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In: Population change and social policy, by Nathan Keyfitz. Cambridge, Mass., Abt Books, 1982. 125-145.Add to my documents.
Economic Inquiry. 1982 Jul; 20(3):426-442.Add to my documents.
Journal of Public Economics. 1982; 18(3):381-397.Add to my documents.
Economic Development and Cultural Change. 1982 Apr; 30(3):649-70.This essay argues that the drive toward a middle class style of life in developing countries has resulted over the past 30-odd years of conscious development effort in a series of negative consequences in diverse spheres: persistence of inequality, expansion of government, neglect of agriculture, and urban bias of education and research. The class context of development, the role of the middle class, the characteristics and components of the middle class life style, and the American contribution to its development are assessed, after which the methodology and results of measuring the poor and the middle class in the US and elsewhere are considered. Measurement of the middle class can be attempted through ownership of articles such as automobiles, through energy consumption, or through income: one estimate is that the global middle class increased from 200 million in 1950 to 800 million by 1980 through the addition of Japan, Europe, and some increase in the 3rd world. The nature of middle class work and the consequences of the preference for middle class work on the part of national elites for local development efforts is described, along with the related theme of the conflict between alleviation of poverty and development of an indigenous middle class in 3rd world countries. China and Brazil are viewed as the 2 extremes in this trade-off. The incentives to massive urban migration that occur in conjunction with development policies favoring the middle class are outlined. Finally, it is argued that reaching for middle class status is an explanatory rather than a policy variable. The social mechanisms that cause the spread of the middle class to take precedence over the alleviation of poverty need to be more closely examined.
[The influence of economic processes on population development] K vlivu ekonomickych procesu na populacni vyvoj
Politicka Ekonomie. 1982; 30(4):349-64.The author poses the question as to what causes the fluctuations in the birthrate and in population increments in the socialist countries. In order to arrive at an answer, he first analyzes demographic development in Czechoslovakia during the period 1869-1980. By comparing the differences between demographic development in Slovakia and the Czech lands, he shows the changes in demographic processes are not essentially determined by national, historical, or other factors, but are above all a complex reflection of changes in the economic mechanism. In the 2nd part of the article, the author examines in detail economic processes influencing natality and the development of population, as well as the mechanism of mutual influence which exists between demographic and economic processes. He points out that the different causes of demographic development cannot be derived from the level of the living standard, but from its changes (and/or changes in economic development). By analyzing data for the period 1948-80, the author arrives at a more precise definition of these changes in the economy. They include, for instance, changes in the rate of growth of the national economy, changes in the ratio of accumulation and consumption, changes in the ratio of national income formation and use, changes in the structure of the living standard, changes in the development of the economy and consumption in the direction of equilibrium or disequilibrium. At the same time, the author shows how these changes act toward their mutual synthesis. In each stage of development, the decisive factor for the size of population increments and natality is whether the ratio between resources and consumption is adequate, i.e., whether the relevant structure of the living standard is in accord with it. The author also examines the time lag between influences caused by changes in the economy and natality; he demonstrates that changes in the economy are effective only in this context if they overcome a threshold of sensitivity or if they accumulate in a specific manner. (author's modified) (summary in ENG)
Chapel Hill, N.C, University of North Carolina, 1982. 436 p.This research investigated the role of demographic factors in economic development. Specifically, a general model of the economic development process is constructed and then applied to the experience of South Korea from 1963-77. The model emphasizes the incorporation of demographic factors, widely interpreted to include not only the size, growth rate, and composition of the population, but also the quality of the population as minifested in the levels of human capital formation. South Korea has been 1 of the most successful of recent development efforts. Most of the research on the Korean phenomenon has highlighted the economic factors. Usually cited as responsible for the rapid, export led Korean economic development are the utilization of an able, motivated, but previously underemployed labor force, the large inflows of foreign capital, and the special relationships with Japan and the US, and the establishment of a strong central government, committed to economic development and able to implement effective growth policy. Important demographic factors, however were the impressive human capital formation that had begun 15 years prior to the onset of rapid economic growth and the dramatic declines in Korean fertility, which paralleled the economic achievements in the 1960s and 1970s. Using Korean national income data and economic-demographic selected surveys, the quantitative influences of demographic factors, particularly human capital formation and population dynamics, on Korean economic development for the 15-year period beginning in 1963 are assessed. The equations of the econometric model are estimated using either ordinary least squares of the 1st order autoregressive process. The empirical results show human capital formation to have been a significant and pervasive factor in recent South Korean economic development. Human capital formation, as proxied by indexes of formal educational attainment in the sectoral labor forces, was an important influence on real sectoral outputs and investments and in the growth of Korean exports. In addition, to the extent increases in education are associated with declines in fertility, human capital formation contributed to the substantial reductions in the growth rate of the Korean population, leading to favorable burden of dependency shifts and enhancing the ability of the Korean economy to generate the savings necessary for rapid growth and structural change. (author's)
Renkou Yanjiu. 1982 Jul 29; (4):41-3, 24.The general trend in the last several hundred years has been that the speed of growth in the food supply exceeds the speed of the population growth. For the time being, 2 major problems still exist. The 1st problem is that food production is still influenced by natural conditions. For example, abnormal weather conditions may cause regional food shortages. The 2nd problem is the imbalance of food consumption by the world population. This phenomenon exists between different social classes as well as between developed and developing countries. According to statistics released by the World Bank, 1 billion suffer from malnutrition today and most of them are in developing countries. In developed countries, about half of their increase in the food supply is for feed grains, and those countries follow the policy of reducing farm land for the purpose of maintaing stabl e grain prices. Up to the present time, grain prices have been unstable, and this has become a rather heavy economic burden for numerous developing countries. Many developing countries are trying to increase grain production by increasing their arable land and promoting their cultivating techniques. However, these countries are facing the problems of finding and adequate water supply, fertilizer, and pesticides. In addition, a rapid population growth in these countries has offset their endeavors in agriculture. In recent years, these counties have realized the necessity of birth control. The world population growth rate has decreased from 2% to about 1.7% in 1981. Birth control and an increase in the food supply will bring new hope to the world's problems of overpopulation and food supply.
[Indexes for the evaluation of the effects of demographic aging: a critical examination] Indices pour evaluer les effets du vieillissement demographique: examen critique
Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie. 1982 Dec; 11(3):323-49.This article includes a description and comparison of the various ways to measure the burdens imposed on society by the process of demographic aging. In addition to the purely demographic concept of the percent elderly in the total population, other concepts are considered, including labor force participation, government expenditures, and the total of private and public consumption. The relative merits of these indicators are assessed. The geographic focus is on Canada and other industrialized countries. (ANNOTATION)
Habana, Cuba, Centro de Estudios Demograficos, Universidad de la Habana, 1982. 29 p. (Publicaciones de CEDEM, no. 45)Add to my documents.
An economic-demographic model of the agricultural household: the case of Northern Mindanao, the Philippines.
Stanford, Calif., Food Research Institute, Stanford University, 1982. viii, 134 p. (Working paper, no. 8204)Add to my documents.
Economics Letters. 1982; 10(1-2):61-64.Add to my documents.
In: Research in population economics, v. 4. Edited by Julian L. Simon and Peter H. Lindert. Greenwich, Conn., JAI Press, 1982. 49-82.Add to my documents.
In: Women and the world of work. Edited by Anne Hoiberg. New York, N.Y., Plenum Press, 1982. 203-221.Add to my documents.
Alternative population projection and the food and agriculture economy of the developing countries in ESCAP.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference; collected papers, v. 2. Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1982. 263-275.Add to my documents.
In: Women and development; the sexual division of labor in rural societies. Edited by Lourdes Beneria. New York, N.Y., Praeger, 1982. 149-177.Add to my documents.
In: International migration in the Arab world: proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981, v. 2. Beirut, Lebanon, U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia, 1982. 1093-1127.Add to my documents.
In: Women: a developmental perspective. Edited by Phyllis W. Berman and Estelle R. Ramey. Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1982. 207-219.Add to my documents.
Bangkok, Thailand, National Institute of Development Administration, 1982. x, 138 p.Add to my documents.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., Apr. 29-May 1, 1982. 39 p.Add to my documents.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., Apr. 29-May 1, 1982. 31 p.Add to my documents.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., Apr. 29-May 1, 1982. 35 p.Add to my documents.
In: International migration in the Arab world: proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981, v. 1. Beirut, Lebanon, U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia, 1982. 591-623.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switz., International Labour Organisation, 1982. 35 p. (World Employment Programme research working papers; Population and Labour Policies Programme working paper, no. 119; WEP 2-21/WP.119)Add to my documents.
American Demographics. 1982 Jun; 4(6):16-19, 42.Add to my documents.