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  1. 1

    Something else to chew on. The 30 hour famine activities and resources guide.

    World Vision Canada. 30 Hour Famine

    Mississauga, Canada, World Vision Canada, [1993]. [2], 36 p.

    This activity and resources guide was produced for use with people aged 14-18 years old, although in many cases it can be adapted for use with adults and younger adolescents. Canadians need a better understanding of the developing world, the root causes of poverty, and the principles of lasting development. This guide will help teachers, educators, students, and youth group leaders in Canada go beyond the typical media images of hunger and poverty to see more clearly their connections to global issues of poverty, environmental degradation, and human justice. It is hoped that participating in the guide's activities will impart in participants a sense of global community, shared responsibility, and awareness of opportunities to act. Interactive, participatory exercises are one of the best ways to build empathy and awareness. Accordingly, this guide has a variety of challenging, participatory activities which can be adapted to particular settings.
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  2. 2

    Policy statement on population and the environment.

    Social Science Research Council [SSRC]; International Social Science Council [ISSC]; Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era [DAWN]

    FOCUS ON GENDER. 1993 Feb; 1(1):22-3.

    Inequalities in distribution of wealth, uneven use and distribution of resources, and human settlement patterns contribute more to environmental degradation than does population size. Current global economic strategies and policy decisions affect population and the natural environment. Large-scale technology and communications, the globalization of capital, subordination within world markets, and increasing consumption levels have broken down livelihoods and the environment. Therefore, contrary to popular opinion, population growth is not the key variable in environmental degradation. The erosion of livelihoods really affect women, especially poor women. Legal and political rights, women's economic independence, education, health, access to reproductive health services, and improved child survival greatly influence fertility decline. The disintegration of women's livelihoods restricts their access to health services and education. We cannot depend on capitalism to protect our livelihoods or the health of the environment. So nongovernmental organizations, international agencies, and national and local governments must do so. Assessments of intensive agriculture, industries destroying the social and physical environment, and military activities are critically needed. We need to reassess the macroeconomic forces affecting the natural environment and livelihoods of the poor. Communities should influence and demand policies and regulations preserving their access to resources. Women must participate more intensely in decision making. They should have access to key services. Citizens should have more access to information on environmental damage of industrialized products and processes. All of us need to advocate for more environmentally sound and sustainable forms of development and technology. People at the local, national, and global levels must work to change values that have caused overconsumption, thereby promoting a new ethic centering on caring for people and the environment.
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  3. 3

    Taking population out of the equation: reformulating I=PAT.

    Hynes HP

    North Amherst, Massachusetts, Institute on Women and Technology, 1993. iv, 59 p.

    This book presents a reformulation of the population/environment formula known as I = PAT, where "I" is human impact on the environment, "P" is population size, "A" is goods consumed per capita, and "T" is pollution generated by technology per good consumed. The introduction describes the formula and its attractiveness. The next section explains that the formula is so entrenched that critics and advocates debate its merits from a position within its argot. Feminists, on the other hand, would reform I = PAT to add key structural factors that reflect elements of social and environmental justice. The book continues by critically analyzing each factor in the equation and then offering corrections that 1) separate survival consumption from luxury consumption; 2) introduce a factor to account for military pollution; 3) introduce the element of environmental conservation; and 4) account for human agency. The new formula would be I = C - PAT, where "I" is human impact, "C" is conservation, "P" is patriarchy, "A" is consumption shaped by economic realities, and "T" is environmentally injurious technology. It is recommended 1) that women's health and environmental organizations replace the population framework with the feminist framework, introduce agency, educate women and men, and redirect contraceptive technology and research and 2) that environmental organizations teach ecological literacy, examine consumption, and support grassroots and urban environmentalism.
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  4. 4

    Aging, intergenerational distribution and public pension systems.

    Jensen SE; Nielsen SB

    PUBLIC FINANCE/FINANCES PUBLIQUES. 1993; 48, Suppl.:29-42.

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model capable of addressing the macroeconomic and distributional effects of demographic shocks in a small open economy. Two sources of population aging are examined, viz. lower birth rates and prolonged expected lifetimes at retirement age. Due to strong expectational effects, both shocks are found to change average consumption in a downward direction, in the short run as well as in the long run. This effect is matched by a strong net acquisition of foreign assets. Furthermore, it turns out that the intergenerational distribution of the burden of adjusting to an aging population is strongly dependent on whether the benefit rate, the contribution rate, or the relative non-capital income of pensioners and workers is held fixed. (EXCERPT)
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  5. 5

    Family planning: overview on population, environment and development.

    Husain IZ

    In: Family planning. Meeting challenges: promoting choices. The proceedings of the IPPF Family Planning Congress, New Delhi, October 1992, edited by Pramilla Senanayake and Ronald L. Kleinman. Carnforth, England, Parthenon Publishing Group, 1993. 35-50.

    The debate about population, development, and the environment has recently flared up. The focus has been on sustainable development and the elimination of population growth in such works as "Our Common Future" (1987), "The Population Explosion" (1990), and "The Third Revolution: Environment, Population and a Sustainable World" (1992). In contrast, Barry Commoner challenged these views in his 1991 book by maintaining that polluting technologies and high consumption, not population growth, are the main causes of environmental degradation. The population-environment relationship was further analyzed in the World Bank's "World Development Report 1992", projecting that the absolute number of poor in the world will be higher in 2000 than in 1985. In this context, water scarcity is analyzed because of its increasing implications in Africa and elsewhere. In 1950 there were 33,000 cubic meters of water per capita, but by 1992 the annual amount had shrunk to about 8000 cubic meters. Extensive population growth has resulted in clearing rain forests, which in turn led to loss of water in soil, floods, landslides, and erosion. Urban growth has also reduced water supplies by contributing to water pollution. In Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone rapid population growth has abused soil resources and led to depletion of water supplies. The worldwide average amount of cropland available is projected to decline from 0.28 hectares per capita in 1990 to 0.17 hectares per capita by 2025. Worldwide demand for fresh water is expected to more than double by the year 2000, while the availability of water per capita is decreasing. In 1990, 46 countries with almost 3 billion people experienced water stress. By 2025, 61 countries with more than 5 billion people will be experiencing water stress. Although during the decade of 1980 and 1990 another 1.3 billion people gained access to safe drinking water, about 1.2 people still do not have safe drinking water. Sound economic policies could eliminate shortages of water with the assistance of national environmental commissions, nongovernmental organizations, and the International Commission on Sustainable Development.
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  6. 6

    Challenging the planet: connections between population and the environment.

    Population Action International

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 1993. [2], 28, [1] p.

    Population Action International's (PAI) colorful brochure on environmental awareness focuses on the lessons of the past, the state of environmental science, the challenge of population growth, the path to stabilization, and group efforts. The story of environmental awareness unfolds with selected statements and pictures germane to seven points of view. The backside of each picture documents important statistics in table, graph, or chart form. 1) The view is expressed that human beings are adaptable and ingenious. Rapid population growth is viewed as posing challenges to the earth's capacity to support a variety of life forms and a decent quality of life. 2) Environmental trends reflect both the patterns of population growth and the patterns of consumption and technology use. Inequalities of power and wealth influence these patterns. 3) The conclusion is that past environmental impacts are disastrous to humans when thresholds are reached. 4) The view is held that all individual human action impacting on the environment must be considered in full for a comprehensive analysis of the population and environmental links. 5) The consequence of slowing population growth is the gift of time for preserving the environment and alleviating poverty. 6) Quality of life is improved when people are given the choice to make their own reproductive decisions. 7) Top priorities are assigned to closing the gap between rich and poor and reducing overconsumption. PAI aims to show a commitment to research, advocacy, and resources for stabilizing world population by offering universal reproductive freedom. PAI states its goals of access to safe affordable, voluntary family planning services and opportunities for women. The environmental program offers a profile of recent research and policy advice and disseminates the information in a timely and accessible way. Groups are encouraged to address population issues and take action to provide conditions conducive to population decline without jeopardizing an individual's reproductive rights. The aim is identified as establishment of a worldwide network of activists and organizations who exchange information and channel political power for constructive action.
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  7. 7

    Whose future? Whose world? [editorial]

    Lancet. 1993 Nov 6; 342(8880):1125-6.

    Nehru said at India's independence that humanity would be following the course of destiny. That destiny will be threatened by lack of fresh water and soil deficit and populous countries such as China (2.5 children per woman), India (4.0), Indonesia (3.1), Brazil (3.3), Pakistan (5.9), Bangladesh (4.6), and Nigeria (6.0). There is hope in having available, safe, effective, and reversible contraceptive technology for meeting the needs of the world's 100 million women who do not wish any more children and are not now using any method of fertility control. Delegates at various Population Summits have repeatedly suggested that hope for lower population size was gained by increasing education among the population, increasing educational opportunity for women, and reducing poverty. Women were reportedly 33% of the global labor force but were recipients of 10% of the global income, were responsible for 66% of hours worked, and owned under 1% of the world's property. Scientists must improve upon the failed advice of economists that development was the best contraceptive. Governments must fund solutions, because of the debt owed to those less affluent who have been exploited in the past. At the 1993 New Delhi Population Summit, 56 scientific academies agreed that a stable world population must be achieved as part of the solution to social, economic, and environmental problems of the world. Zero population growth must be achieved within one generation. Developing countries were caught in a poverty trap. In 1992, the British Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences agreed that catastrophe would result if the developing world continued to strive to achieve the same living standards with the same consumption levels of the developed world. There must be a balance in the distribution of resources and demands on resources. Global projections of population suggested a total world population of over 10 billion by 2050. There was a grave question as to whether life support systems could sustain the changes and size of this force.
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  8. 8

    Population growth and the food supply: conflicting perspectives.

    Bongaarts J

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1993. 37 p. (Research Division Working Papers No. 53)

    This review aims to expose the diversity of existing views on the consequences of rapid population growth for food production and to summarize the opposing views on the state of natural resources. A deteriorating environment is viewed as inevitable and the developing world improves its standard of living and population increases. Population is expected to reach 10 billion people by 2050. Food consumption varies by quantity, quality, and country. The developed world has a diet rich enough in calories and animal products to impair health, while Africans have the poorest diets and Latin Americans the best in the developing world. The developing world's 4.1 billion population in 1990 consumes an average of 4000 gross and 2500 net calories of food crops per capita every day. Production needs in 1990 are 0.7 billion hectares of harvested land with an average crop yield of 2.2 tons of grain per hectare (tge/ha), or its equivalent in nongrain crops. Net imports are 5% of the food supply in the developing world. The needs for 2050 and a population of 8.7 billion can be estimated based on the following scenarios: 1) no change in diets, 2) a 50% increase in gross per capita intake to 6000 calories per day, or 3) a 150% increase as represented in diets in developed countries. Production needs for option one would be an increase from 2.2 tge/ha to 4.7 tge/ha in 2050. Option two would require 14 tge/ha, which is an impossibility considering the current US cereal production is 4.2 tge/ha. Harvested land would need to increase by 50% by 2050 and yields would have to increase to 3.1 tge/ha for option one, 5.2 tge/ha for option two, and 9.3 tge/ha for option three. Global weather conditions are likely to change due to greenhouse emissions and global warming, which will both positively and negatively affect agriculture. The question remains as to how to apply new technology for growth in agriculture for increased production and acceptable environmental costs. Progress is unlikely to be uniform, and the poor will suffer the most. Three hunger scenarios are possible: poor countries with no reserves of land or water and reliance on food aid, ample resources and unequal distribution and ineffective policies, and political instability and civil strife.
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  9. 9

    Parental consumption decisions and child health during the early French fertility decline, 1790-1914.

    Weir DR

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY. 1993 Jun; 53(2):259-74.

    A theoretical framework followed by an empirical test was used to explain the relationship between heights, nutrient consumption, and real gross domestic product in France between 1790 and 1914. The time series and cross sectional analyses aimed to determine whether there is significant substitution between quantity and quality of children. Data were arrayed by department (90) at nine 10-year intervals, which yields 81 continuous observations and a total sample size of 729. Height data was by single year of birth cohort. Controls were included for the northeast region, where heights were the tallest. Five different reduced form models showed an indirect relationship between fertility and height. The first model showed marital fertility having a strongly negative effect on height and explained 22% of the variance in heights. During 1790-1911 French marital fertility declined from 0.8 to 0.3, which added about 25 mm or an English inch of height. In fact, height did increase by this amount. The second model included time trends and regional patterns of height; the result was a reduction in the magnitude of the coefficient. The third model included real wages, which had a negative impact on height, and the crude death rate which had an independent negative influence on height. The regional effect remained strong. The coefficient of marital fertility remained significant but smaller. Model four, with urbanization included, showed a positive effect. Model five included literacy rates, which were strongly correlated with height. The interpretation is made that literacy investments are directly complementary to investments in better nutrition. Food consumption per capita accounts for only a small portion of the increase in height and regional differences. The effect of food consumption is determined by the role of disease and the allocation of resources within families. Thus, in the nineteenth century, heights and life expectancy improved the hard way: by expanding food consumption `to improve resistance to disease and to compensate for morbidity demands on calories.
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  10. 10

    Address before the Second Committee of the General Assembly at its 48th Session on agenda item 96: International Conference on Population and Development.

    Mahran M

    [Unpublished] 1993. 4 p.

    This speech by Dr. Maher Mahran, Egyptian Minister for population and family welfare, before the 48th UN general assembly on November 4, 1993, pertained to his remarks on the Annotated Outline for the UN Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in 1994. Brief comments were made about conference preparations and conference facilities progress. The following recommendations were made to strengthen wording on the link between development and population and to use this link as a major thematic area. 1) The analysis of the impact of consumption patterns on economic growth and sustainable development should be expanded to addressed whether degradation of the environment and depletion of resources is due to the consumption patterns of the rich or to greater population numbers. The goal should be to attain reasonable consumption patterns for developed and developing nations. 2) The link between structural adjustment and poverty reduction needs to be included in the draft document; national reports should document the effects of structural adjustment on their economies. 3) The link between rural development and sustained economic growth should be made in the final document. 4) Male responsibilities and participation in population programs must be detailed in a separate chapter, not just in paragraph 17. More research and resource allocation needs to be directed to this area. 5) The active participation of the private sector and local communities should be secured; a definition of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) is needed. 6) Chapter IV, subchapter A with Chapter XI should be combined with chapter IV, subchapter B as a separate entity; and chapter IV, subchapter C should be merged with chapter V. Chapters V and VI, chapters VII and VIII, chapters IX and X, and chapters XI and XII should be combined. 7) Greater emphasis needs to be placed on closing the gender gap and on implementing Safe Motherhood education programs, programs increasing women's status, programs linking ethics and population, programs for the elderly, and education in environmental protection and population. Finances, sovereignty, and NGO's freedom to experiment are other important issues. Egypt provides the example of a success story.
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  11. 11

    The consumer movement in India.

    Girimaji P

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1993 Oct; 1(5):18-20.

    It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and support by voluntary health groups.
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  12. 12

    [Overpopulation is bad, but excessive consumption is worse] La superpoblacion es mala, pero el consumo excesivo es peor.

    Susuki D

    PROFAMILIA. 1993 Dec; 10(22):76-7.

    The notion that consumption in developed countries is the main cause of ecological deterioration and planetary contamination is contested by many who assert that overpopulation in the developing world is the main factor. But the great disparity in income and consumption between rich and poor countries cannot be ignored. Each Canadian consumes 16 to 20 times more than an inhabitant of India or China and 60 to 70 times more than an inhabitant of Bangladesh. Consequently, the 1.1 billion inhabitants of industrialized countries cause ecological effects equivalent to what would be produced by 17 to 70 billion inhabitants of developing countries. The planet could not support 5.5 billion persons consuming at the rate of the 1.1 billion in the developed world. Consumption has been encouraged by the government and businesses in the U.S. and is an important factor in the health of the economy. But increases in consumption are not sustainable indefinitely. Much of current consumption results from inefficiency and waste. The life style of the developed countries has a high price in violence, alienation, alcoholism, vandalism, loneliness, pollution, and disturbance of the family and neighborhood. Becoming content with less consumption and striving for a future based on communities with greater self-confidence and self-sufficiency is a reasonable goal from both ecological and social points of view.
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  13. 13

    Towards the sustenance of our population policy.

    Obasanjo O

    NIGERIA'S POPULATION. 1993 Oct-Dec; 45-6.

    The comments about Nigerian population policy as presented at the population conference in November, 1992, by former head of state General Olusegun Obasanjo were presented. The nature of the population policy focused on improvement in standard of living, promotion of health and welfare, lowering of population growth rates through voluntary fertility regulation, and balanced distribution of population between urban and rural areas. Although the population policy was late in being adopted, it was a step in the proper direction. Fear of survival and security from slave traders and the consequent fertility increases are carryovers from the past. Modern prescriptions for better health care and housing have a higher cost and the quality of life cannot be improved without a reduction in population size. The cost of education from primary school to university is estimated at N 1.5 million. There are those who argue that Africa's 10% of world population and 22.6% of habitable land are sufficient justification for continued uncontrolled population growth. What is neglected is the adjustment necessary when there is exponential population growth. Poverty is a primary cause; no one is safe or secure under these conditions of growing poverty, and revolution may be at hand. There are also those who believe that the population policy was "too little, too late," and that the link between population, development, and the environment must be added to the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of individuals. Both the North and the South have contributed to environmental pollution. There is an interdependency of economic, social, ecological, demographic, and health issues, and accurate knowledge of this dimension is crucial to the design of improved policies. Sustainable development is desirable, but the question remains as to whether the North will limited their conspicuous and obscene consumption of resources. America's prolife prochoice debate misses the point. Prohumanity and proresponsibility are the desired objectives; the concern is not just with individual choice, but the impact of that choice on others. Nigerians must advance with knowledge and understanding to action, and everyone needs to make population a tool for development and prosperity a delight. A partnership between the governed and the government must be forged.
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  14. 14

    Population and consumption issues for environmentalists. A literature search and bibliography prepared by the Population Reference Bureau for the Pew Charitable Trusts' Global Stewardship Initiative.

    de Sherbinin A

    [Unpublished] 1993 Oct. 25, [6] p.

    Generalizations about the link between population and the environment are difficult because of the number of disciplines involved, the demographic diversity, the variety of interrelationships, the politically and emotionally charged nature of the links, and ideological conflicts. Environmentalists no longer attribute population growth as the primary cause of environmental degradation, and many recognize the role of industrialized nations' consumption patterns. Environmentalists are still concerned about balancing supply and demand and promoting population stability. Scientists accept the notion of a long-term rise in temperatures; what is unclear is the scope and impact of global warming. Consumption patterns and technology have affected ozone depletion. The causes in the Northern Hemisphere and the contribution of ozone depletion to increased ultraviolet radiation require further research. Loss of biodiversity has been attributed to habitat changes, overharvesting, chemical pollution, climatic change, introduced species, and population increases. Human institutions may be more important in determining environmental degradation than human numbers. 64 countries with total population of over 1 billion have been identified as having a potential population exceeding carrying capacity. Environmental impacts are best understood on a country-specific basis, according to Bilsborrow and Geores. Rising standards of living have increased production of consumer durables and contribute to pollution from the production process, energy consumption, and solid waste. A tripling of production without serious environmental pollution will depend on technology, efficiency of energy use, extent of recycling, and other protective measures. Energy consumption has increased the most in developing countries. The next major source of international conflict may be water scarcity. There is potential for environmental collapse, and some policy makers dismiss warnings.
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  15. 15

    Demographic dynamics and consumption planning.

    Ketkar KW; Ketkar SL

    In: Population and development planning. Proceedings of the United Nations International Symposium on Population and Development Planning, Riga, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, 4-8 December 1989, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 168-79. (ST/ESA/SER.R/116)

    The objective was to forge a link between demographic dynamics and the structure of consumption for the United States economy by taking into account the effect of changes in 4 demographic variables: 1) the region of location of the household; 2) its size; 3) its age; and 4) the employment status of the woman. Changes in these demographic characteristics of the households are projected by using the log-linear model. The expenditure functions are estimated for various items of personal consumption expenditures. The cross sectional data from the 1972-1973 Consumer Expenditure Survey conducted by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (1980) are used for this purpose. Nearly 20,000 households participated in this survey, during either the 1972 or 1973 calendar years, relating current expenditures on 1651 distinct items of consumption that were matched with 80 categories of personal consumption in the national income accounts. For the United States economy, it is expected that the share of household expenditures will shift away from basic necessities of life, such as food at home and shelter, in favor of items that improve the quality of life or save time, such as restaurant meals and recreation. There will be an increased demand for services, leisure goods and production in favor of non-durable consumer goods. The output of the agricultural sector and of durable consumer and intermediate goods is projected to suffer a decline in the United States. Thus, the methodology proposed in this paper can be used to build a link between demographic dynamics and the structure of production of an economy through changes in the pattern of consumption expenditures.
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  16. 16

    Common inheritance [letter]

    Ruzzante DE; Walde SJ

    NATURE. 1993 Oct 21; 365(6448):688.

    An article on human population growth published in Nature, 1993, in reference to international efforts to stabilize population growth in developing countries, listed health programs, mass education, and elimination of trade barriers as goals but ignored energy consumption. Based on an analysis published by the World Conservation Union, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the World Wildlife Fund, developing countries, which contain 75% of the world's population, account for only 20% of the world's energy consumption. The other 80% occurs in countries where energy consumption is increasing while population size remains relatively stable. The commercial energy consumption rate per capita is 18 times higher in a high consumption country. North Americans produce twice as much carbon dioxide as South Americans, and 10 times as much as those living in South Asia or East Asia (excluding Japan). Curbing fertility rates in developing countries is insufficient to reduce pressure on natural resources. Furthermore, asking developing countries to unilaterally attempt to solve this world problem by reducing fertility rates, without developed countries curbing energy consumption, is irritating to representatives of developing countries. If developed countries reduced energy consumption and its consequent environmental damage, cooperation from developing countries in reducing fertility rates would be more forthcoming.
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  17. 17

    Brundtland: "intractable crisis".

    POPULI. 1993 Nov; 20(10):5-6.

    Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland delivered the 5th Rafael M. Salas lecture at the United Nations in September 1993. The most serious, predictable, and intractable crisis facing us is population growth. If we do not recognize this threat, we will not be able to circumvent it. We must look at population policies in the wider framework of global burden sharing. We must all equally share bills for peace-keeping, peace-building, reducing poverty and famine, preventing environmental threats, and checking population growth. Areas requiring our attention include a need for industrialized nations to change production and consumption patterns, reduction of poverty, meeting basic human needs, a need for developing countries to protect the environment, and curbing population growth to help realize sustainable development. Industrialized nations need to realize the reducing consumption of natural resources does not denote a reduction in the standard of living. Consumption of renewable and abundant resources need not be reduced, however. Structural adjustment programs and external debt prevent developing countries from increasing their health budgets. Military budgets remain unreasonably high in many countries and those that have military budgets greater than a certain level are uncreditworthy. We should be educating a healthy population not arming them. Signs of hope in reference to population growth include: a consistent, overall decline in fertility which is especially sharp in developing countries; and socioeconomic development centering on enhancing human resources overcoming traditional religious and cultural obstacles to fertility decline. The success of family planning programs depends on improving women's status. Men need to become responsible for their sexual behavior, fertility, health, and children. We know what needs to be done to achieve sustainable development, but we mobilize everyone, especially political leaders and the mass media.
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  18. 18

    Fertility and economic growth.

    Zhang J

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1993. viii, 117 p.

    The author models fertility and economic growth simultaneously in overlapping generations frameworks. The first chapter focuses upon the relationship between fertility and wage rates, examining the effects on fertility and growth of subsidies for education and for the cost of rearing children by assuming that agents care about the consumption and number of children. Chapter two compares fertility and economic growth between economies with or without markets and firms by assuming that agents are concerned about the consumption of their old parents and/or the consumption and the number of their children. It is shown that transforming a traditional economy into a market economy brings about lower fertility but faster growth of per capita output if altruism is one-sided towards parents. Chapter three then investigates the effects of social security upon fertility and economic growth. It is shown that an unfunded social security program may speed up economic growth by reducing fertility and increasing the ratio of human capital investment per child to family income even if saving rates fall, and may bring about faster economic growth than a funded program. Even if fertility is exogenous and private intergenerational transfers are operative, the neutrality of unfunded social security fails to hold due to human capital investment in children, although the saving rate is unchanged.
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  19. 19

    The effects of income on food and nutritional status in the Middle Eastern area (1960-1985).

    Younis SJ

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1993. 132 p. (Order No. 9410654)

    Dramatically increased oil prices significantly and rapidly increased the income of most middle eastern countries after 1973. The author reports on the effect of the income growth on food and nutrition status. He looks at per capita income, food consumption, population per physician, crude birth and death rates, infant mortality rate, child death rate, and life expectancy over 1960-85 for the oil exporting countries Algeria, Libya, and Saudi Arabia, the labor exporting countries Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen, and the agriculture producing countries Jordan, Sudan, Syria, and Turkey. The analysis found the income elasticities of wheat, rice, and corn consumption to be less than one for all countries. The income elasticities for egg, beef, and poultry were more than one for most of the countries. Crude birth and death rates, and child and infant mortality rates decreased with increasing income, while population per physician and life expectancy increased. Only Morocco showed insignificant results for most of the analysis.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    Women, insurance capital, and economic development in rural India.

    Rosenzweig MR

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES. 1993 Fall; 28(4):735-58.

    In this paper, longitudinal data from a national probability sample of rural households in India are used to assess how the traditional migration of women across households via marriage, by contributing to consumption smoothing, augments the returns to women as human capital and how these returns are affected by economic development propelled by agricultural technical progress. The estimates confirm earlier findings based on more geographically confined data from India that interhousehold financial transfers play a small but significant role in contributing to consumption-smoothing. Such transfers appear to be more responsive to a household's fluctuations in earnings that are loans, and this responsiveness is significantly augmented in households with more informal connections to other households that arise due to the marriages of sons, who stay in the parental household, and daughters who migrate. The estimates also suggest that technical change, presumably because of its impact on the returns to experience, on earnings levels, and on risk assessment, represents a threat to the traditional household and in particular to marriage-based risk pooling. The results indicate that the transformation of traditional agriculture through technological change thus extends beyond agricultural practices to the relationships among households and also within households, and does not necessarily lead to great equality by sex in the intrahousehold distribution of resources despite the evident normality of equality in intrahousehold resources. (author's)
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Population growth and optimality: when does serendipity hold?

    Michel P; Pestieau P


    This note gives the conditions under which there is an interior optimum rate of population growth in a two-generations-overlapping model. These conditions imply complementarity both in production and in consumption. They also validate Samuelson's serendipity theorem. (EXCERPT)
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  22. 22

    [Social inequalities and spatial organization in Martinique] Inegalites sociales et logiques spatiales a la Martinique.

    Chivallon C

    Espace, Populations, Societes. 1993; (2):419-25.

    The author develops a model to illustrate the social inequalities among seven major regional groups in Martinique, examining such indicators as income, employment, and consumption. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (ANNOTATION)
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  23. 23

    Overpopulation and overconsumption [letter]

    Welch AM

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1993 Aug 7; 307(6900):387-8.

    In his editorial on overpopulation and overconsumption Richard Smith fails to look beyond the appearance of the global problems. Discussions of these issues usually start from the assumption that there are too many people and not enough resources to go around and proceed to the conclusion that the population must be smaller. Overpopulation and overconsumption have become overused and ill defined terms. As with so many social concepts today, their meaning has become more implicit than literal and the assumptions therein are subjected to little critical investigation. For instance, certain areas of the world are relatively overcrowded, which places serious strains on the existing infrastructure, but this does not mean that the world is overpopulated. Certain population groups consume a proportionately larger share of resources, but this does not lead to the conclusion that overconsumption is the main problem. A population may or may not place strains on the economy. The inability of an economy to provide a certain standard of living may be due to an absolute shortage of realizable resources--in which case the population becomes unsustainable--or to the structural faults of that economy--in which case the ability of that society to change its economic organization becomes the deciding factor. Though I agree that "deforestation, soil erosion, water shortages, and desertification" are typical of many Third World areas today, I disagree that the main cause is population growth. Population growth is not the single determinant of a society's wellbeing. The starvation visited on some of the richest rice growing areas in Asia during the colonial years was more to do with their harsh exploitation by the imperial powers than any population explosion. Today, as Third World countries become more marginalized in the world economy and less able to maintain debt repayments it is their desperation, poverty, and stagnation that determine their inclusion in the "developing' world. While the world economy leaves millions with no access to clean water or medical or food supplies and pays Western farmers to leave productive land fallow, Smith highlights the "evidence...that many women are crying out for access to contraceptives." Population must be kept "on the agenda...from the UN to the village council," but until the prevailing assumptions are replaced with critical scientific, social, and political investigation there will be no solutions. (full text)
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  24. 24

    Towards a water ethic. Viewpoint.

    Postel S

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1993; 2(2):35-6.

    We continue to expand a water supply that has ecological and economical limits. Drip irrigation techniques, rainwater harvesting, and use of water=saving plumbing fixtures can help solve our water shortage problem. The core of the predicament is that society is no longer connected to water's life=giving qualities. Modern society does not respect the natural river, the complexity of a wetland, and the intricate web of life. It considers water to be a resource only to control for human consumption. Humans do not realize that they should preserve and protect water. We need guidelines to force us to act appropriately when we must make complex decisions about natural ecosystems whose workings evade us. The ultimate goal of this water ethic should be protection of water ecosystems. Adoption of this integrated, holistic ethic would call for the use of less water when possible and to share what we have. This ethic would be part of a sustainable development code which blends economic goals with ecological criteria. The water ethic would have indicators monitoring the breakdown of ecosystems, therefore allowing us to make corrections to restore ecosystems to health. We see some of this now as Florida tries to restore the Everglades damaged by unsustainable development. We should watch to see whether Botswana will continue to keep economic development from the Okavango Delta. Governments, the World Bank, and other lending institutions should make investment decisions based on ecological sustainability. The water ethic must include a social and political commitment to meet the basic needs of the poor. International relations must also consider equity and fairness when it comes to developing water-sharing terms and treaties. Individuals need to reduce their water consumption and consumption of goods whose manufacture requires water use resulting in water pollution. Population growth needs to slow down considerably to secure out water future.
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  25. 25

    [Business prospects in eastern Indonesia] Penduduk Indonesia Timur dan peluang bisnis.

    Hatmadji SH; Kiting AS; Anwar EN


    This paper shows the demographic prospect of population in the Eastern part of Indonesia, especially in four provinces: Bali, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and South East Sulawesi. The focus is on the sociodemographic characteristics of consumers in the region, and the implications for commerce. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
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