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Your search found 38 Results

  1. 1

    Breastfeeding practices and nutritional status of children at high altitude in Ladakh [letter]

    Cvejic E; Ades S; Flexer W; Gray-Donald K

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1997 Dec; 43(6):376.

    In collaboration with the Children Fund's Leh nutrition project, a nutritional survey of 12 villages of the Wanla area in Ladakh, India, was undertaken. Height, mid-arm circumference (MAC), and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were measured and the presence of edema was noted. Measurements were obtained for 152/198 children aged less than 8 years. Information on length of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of other foods, and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables was obtained from their mothers. The percentage of children classified as stunted (height-for- age z-score < 2 SD NCHS) was 53 per cent at less than 1 year but greater than 80 per cent after this age. The mean height-for-age z-score was --3.2. Mid-arm muscle area was below the 15th percentile for 30 per cent of those under 2 years, but approximately 80 per cent of the older children fell below this cut-off. A very similar pattern was seen with skin-fold thickness. Both height and muscle area were below the 5th percentile for 25 per cent of male children and 14 per cent of female children, indicating that these children were likely to be chronically malnourished. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Human capital, heterogeneity, and the estimation of degrees of intergenerational mobility.

    Han S; Mulligan CB

    Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1997. 38 p. (Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series No. 97-3)

    Some of the important implications of the parental investment model of intergenerational mobility have been derived under the assumption that parental income is the only source of heterogeneity. We explicitly model the variability and inheritability of "innate" earnings ability and variability of tastes (altruism rates) and show how this heterogeneity affects the observed intergenerational consumption and earnings mobility. Three main analytic and simulated results are found. First, heterogeneity reduces the observed differences in the predictions on degrees of intergenerational mobility by different models. Second, when the elasticity of substitution between parents' and child's consumption is smaller than 1, imperfect capital market models and permanent income models are practically indistinguishable in terms of OLS estimates of degrees of consumption mobility. In terms of observed earning mobility, the empirical usefulness of the imperfect capital markets model decreases with the elasticity of substitution between parents' and child's consumption. Third, mechanical models tend to overestimate the degrees of consumption persistence and underestimate the degrees of earning persistence for poorer families. The problem of misspecification of mechanical models is not serious in estimating the degrees of intergeneration mobility of both consumption and earnings for richer families. (author's)
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  3. 3

    The demand for non-relative child care among preschoolers: a double-hurdle approach.

    Joesch JM; Hiedemann BG

    Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1997 Dec. [49] p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 98-4)

    Survey data indicate that many parents do not use non-parental care for their young children, even when both parents work. Previous studies of the demand for child care assumed that all parents respond to financial incentives. Since non-consumption may be the result of social, psychological or ethical considerations and unconnected with price and income levels, this assumption may not be appropriate. To assess the sensitivity of child care demand estimates to assumptions about reasons for non-consumption, we estimate the demand for non-relative care for preschoolers with double-hurdle, tobit and dominance models. The results suggest that both financial and non-financial considerations lead to zero child care consumption, that the decision to use any care differs from the decision of how many hours of care to use and that estimates vary by the child's age. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Food consumption in rural and urban Tanzania.

    Mazengo MC; Simell O; Lukmanji Z; Shirima R; Karvetti RL

    Acta Tropica. 1997; 68:313-326.

    Food consumption of 177 rural and 94 urban subjects (98 aged 12 years, 105 aged 35–44 years, and 68 aged 65–74 years) was studied in rural and urban Ilala district, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, to characterize rural–urban differences in the meal and snack patterns and intakes of energy and nutrients. Food consumption of each subject was studied using 24 h dietary recall once during the rainy season and once during the dry season. Micro Nutrica PC database, expanded with East African food composition tables, was used in the nutrient intake analyses. All urban and 92% of rural subjects had three daily meals, and snacks were as commonly eaten in both areas of the survey. Foods of animal origin, e.g. meat and milk, were seldom used by the rural subjects. The WHO:FAO recommended minimal daily allowances of energy and protein were not reached by 26 and 15% of the rural subjects, respectively (10 and 4% of the urban subjects). Mean intake of folic acid by rural subjects was clearly below that of the urban subjects. Intakes of sucrose, mono- and disaccharides combined, polysaccharides, fibre and cholesterol differed markedly in all age groups in rural and urban circumstances (P < 0.05). Intake of fat and saturated fat was extremely low in all age groups, particularly in the rural subjects. The data suggest that (sub)clinical protein-energy malnutrition is prelevant in Tanzania, and that the high intakes of sucrose and cholesterol and the low intake of fibre by the urban subjects may increase the prevalence of dental caries and cardiovascular diseases in that population. (author's)
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  5. 5

    Consumption patterns by income groups and carbon-dioxide implications for India: 1990-2010.

    Parikh J; Panda M; Murthy NS

    International Journal of Global Energy Issues. 1997; 9(4-6):237-55.

    This paper highlights consumption pattern differences across income classes in India, namely the top 10%, middle 40% and the bottom 50% of the population in rural and urban areas. The analysis is based on an input-output model that uses consumption expenditure distribution data from various sources. It examines direct and indirect demand on resources and carbon-dioxide emissions due to consumption of each of these income classes. Out of a total of 167 metric tons carbon (mtC) of carbon emissions in 1989-90, 62% was due to private consumption, 12% from direct consumption by households and remaining 50% due to indirect consumption of intermediates like power, steel and cement, while the rest was attributed to investment, government consumption and exports. The analysis reveals that the consumption of the rich is oriented more towards energy using sectors like electricity and transport, and uses relatively more resources in the form of minerals and metal products. The net effect is that the rich have a more carbon intensive lifestyle. The per capita direct and indirect emission level of the urban rich is about 15 times that of the rural poor and yet about the same as the world average. In a scenario where private consumption expenditure is expected to reach twice the 1990 level by 2010, carbon-dioxide emissions are projected to rise to 502 mtC. The low purchasing power of the poor results in their dependence on nature and the environment. This points to the conclusion that poverty is unsustainable. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Ecological footprints of nations. How much nature do they use? How much nature do they have?

    Wackernagel M; Onisto L; Callejas Linares A; Lopez Falfan IS; Mendez Garcia J

    Xalapa, Mexico, Universidad Anahuac de Xalapa, Centro de Estudios para la Sustentabilidad, 1997 Mar 10. 32, [5] p.

    This "Ecological Footprints of Nations" initiative compares the ecological impact of 52 large nations, inhabited by 80% of the world population. It also shows to what extent their consumption can be supported by their local ecological capacity. All the calculations are based on official UN statistics. This document provides solid evidence that the human enterprise already far exceeds the long-term biophysical carrying capacity of the planet. About one-third more resources and eco-services are used by humanity than what nature can regenerate. People are living on the biophysical heritage of their children. Most significantly, eco-footprint analysis shows that it is the high-income countries that have appropriated most of the world's ecological output. In conclusion, sustainability begins with accepting the fact that people are dependent on nature and should acknowledge the problems posed by unsustainable lifestyles. Progress is only possible if there is a clear vision and measurable goals toward it. The contribution of this study was to show that the ecological bottom-line of sustainability can be measured. This document also presents systemic assessment to give direction for local, national, and global efforts to close the sustainability gap, which became an effective strategic planning tool and a guidepost for a more secure, equitable, and sustainable future.
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  7. 7

    Rio + 5: picking up the pieces.

    Hinrichsen D

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1997; 6(4):4-5.

    The UN General Assembly Special Session held during June 1997 has failed to take forward the objectives set out at the Earth Summit in Rio, casting doubt on the global effort to create a sustainable future. This article presents a balance sheet set out by Don Hinrichsen in the wake of Rio+5. It outlines the progress made by the UN as well as the prevailing issues, which need to be acted upon immediately. It is noted that little progress has been made since the Summit; only the issues of population, forests, and oceans have been given attention, subsequently achieving a significant progress. However, the UN has failed in addressing the issues of poverty, high consumption, management of freshwater, and the continued loss and impoverishment of biological diversity. Little or lack of progress has been made since Rio in implementing recommendations tackling such problems. In the context of the issues regarding land degradation and climate change, assessing progress would be too early for these aspects.
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  8. 8

    Why immigration reduction is necessary to protect the environment. U.S. population growth: primary cause of environmental degradation.

    Carrying Capacity Network

    [Washington, D.C.], Carrying Capacity Network, [1997]. 15, [1] p.

    This article identifies population growth and immigration as the primary cause of environmental degradation in the US. The US has ample natural resources, but population growth forces a shift of open land to residential, industrial, and infrastructure use and results in increased consumption and pollution. About 94% of old-growth forests have been cut down. 99% of tall grass prairie is gone. Only 103 million of the original 221 million acres of wetlands remain. Coastal areas are experiencing the stress of population density and degradation from run-off. Over 2 million acres of prime cropland are lost to erosion, salinization, and waterlogging. The US has surpassed its carrying capacity. Reducing consumption is necessary, but so is reduced population growth. Population is expected to double over the next 60 years. Arable land is expected to be reduced by over 50% (250 million acres). Domestic food prices will increase due to the loss of farmland per person. Water consumption must decline by 50% in accordance with population growth and resources. Groundwater that supplies 31% of agricultural use is being depleted 25% faster than replenishment. An overview is provided of loss of biodiversity, social effects, and energy deficits. If population had stabilized at 1940s levels of 135 million, oil imports would not be necessary. Immigrants have a higher fertility rate and contribute 700,000 or more births yearly. A moratorium on immigration would give billions of dollars in relief. 11 fallacies are identified that are used to thwart immigration reduction and population stabilization efforts.
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  9. 9

    Water scarcity: a fundamental crisis for Jordan.

    Jaber JO; Probert SD; Badr O

    APPLIED ENERGY. 1997; 57(2-3):103-27.

    This article defines the problems of the Fertile Crescent region, and discusses the nature and extent of water resources and their management in Jordan. Jordan was once covered with naturally occurring forests and now has few natural freshwater supplies. Local rainfall is low, irregular, and unevenly distributed over the country. About 80% of Jordan is desert, which receives rainfall of under 50 mm annually. Rainfall is highest over the highlands. Water is channeled, dammed, or allowed to flood low lying areas. The remainder enters underground aquifers. Climate affects evaporation losses of water. The average evaporation rate amounts to about 94% of the average precipitation rate, which leads to increased water salinity in aquifers and reservoirs. Jordan obtains most of its supplies from rainfall in the winter. Jordan exploits surface water resources and renewable and nonrenewable groundwater resources. Per capita water supplies declined during 1987-95. The rate of water consumption exceeds renewable water supplies. Water shortages have reduced the use of fertile land for production, reduced the use of oil shale as an energy source, and reduced economic development because of high capital investment for water harnessing. Future efforts should focus on reuse of waste water, brackish water desalinization, and rainwater collection, which could satisfy about 30% of present water demand. Oil shale and waste heat from open-cycle gas turbines could be used for desalinization processes and generation of electric power. The likely doubling of population by 2020 creates a strong incentive to address water deficit issues.
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  10. 10

    Towards viable drinking water services.

    Hukka JJ; Katko TS

    NATURAL RESOURCES FORUM. 1997; 21(3):161-7.

    This article offers a framework for developing viable drinking water services and institutional development in developing countries. The framework evolved from the authors' research and field experience in transition and developing economies. Viability is related to operative technology, appropriate organizations, and adequate cost recovery within the context of water resources, human and economic resources, sociocultural conditions, and other constraints. The ability of institutions to solve the problems of coordination and production depends upon player motivation, the complexity of the environment, and the ability of the players to control the environment. Third party enforcement of agreements are essential to reduce gains from opportunism, cheating, and shirking. Empirical research finds that per capita water production costs are 4 times higher in centralized systems and lowest in decentralized systems with coordination from a central party. Three-tiered systems of governments, regulators, and service providers are recommended. Management options must be consumer driven. The worst case scenario is consumer's reliance on vending and reselling with no alternative source of supply. Policies should have a strong focus on institutional reforms in the water sector, the development of a consumer driven water sector, facilitation of appropriate private-public partnerships, sound management of existing capital assets, a system for building viability into national strategies for the water sector, and financially self-sufficient and consumer responsible water supply organizations.
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  11. 11

    On the resurgent population and food debate.

    Johnson DG


    During the 1980s, the European Union, the US, and Japan followed policies designed to limit the production of grain. In so doing, the production and stock of grain declined during the decade in developed countries. However, grain production increased in developing countries during the 1980s, causing the overall world supply of grain to grow faster than demand. International market prices for grain have been falling since the 1970s. Despite claims to the contrary, reputable studies of prospective food supply and demand indicate that there will be continued improvement in per capita food consumption, especially in the developing countries. It is highly unlikely that the factors which affect world food supply and demand can either stop the decline in real market prices for grain or result in more than a modest increase in world grain trade. While China may become a major grain importer, central and eastern Europe may become major net grain exporters who compete with traditional exporters. The likely future trend in real world grain prices is good news for urban consumers, but farmers in developing countries will have to continually adjust to the eroding prices of their product. The author discusses population and well-being since Malthus' first edition, the population growth rate as an unimportant factor in determining population well-being, negative population growth rates, recent world food developments, prospects for the future supply and demand of food, and implications for world trade.
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  12. 12

    Critical trends: global change and sustainable development.

    United Nations. Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1997. iv, 76 p. (ST/ESA/255)

    This report identifies critical long-term trends in environmental and socioeconomic matters and policy implications. This report will be used for preliminary meetings for the next Earth Summit + 5. Seven chapters focus on development and the environment, trends in world population, energy and materials consumption, the food supply, water resources, human development, and conclusions. Developing countries are rapidly following patterns of developed countries. There is a global pattern of consumerism and capitalism. Wealth differences are separating the rich from the poor. Poor countries continue to be marginalized in a very visible way. Environmental air and water quality is improving in developed countries, but is deteriorating in developing countries. Concern about nonrenewable resources has lessened. Concern focuses on the threat of continuing degradation of renewable resources. The issues that constrain sustainable development are growing poverty, population growth and urbanization, fossil fuel consumption, and rapid natural resource degradation. Positive signs include positive economic forecasts, accelerated technological innovations, and the spread of democratic institutions. Population programs, agricultural management techniques, and high standards of public health and education have positive effects. Policy has failed to eradicate poverty, improve access to sanitation and energy supplies, and reduce natural resource degradation. Constraints include lack of financial resources, lack of institutional capacity, and political unwillingness. Promising policy approaches include increased investment in people, encouragement of clean and efficient technologies, and pricing reforms.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    Lado C

    GEOJOURNAL. 1997 Jan; 41(1):43-53.

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption.
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  14. 14

    National autonomy, labor migration and political crisis: Yemen and Saudi Arabia.

    Okruhlik G; Conge P

    MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL. 1997 Autumn; 51(4):554-65.

    This article explores the political and economic relationships in the 1980s and 1990s between Saudi Arabia and North Yemen as related to Yemeni labor migration and return migration in 1990. Saudi Arabia was home to about 2 million Yemeni labor migrants. This work force was reduced to about 1 million when oil prices declined. Yemen received substantial remittances, which fueled consumption and autonomy among rural institutions. Governments came to depend on indirect taxation of remittances through customs duties. Local institutions were funded largely by donations from migrants and their families. Central elites at the national level pressured local elites, who were weakened by the loss of revenue when labor migration declined in the 1980s. Central policies helped local areas adjust to declining funds. This enhanced national political power. In 1990, when Saudi Arabia shifted policy on Yemeni labor migration and Yemenis fled home, the united North and South Yemen absorbed the massive return migration. The state's control over society had increased sufficiently during the 1980s that Saudi Arabia's desire to exploit local autonomous groups failed and a smooth unification of the two Yemeni populations proceeded. Yemen had been united for 3 months before the Saudi decision. Yemen's decision to remain neutral in the Iraq-Kuwait conflict stimulated the Saudi action to threaten Yemeni migrants. Saudi Arabia tried again to undermine stability in Yemen when violence erupted in 1994; but Yemen was cohesive, independent, and secure and had a newly discovered oil reserve, which buffered the Saudis' efforts to influence events in Yemen.
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  15. 15

    Birth control as an international program.

    Tang RF

    POLITICS AND THE LIFE SCIENCES. 1997 Sep; 16(2):222-3.

    The author agrees with Kenneth Smail that human overpopulation is of global concern. However, while birth control policy has been implemented in China for more than 20 years, Chinese people rarely consider the population problem from an international perspective. Population growth and size must be limited because the world is running out of food and other resources. The rapid rise in world population is creating problems for all countries because there are just not enough resources. Raw materials are being consumed at an increasing rate and food production cannot keep pace with the rate of population increase. Almost all discussions about population policy in international forums are about if or how population control policy should be carried out in developing countries. However, people in the wealthy, developed countries consume a far greater proportion of the world's resources and produce more pollution than do people in developing countries. Population control policy should therefore be followed in both developed and developing countries.
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  16. 16

    The population / environment predicament: even more urgent than supposed.

    Myers N

    POLITICS AND THE LIFE SCIENCES. 1997 Sep; 16(2):211-3.

    Kenneth Smail is right to be pessimistic about the potential for global population to grow beyond Earth's carrying capacity. He may, however, not be pessimistic enough, especially since projections indicate that the present population of 5.8 billion will grow to 9.4 billion by 2050. These projections do not take account of nondemographic factors, such as the capacity of people in developing countries to obtain food and survive in order to produce offspring. 1.2 billion of the 3.6 billion people projected to be added worldwide by 2050 will be in sub-Saharan Africa. The region will therefore grow from its current size of 605 million to 1.8 billion, a much larger increase than elsewhere in the developing world. Africa, however, is not likely to be able to support even 1 billion people in the near future. Furthermore, if the present population doubles by the end of the next century, global energy and resource consumption will grow by a factor of 15, especially if developing countries succeed in their current efforts to significantly improve their citizens' standard of living near that enjoyed in developed countries. Consumption at such a level would be unsustainable given the Earth's limited capacity to absorb pollution among other forms of waste.
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  17. 17

    An overview of population and environmental change in Thailand.

    Satoh T

    In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Tokyo, Japan, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, 1997 Mar 3. 37-53.

    This paper presents a report on the trend of energy consumption and CO2 emission in Thailand during the 1980s, when the country experienced rapid economic growth....The analysis...reveals the importance of modern economic activity as a determinant factor that basically regulates the environmental loads....It is certain that industrialization promotes the increase of fossil energy consumption, but at the same time, it is expected to decelerate deforestation caused by the expansion of farmland. (EXCERPT)
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  18. 18

    Population, environment, and development: interactions and issues.

    Reidhead PW; Qureshy LF; Narain V

    In: Population, environment, and development, edited by R. K. Pachauri and Lubina F. Qureshy. New Delhi, India, Tata Energy Research Institute [TERI], 1997. 45-68.

    The authors discuss ways of achieving sustainable development given the constraints imposed by population and the environment. Aspects considered include poverty and environment, urbanization and migration, food security, consumption and the North-South debate, and policy suggestions. (ANNOTATION)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Population size and environmental quality.

    Cronshaw MB; Requate T

    JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS. 1997; 10(3):299-316.

    A simple general equilibrium analysis was presented about first best allocations in an economy where a consumption good is produced using labor. Considered was an economy with consumers whose preferences are identical, and their welfare depends on their private levels of consumption, the labor supply, and the aggregate emissions in the economy. Production results in pollution, which is a public bad. Pollution abatement can be achieved either by restricting production or by using additional labor. Consumers were unambiguously worse off as population grew, since the environment is a finite resource. However, the best level of emissions grew steadily as the population increased, hence the deterioration was not attributable to a fixed factor. The causes contributing to consumers being worse off included reduced consumption, increased labor supply, and/or increased pollution. The variation with population size of the first best levels of consumption, labor, and emissions indicated that per capita consumption and emissions were decreasing, while per capita labor and aggregate emissions were more ambiguous. An optimal emission tax had to be increased as the population grew. It was considered how the first best allocation and Pigouvian tax varied with population size. Consumers are unambiguously worse off when the population is larger, but not necessarily due to increased pollution. In fact, optimal policy on how pollution and labor should vary with population size is very sensitive to preferences and technology. The best response to an increase in population size might be either to increase or to decrease emissions and/or labor, depending on functional forms and parameters. However, given separable preferences and some convexity, the optimal emissions tax increases and the first best level of per capita consumption decreased with population size.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    The effects of gender control on fertility and children's consumption.

    Davies JB; Zhang J


    The authors analyzed the effects of preference for children of a particular gender upon fertility and children's welfare, with and without sex selection or gender control. The impacts upon investments in children's human capital, bequests, and fertility are studied in a model based upon parental altruism. Both pure sex preference, a feature of the parental utility function, and indirect preference resulting from price effects are modelled in this paper. When there is no gender control, the impact of pure sex preference is seen in smaller consumption for daughters than for sons. However, when gender control is employed, sex preference increases the sex ratio and it is possible that sisters may on, average, consume no less than their more numerous brothers. Parents who practice gender control have larger families than if sex selection techniques were unavailable. The effect is magnified if sons' earnings opportunities are better than daughters.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Endogenous fertility in a model with non-dynastic parental altruism.

    Kollmann R


    An economic model of fertility choice is presented and discussed in which the utility level of agents depends upon their consumption, the number of children they have, and upon the consumption of their children. Parents are altruistic toward their children, but in a more limited sense than in the fertility model presented by Becker and Barro in 1988, in which the utility of parents depends upon the utility of their children and therefore indirectly upon the consumption and fertility decisions made by all subsequent generations. The concept of a bequest equilibrium is used to solve the nondynastic model considered. The steady state birth rate was found to be lower in the nondynastic model than in the Becker-Barro model. However, the key qualitative predictions concerning the dynamic behavior of fertility are surprisingly similar in both models.
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  22. 22

    Consumption in relation to population, environment and development.

    Myers N

    ENVIRONMENTALIST. 1997 Spring; 17(1):33-44.

    Consumption is defined as the total spending on goods, investments, and services that changes materials and energy and reduces availability of natural resources for the future. The rich consume on a grand scale, but marginal consumption by large numbers of poor people can also deplete nonrenewable resources. This article discusses the complex relationships between consumption and population and between these two factors and environment and development. Consumption of natural resources since the mid-1900s has surpassed consumption prior to that time. The richest 20% of the global population have doubled their per capita consumption of energy, meat, timber, steel, and copper and have quadrupled the number of cars owned since 1950. The poorest 20% barely increased their per capita consumption. 40% of the total world population accounts for 6.5% of the world's income. The US, with under 5% of world population, consumes about 30% of the resources. The US standard of consumption is the desired ideal in many countries, but this standard is not justified. A low projected global population of 6 billion population would increase consumption by 8.4 times. Food and energy examples are used to illustrate the resource impact. Policy must move toward sustainable consumption and meet needs differently, develop environmentally friendly goods and services, and change the nature and extent of consumption. Policy must internalize externalities, eliminate perverse subsidies, calculate the ecological impact, promote efficiency and sufficiency, mobilize the media, and set "best practices" examples. Science also has responsibilities. The future rests with decisions about how to design a better system or a default option until failures in ecological and social systems appear. Life styles should emphasize nonmaterial satisfactions. The ratio of poor to rich is 60:1, which is unacceptable. Rich citizens will eventually need to pay the price of a change in their philosophies.
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  23. 23

    Population, consumption, and continuous economic progress.

    Zhang SL


    China's enormous population is the major obstacle to ongoing economic development in the country. Consumer demands drive market-based consumption-dominated economies. China's huge population is simply a basic feature of the country. As such, the country's consumption strategy should be based upon the condition of such a large population. China will give priority to the development of labor-intensive industry and devote much attention to science and technology. All Chinese people hope that China will increase the speed at which it modernizes. However, it is unclear how to achieve that goal over the long term. It will be problematic if China follows the path of Japan and Western Europe after World War II. The nation should instead give priority to the development of labor-intensive industry since industry in the developed countries is capital- and technology-intensive. In so doing, China will exploit its resource advantage while reducing the high national level of unemployment.
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  24. 24

    Counterurbanisation and rural depopulation revisited: landowners, planners and the rural development process.

    Spencer D

    JOURNAL OF RURAL STUDIES. 1997 Jan; 13(1):75-92.

    This paper reopens the debate between Weekley (1988) and Rowsell (1989) over why pockets of depopulation have persisted within parts of rural Britain which have experienced net growth through counterurbanisation. It argues that Weekley has not fully appreciated the context for local population losses, namely the emergence of a new structural relationship between people, households, and dwellings, and the growing tension between production and consumption interests in rural locales. Moreover, the paper disputes claims that depopulation is triggered by the actions of either the landowner or the planner. Drawing on case study material informed by critical realism, it argues that planners and landowners have been drawn into an asymmetrical power relationship. This has tended to buttress landed interests and, in so doing, reproduce mechanisms which protect the less populous communities from growth and change. (EXCERPT)
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  25. 25

    Intergenerational resource flows in Cote d'Ivoire: empirical analysis of aggregate flows.

    Stecklov G

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1997 Sep; 23(3):525-53.

    Application of new intergenerational resource flow models to data from the Ivory Coast 1) reveals that wealth flows from older to younger generations in this high-fertility setting, 2) indicates how wealth is accumulated by individuals, and 3) exposes the complementary role of private and public transfers in the redistribution of resources between different age groups. The article begins with a review of the theory and evidence covering intergenerational transfers. The next section notes that data for the present study were gathered from the World Bank's 1986 Living Standards Measurement Study of the Ivory Coast and discusses 1) reasons for the fact that per capita consumption is about 20% greater than per capita labor income, 2) the assumptions used to allow individual-level consumption and labor earning measures to be derived from the household-level data, and 3) how individual labor earning estimates were derived. The third section provides the analysis of the consumption and labor income profiles, and section 4 explains the derivation of per capita wealth and per capita transfers. Section 5 deals with the role of population growth, and the sixth section covers the intergenerational flows of public-sector resources through a look at the composition of the public sector in the Ivory Coast, government expenditures, government revenues, and the combination of family and public-sector flows. It is concluded that application of this new framework has yielded important findings including the fact that wealth flows downward in this high-fertility setting. Public-sector flows were also strongly downward and were dominated by education expenses. The average citizen in the Ivory Coast experiences negative life-cycle wealth until nearly age 50. High fertility may continue despite the high cost of children as long as children remain the best source of old-age support for parents.
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