted. Policy interventions can be made at the point of resource production, or at any point in the processing and distribution chain, or they can target end-use behavior by the consumer.
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  8. 8

    Economic crisis and population.

    Kim SG; Ravi V

    In: The Fifteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 18-19, 1999, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association [APDA], 1999. 105-9.

    Vayalar Ravi, a delegate from India discusses the impact of growing population on the global economy and environment during the 15th Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development held in Seoul, Korea, on April 18-19, 1999. Specifically, he focuses on issues concerning 1) trends in population in the world, 2) the asymmetry of world population distribution, 3) the glaring imbalances between the low-income and middle-income countries’ populations and land areas. He explained the impact of ever expanding consumption on the environment and on poor countries, and ironically poor people and poor countries bear the costs of unequal consumption. Lastly, he suggested several measures for the efficacy of the Asian Confederation.
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  9. 9

    Water and the relevance of technology.

    DiPerna P

    In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 420-9.

    The water crisis is a very complicated issue. Roughly 1 billion people on Earth still have no access to drinkable water; almost 4 billion have no access to sanitation or sewage services. According to WHO, almost half of the people of the world suffer from water-borne or water-related diseases, which together account for roughly 5 million deaths a year. Moreover, the World Resources Institute has estimated that by 2050, 13-20% of the world's people will be living in water-scarce countries, mostly in the Middle East and Africa, but all countries face pockets of scarcity due to drought and various factors. Daily per capita use of water in Africa is about 30 liters--for those with access to it. In the US daily per capita use is 600 liters. This paper discusses the efforts of different international organizations and governments to secure potable water supply in the coming years. It quotes statements issuing from several conferences on the water crisis and follows an argument concerning private- versus public-sector investment in such technologies as community pipes and rain harvesting structures.
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  10. 10

    What to do about climate change.

    Browne J

    In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 412-7.

    This paper presents recommendations on how the business community can address the issues of climate change. The forecast of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is that over the next century temperatures might rise from 1 to 3.5 degrees Celsius, and that sea levels might rise by between 15 and 95 cm. The challenge is to achieve growth and a continuing rise in the living standards of all the people of the world in a non-destructive way. Since there is an existing target for an overall reduction of carbon emissions by 2005 or 2010, the next step will be to develop the means through which any target can be achieved. Through practical incentives, much can be achieved through means of: using combined heat and power plants to increase energy efficiency use; supporting scientific research and joint implementation initiatives in such areas as solar and other renewable energies; exploring for future oil, coal, and gas reserves. There is a great scope for practical constructive action across the whole agenda, and business has a role and a responsibility in that, including working with governments and nongovernmental organizations.
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  11. 11

    China's energy consumption and environmental problems.

    Zhang J

    In: Population and environment in developing countries: the macro scenario and select case studies, edited by Rajib Nandi, G.N. Rao. Thiruvananthapuram, India, Centre for Development Studies, 1999. 30-8. (Research Monograph Series Vol. 1)

    This study examined the state of China's energy use and explored the problems existing in both commercial and noncommercial energy consumption. China has a very rich source of energy. Its sources of energy include fossil fuel (coal and crude oil), hydroelectric energy, tidal energy, wind energy, and biomass. In focusing on China s commercial energy consumption and contribution to world environmental problems, it was noted that the structure of commercial energy consumption is unique and is a key to environmental problems for its huge share of coal. Some of the environmental consequences of China's energy use include acid rain, siltation, deforestation and emission of greenhouse gas. In terms of the linkage between economic growth and energy use in the country, it was highlighted that economic progress was positively dependent on the use of energy during 1949-74. Such linkage weakened during 1978-90, in which period China acquired advanced technologies during the 1980s. It may be the result of the transition from heavy industry to a light and less energy-intensive industrial structure. However, considering the course of its ongoing rapid economic growth, it is important to follow an environment-friendly energy policy. Some policy suggestions are given along with tables that contain specific figures of energy consumption of China, as well as figures from other countries and indexes of their greenhouse emissions.
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  12. 12

    The study of population-consumption-environment link: the case of air pollution in Bangkok.

    Chamratrithirong A; Prasartkul P; Punpuing S; Boonchalaksi W; Santiphop T

    Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR], 1999. [8], 91 p. (IPSR Publication No. 224)

    This report presents a study of the link between population, consumption and environment through a case study on air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the demographic, consumption and environmental situation in Thailand, with emphasis on population trends, dynamics and composition, socioeconomic characteristics, household consumption trends and projections, global warming, land and forestry resource, urban infrastructure and industry and energy. Chapter 2 focuses on the air pollution study conducted in Bangkok through an evaluation of air quality, transportation fuel consumption, and the demographic and socioeconomic condition of the population, which includes population size and structure, occupational structure and education attendance. The third chapter highlights the research objective and methodology. This chapter shows the three conceptual frameworks employed in the study, data sources used at macro and household level analysis, and in-depth interviews and focus groups applied. Chapter 4 presents the research results with emphasis on the health impact and behavioral and structural causes of air pollution, as well as the dynamics on the link between consumption behavior and air pollution. Solutions to the problem which include decentralization, city planning and the Green Zone, implementation of legal measures and awareness campaigns were suggested in the fifth and last chapter.
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  13. 13

    6,000,000,000 consumption machines.

    Hinrichsen D

    INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE. 1999 Sep-Oct; 22-9.

    Human activities caused by population growth and consumption patterns are taking a heavy toll on the Earth's life-support systems as well as on Earth's other species, which are disappearing at record rates as human numbers rise. It has been reported that sometime on October 12, 1999, the 6 billionth human will be born on the planet. This report looks at the collective effect of 6 billion consumption machines on six aspects of the natural world. These include water, forest, air, soil, oceans, and animals. All these resources are projected to deplete substantially and quantifiably in the next years to come, adding to the ongoing degradation of the Earth's natural system happening today. Factors contributing to the drastic increase of exhaustion include population growth and the increasing demands of humans for such expedients. However, successful initiatives are being promoted and undertaken in some countries which could help stabilize the level of consumption of global resources.
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  14. 14

    Consumption bomb.

    Harrison P

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1999; 8(4):10-1.

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.
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  15. 15

    Population growth and consumption.

    Pasha MJ

    NATION. 1999 Jun 6; 2.

    This article presents several significant environmental issues that correlate population growth and resource consumption on a global or regional scale. These issues include: global warming, pollution, loss of biodiversity, tropical forests, oceans and fisheries, land use, freshwater resources, and carrying capacity. Population size, growth, and patterns of resource usage impacts on the types of pollution including air, water, and solid pollution. As the world's population and per capita consumption grow, the human race uses resources and generates waste faster. In the same way, as the human population expands, it reduces biological diversity through the destruction of ecosystems such as tropical and temperate forests, tundra, wetlands, coral reefs, and marine environments. This decline in biodiversity caused by humans represents a serious threat to our development. Furthermore, population growth also affects land and water productivity, making it difficult to meet the demand for food. Although, freshwater resources is renewable, but its rate of renewal depends on the global cycle, which often cannot keep pace with human demands. In addition, human settlements, industry, and agriculture can all affect the carrying capacity of the earth. In the case of Pakistan, wherein its population growth greatly affects the socioeconomic conditions of a common and the natural resources, as a whole: it has rapidly started to affect the environment as well. Therefore, special attention should be given to population growth trends, current human activities, per capital resource use, and the level of production of the resources.
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  16. 16

    Population growth, dependency, and consumption.

    Weil DN

    AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1999 May; 89(2):251-5.

    This paper examines how population growth affects the average level of utility, particularly, the consumption per capita. It also focuses on the effects of population growth on the ratio of dependent consumers to working-age adults. The model employed in this paper has three demographic groups: working-age adults, who produce and consume, and the young and elderly, who only consume. This study concluded that the transition to lower population growth requires a long period of reduced dependency in which society benefits from lower spending on children while it has yet to pay for higher old-age dependency. The dependency level after 30 years is not significantly different from that which would exist in an optimal stable population. Any rise in fertility that would decrease old-age dependency in the long run would require a lengthy period of higher-than-steady-state dependency.
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  17. 17

    Forest futures: population, consumption and wood resources.

    Gardner-Outlaw T; Engelman R

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 1999. 67 p.

    Forest Futures: Population, Consumption and Wood Resources is one of a series of reports on population and critical natural resources released by the Population Action International. Its aim is to go beyond a simple review of the debate on population and forest decline, and to envision the positive future that sound population policies make possible for forests and those who depend on them. It considers the linkage between population policies and forest resource management. One of its key findings is that the current slowing of population growth offers the prospect of a world that sustains large swaths of forest for future generations. It recognizes the need for policies and programs that both slow population growth and encourage a more careful use of the forests. The report proposes the use of a population-based measure of forest resource availability--the forest-to-people ratio--to help assess the capacity of each forest to supply goods and services to its inhabitants. These goods and services are essential for economic development, education, and communication, and a healthy environment. Finally, the report concludes with recommendations on population policy, consumption, and sustainable forestry.
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  18. 18

    Consumption: North American perspectives.

    Hynes HP

    In: Dangerous intersections: feminist perspectives on population, environment, and development. A project of the Committee on Women, Population, and the Environment, edited by Jael Silliman and Ynestra King. Cambridge, Massachusetts, South End Press, 1999. 189-201.

    This document discusses the content of the north American critiques of consumption and consumerism; the strengths and weaknesses of these critiques are cited in order to present the core elements that can bring about a woman-centered analysis. A report from a nongovernmental organization (NGO) promoting a simple, fairly low-cost solar cooker to Somali women, provide the occasion for the author's exposition of different facets of consumption and consumerism: the consumption of resources by individuals, by governments and the ruling elite, by semi-autonomous and secretive institutions such as the military, and by macroeconomic systems that are embedded within the matrix of political economy and cultural values. Three approaches are used as a basis for analyses to provide alternatives to consumption pattern and consumerist ideology in industrialized countries: the demographics of consumption, the movement to simplify life and make consumer choices that are less environmentally damaging, and the computation of the ecological footprint. The demographics of consumption claim that happiness has diminished as people work more to purchase more nondurable, packaged, rapidly obsolete, nonvital goods and services. The voluntary simplicity movement has emphasized the need for people to assess their real financial needs, to budget and invest to achieve financial independence on a substantially reduced income, and to calculate the impact of their lifestyle on the environment through household audits of energy, products, and waste. The ecological footprint model is based more on the calculation of consumer impact on the earth in connection with the responsibilities of government, the right of every human to a fair and healthful share of the earth's resources and a deep concern for not overloading or degrading global ecosystems. Woman-centered analysis of the issue of consumption was discussed with the aim of furthering the goals of redistributing and humanizing the use of natural resources, consumer goods, and services, and of mitigating and reversing the impact of pollution on ecosystems.
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  19. 19

    Crisis of ageing in less developed countries: too much consumption or too little production?

    Messkoub M

    DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE. 1999 Apr; 30(2):217-35.

    This article argues that the elderly in developing countries are entitled to a national pension scheme as their entitlement to a reasonable standard of living and as compensation for inequities during their working years. Productivity of the elderly should include accumulated assets and savings as workers. Dependency burdens include the elderly, the unemployed, and underemployed. The productive ability of the elderly is a function of actual age and disabilities. Retirement age is an institutional measure. Economists argue that economic growth is reduced by a large proportion of elderly, who adversely impact aggregate demand and investment, or that the elderly consume more than they produce. The author argues that the consumption needs of the elderly should be framed within a context that assures entitlement to a "reasonable" standard of living. Price stability can assure the purchasing power of the aged. Maintaining the productive ability of the elderly means that land assets can guarantee access to food. Women's entitlement to goods and services is related to their work history, pension, property, and inheritance rights. Poverty is a threat to older women. The performance of the economy over time affects present and future generations. Intergenerational cooperation is necessary. When the proportion of elderly increases, working age and other populations must increase productivity to meet the needs of the aged.
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  20. 20

    Leaving the countryside: rural-to-urban migration decisions in China.

    Zhao Y

    AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1999 May; 89(2):281-6.

    This paper employs a simple theoretical model of labor allocation within rural households, given existing land arrangements in an attempt to explain why rural Chinese do not fully participate in labor migration. It first explores the mechanisms by which individual, household, and community characteristics affect the migration decision. Empirical results are then presented to substantiate the derived hypotheses. The paper further explores the question of whether the migration decision is permanent by analyzing the responses of household consumption to income from migration. (EXCERPT)
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Consumption smoothing and excess female mortality in rural India.

    Rose E


    This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality [in India], by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children. In order to avert the issue of selection bias due to underreporting of births of girls, a methodology is employed that does not require data on births by gender. The results indicate that favorable rainfall shocks increase the ratio of the probability that a girl survives to the probability that a boy survives. (EXCERPT)
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  22. 22

    China's water resources facing the millennium.

    Nickum JE

    In: Constraints on development: focus on China and India, [compiled by] Nippon Foundation [and] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1999 Mar. 71-85. (Population and Development Series No. 23)

    This article discusses water resources in China, comparisons with India, and deficits. The character of development is likely to be changed by growing limits on resources. Both India and China share similar water issues and have similar water consumption. China is tied with Canada as the third-most water-abundant country, after Brazil and Russia. India ranks 7th after Indonesia and the US. Both India and China have regions of scarcity. Over 75% of water is used for irrigation in both countries. Irrigation in China is expected to dominate water use through 2030, when industrial use will equal agricultural use and then stabilize. Agricultural water use is expected to increase indefinitely. In 1997, the Yellow River stopped flowing for 222 days due to dry weather. Constant deficits are due to upstream and downstream uses. About 122 projects divert water from the Huang He River in 85 counties and municipalities. By 1990, upstream uses affected downstream supplies. The State Council set nonbinding quotas on water allocation. Downstream uses support high value crops or off-farm uses, while upstream uses support low value crops with subsidized water pricing. About 66% of China's 600 cities are short of water. The largest cities are the most affected. The primary causes are excessive demand, slow development of water supply projects, and pollution. Water shortages affect about 2% of total output. China's cities are supplementing supplies by diverting water away from farmers. Lowering of the water table increases pumping costs. It is still undetermined as to whether China will adapt to avoid tragedy or postpone tragedy.
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